[15a - 26 lines; 15b - 28 lines]

1)[line 10]יום שבעים עולה לכאן ולכאןYOM SHIV'IM OLEH L'CHAN UL'CHAN- the seventieth day counts for both the seventieth day of his 100-day period of Nezirus and the first day of the thirty-day period of Nerizus on account of the birth of his son [and upon completion of the thirty-day period he continues to complete the 100-day period for his son]

2)[line 20]וכן מתני' לרב שמע מינהV'CHEN MASNISIN L'RAV, SHEMA MINAH- and as such, the Mishnah is a refutation of the opinion of Rav

3)[line 23, 24]גזירת שבעהGEZEIRAS SHIV'AH / GEZEIRAS SHELOSHIM (AVEILUS: SHIV'AH U'SHELOSHIM)

(a)The seven relatives for whom one is obligated to mourn are one's father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, and wife. When any of these relatives die, one is obligated to bury the dead and observe the laws of Aninus (until the burial) and Aveilus (after the burial). For a discussion of the laws of Aninus, see Background to Moed Katan 14:22.

(b)There are some laws of Aveilus that apply for seven days, some which apply for thirty days and others that apply for twelve months.

1.Among the laws that apply for seven days are refraining from bathing and washing clothes.

2.The laws that apply for thirty days are refraining from taking a haircut and from ironing clothes.

3.The laws that apply for twelve months (after the death of a parent) are refraining from buying new clothes and from attending weddings and other Semachos.

15b----------------------------------------15b

4)[line 9]שומרת יום כנגד יוםSHOMERES YOM KENEGED YOM

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.

(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

5)[line 11]פסח שניPESACH SHENI

If the Kohanim, the Klei Shares, or the majority of the Jewish people are Tamei Mes on the 14th day of Nisan, the Korban Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah. Otherwise, those who are Tahor bring it b'Taharah on the 14th of Nisan, while those individuals who are Tamei bring their Korban the following month on Pesach Sheni (the 14th day of Iyar) and eat it the following evening.

6)[line 12]מקצת היום ככולוMIKTZAS HA'YOM K'CHULO

The rule of Miktzas ha'Yom k'Chulo states that part of the last day of a finite term (e.g. the thirty days of Nezirus or the seven days of mourning), is considered Halachically as if it were the entire day. For example, keeping Nezirus at the beginning of the thirtieth day is considered as if it was kept for the entire day.

7)[line 15]זב בעל שתי ראיותZAV BA'AL SHTEI RE'IYOS

(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Pesachim 66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are:

1.eating too much;

2.drinking too much;

3.jumping;

4.being sick (see Zavim 2:2).

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.

8)[line 18]משכב ומושבMISHKAV U'MOSHAV

(a)A Zav (see previous entry), as well as a Zavah, Nidah, and Yoledes, can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton, of a Zav). An object (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that is under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

9)[line 22]תהום דזיבה התירוTEHOM D'ZIVAH HITIRU - hidden Tum'ah [lit. Tum'ah of the depths] regarding Zov was permitted (TUM'AS HA'TEHOM)

(a)Tum'as ha'Tehom is Tum'ah that was hidden and that no one ever knew about, such as a corpse that was discovered lying beneath a road. If a Nazir or a person bringing a Korban Pesach became Tamei through Tum'as ha'Tehom before offering his Korbenos Nazir or Pesach, he does not need to bring his Korbanos again. This law is learned from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.

(b)According to Rashi (Pesachim 81b DH she'Ein Lo), even if the person definitely became Tamei, his Korban is accepted, as long as he did not discover his Tum'ah until after the Shechitah of his Korban. According to the Rambam (Hilchos Korban Pesach 6:11), only if the person is not certain that he is Tamei is his Korban offered; however, as long as he has a doubt whether or not he is Tamei, he may offer the Korban even if the corpse beneath the road was discovered before the Shechitah of his Korban. (See Insights to Pesachim 81:2).

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