MENACHOS 90 (5 Sivan) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Reb Chaim Aryeh ben Aharon Stern Z'L by Shmuel Gut of Brooklyn, N.Y.

[90a - 41 lines; 90b - 44 lines]

1)[line 4] SHE'LO NASAN MI'DAMO AL GABEI BEHONOS- the Kohen did not place some of its blood on the thumbs (i.e. the right thumb, right big toe and the middle section of the right ear - see Background to Menachos 88:13:d)

2)[line 6] V'TZARICH ASHAM ACHER L'HATIRO- and he needs another Korban Asham to permit him to enter the Azarah to offer his other two Korbanos, which will release him from his status of a Mechusar Kaparah and permit him to eat Kodshim

3)[line 7] KOL MIDOS SHEBA'MIKDASH HAYU NIGDASHOS- all of the measurements of the Beis ha'Mikdash were heaping measures (i.e. in order to arrive at the required amount, the Kohanim needed to fill the measuring utensils to a heaping measure); the Gemara will question this reading of the Mishnah

4)[line 7] CHUTZ MI'SHEL KOHEN GADOL- except for [the Isaron measuring utensil] that [was used for the Chavitin] of the Kohen Gadol

5)[line 8] SHE'HAYAH GODSHAH L'SOCHAH- (lit. its heaping measure was inside of it) it was big enough that an Isaron remained in the measuring utensil when he leveled it off

6)[line 9] BEIRUTZEIHEN KODESH- the liquids that spill over the sides of the measuring utensils are holy

7a)[line 13] HA'LACH NE'EKAR- (a) the liquids [that are poured into the Keli Shares, the sanctified utensil, are uprooted [from their original position] (therefore the Beirutzin that spill over the side of the utensil were already inside, and were sanctified by the Keli Shares) (RASHI, ARUCH, 2nd explanation); (b) according to the reading, "HA'LACH NE'ECHAR" - the liquids that are poured into the Keli Shares become cloudy when they get mixed during the pouring (therefore the Beirutzin that spill over the side of the utensil were already inside, and were sanctified by the Keli Shares) (ARUCH, 1st explanation, RABEINU GERSHOM)

b)[line 13] :HA'YAVESH EINO NE'EKAR- the solids [that are poured into the Keli Shares] are not uprooted [from their original position] (therefore the Beirutzin that spill over the side of the utensil were never inside, and were not sanctified by the Keli Shares)

8a)[line 14] CHAD GADUSH HAVAH- there was only one dry measuring utensil that, in order to arrive at the required amount, the Kohanim needed to fill the measuring utensil to a heaping measure

b)[line 15], CHADA, U'MACHUK HAVAH- there was only one dry measuring utensil, and it was big enough that an Isaron remained in the measuring utensil when the Kohanim leveled it off

9)[line 24] MI'GAVAH D'MANA KA ASI- they (the Beirutzin that spill over the side of the utensil) came from the inside of the utensil (and were sanctified by the Keli Shares)

10)[line 31] SIDER ES HA'LECHEM V'ES HA'BAZICHIN L'ACHAR HA'SHABBOS (LECHEM HA'PANIM)

See Background to Menachos 87:41.

11)[line 35] SHEMA YOMRU MAFKIDIN BI'CHLI SHARES- lest people say that one may deposit items into Kelei Shares [and they do not become invalidated by Linah (see Background to Menachos 72:21) as long as they are inside the Kli]

12)[line 38] MOSAR NESACHIM

(a)Mosar Nesachim is the subject of a Machlokes Amora'im (here and in Shekalim 11a, where the names of the Amora'im are switched). Rebbi Yochanan states that the term "Mosar Nesachim" refers