THE ORDER OF THE PARSHIYOS
(Rav Chananel): If the Parshiyos were put in a different order, they are Pesulim.
(Abaye): This is only if a Parshah that should be on the outside (extreme left or right) is on the inside, but if the outside Parshiyos were switched (with each other), or the inside ones were switched, it is Kosher.
Objection (Rava): Presumably, you disqualify when an outside Parshah was switched with an inside one, because a Parshah that should be 'exposed' is not exposed (and vice-versa);
Likewise, when the outside Parshiyos are switched with each other, the Parshah that should be 'exposed' to the right is not exposed to the right (and vice-versa)!
Rather, in either case it is Pasul. (Ma'adanei Yom Tov (under the Rosh) - when the inside Parshiyos are switched it is Pasul, for the Parshah that should be next to the Parshah exposed to the right is not next to it.)
HALACHOS L'MOSHE MI'SINAI ABOUT TEFILIN
(Rav Chananel): The Titura (the base of the Tefilin, it covers the opening of the Batim) is a tradition from Moshe from Sinai.
(Abaye): The Ma'avarta (an extension of the Titura; the strap passes through it) is a tradition from Sinai.
(Abaye): The 'Shin' (on the outside of the head Tefilin) is a tradition from Sinai;
The crack between the Batim must reach to the stitches (of the Titura.)
(Rav Dimi of Neharda'a): As long as the crack is visible at the top, it need not reach to the stitches.
(Abaye): One must check the Klaf, lest it has a hole. (If this is in a letter,) this is not 'Kesivah Tamah (faultless)';
(Rav Dimi of Neharda'a): It need not be checked. The scribe would have felt it when writing over it.
(R. Yitzchak): A tradition from Sinai requires the straps to be black.
Question (Beraisa): Tefilin must be tied with their own material (i.e. hide), whether the straps are yellow, black or white;
Red straps may not be used, due to disgrace and another reason. (People will suspect that his wife sat on them when she was Nidah.)
R. Yehudah says, a Talmid of R. Akiva used (woolen) Techeles strings (in place of straps). R. Akiva did not say anything;
Surely, a Tzadik who saw his Talmid transgress would protest!
Rabanan: R. Akiva did not see the strings. Had he seen them, he would have protested!
R. Yehudah: Hurkanos (the son of R. Eliezer) used Argamon strings. R. Eliezer did not say anything;
Surely, a Tzadik who saw his son transgress would protest!
Rabanan: R. Eliezer did not see the strings. Had he seen them, he would have protested!
Summation of question: It says that the straps are yellow, black or white.
Answer: R. Yitzchak requires the (side of the straps that face) outside to be black. The Beraisa permits the inside to be yellow, black or white.
Question (Beraisa): ...Due to disgrace and another reason.
Other people do not see the inside. There is no disgrace or suspicion!
Answer: Sometimes the straps flip over, and the inside faces out.
(Beraisa): A tradition from Sinai requires Tefilin to be square.
(Rav Papa): The stitching must be square, and also the diagonals (i.e. the sides be equal, and also perpendicular to each other. Tosfos leans to say that we are concerned only for the base.)
Support (Mishnah): If one makes his Tefilin round, it is dangerous to wear them. (Rashi - if he bangs his head, it might enter his head; Tosfos (Megilah 24b) - when Nochrim decree against Tefilin, he will not be protected, for) he does not fulfill the Mitzvah.
Rejection (Rav Papa): Perhaps that refers to oval Tefilin, but circular Tefilin are Kosher!
HALACHOS OF THE BATIM
(Rav Huna): Tefilin are Kosher as long as the leather of the Batim is intact (without a hole).
(Rav Chisda): If two of the Batim are torn, the Tefilin are Kosher. If three are torn, they are Pasul.
(Rava): We are Machshir when two Batim are torn only if the two Batim (alternatively - tears) are not adjacent to each other;
Version #1 (Rashi): Even when they are adjacent, they are Pasul only if the Tefilin are new. (This shows that the leather is defective.)
Version #2 (Rif): Even when they are adjacent, they are Pasul only if the Tefilin are old. (Nimukei Yosef - perhaps they will tear more.)
Question (Abaye): What is considered old, and what is new?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): If when one pulls the leather taut and lets go it shrivels up again, it is old. If not, it is new.
Answer #2: If when one pulls the strap (it does not snap, rather,) the Tefilin is drawn after it (alternatively - it straightens out), it is new. If not, it is old.
HALACHOS OF THE STRAPS
A strap of Abaye's Tefilin snapped. He asked Rav Yosef if he may tie the parts together.
(Rav Yosef): "U'Kshartam" - the tying (on the arm) must be Tam (pure, without any other knots. Alternatively, the strap must be flawless.)
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Yosef): May one sew it so that the stitching is inside (it appears unbroken?)
(Rav Ashi): Go see what people do. (They do not do so. Also you should not do so.)
(Rav Papa): Remnants of straps are Kosher.
This is wrong, for Bnei R. Chiya taught that remnants of Techeles and Ezov (for sprinkling Mei Chatas) are Kosher;
Inference: Remnants are Kosher only for things used for Mitzvos, but not for straps, which are used for Kedushah. (Tefilin contain Kisvei ha'Kodesh, which are more stringent.)
Question: If remnants are Pasul, this implies that there is a minimum Shi'ur. What is the Shi'ur?
Version #1 - Answer (Rami bar Chama): The Shi'ur (of how much the strap of the Shel Rosh must extend past the knot) is (from another finger) until the Etzba Tzredah (Rashi - the index finger; Tosfos - the middle finger).
(Rav Kahana): He refers to a small span. We measure to the middle finger (Rashi; Tosfos - to the index finger);
(Rav Ashi): He refers to a large span. We measure to the thumb.
Version #2 (brought in Tosfos) - Answer (Rami bar Chama): The Shi'ur (of how far the strap of the Shel Yad must extend) is (from where it is tied in the arm) until the middle finger.
(Rav Kahana): This is when it is bent;
(Rav Ashi): This is when it is extended.
Rabah would tie the Shel Rosh and hang the excess strap over his back;
Rav Acha bar Yakov would braid them. (He had long straps.)
Mar brei d'Ravina would do as we do. (He hung the excess strap over his chest.)
(Rav Yehudah brei d'Rav Shmuel): A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches about the knot. (Rashi - the letters 'Dalet' and 'Yud' (of Hash-m's name Shakai) should appear in the knots on the Shel Rosh and Yad respectively).
(Rav Nachman): Their beauty (the letters; alternatively, the smooth side of the straps, which must be black) must face outside.
Rav Ashi's straps became flipped over.
Mar Zutra: Don't you agree that their beauty must face outside?!
Rav Ashi: I didn't realize that they were flipped over.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer ha'Gadol): "V'Ra'u Kol Amei ha'Aretz Ki Shem Hash-m Nikra Alecha v'Yar'u Mimeka" refers to the Shel Rosh. (Rashi - a 'Shin' and 'Dalet' are seen from the outside. This is most of a name of Hash-m.)
PUTTING ON TEFILIN
(Rav Chana bar Bizna): "V'Hasirosi Es Kapi v'Ra'isa Es Achorai" - Hash-m allowed Moshe to see the knot of His Tefilin.
(Rav Yehudah): The knot must be high, for a sign that Yisrael will be supreme, and not below. It must face (be opposite) the face, for a sign that Yisrael will be in front, and not in back.
(Rav Shmuel bar Bidri): We bless on Tefilin (the Shel Yad) after putting them on.
Question: Rav Yehudah taught that we always bless on a Mitzvah before doing the Mitzvah!
Answer (Abaye and Rava): He means that we bless after putting it on and before tying it. (Tying is the completion of the Mitzvah.)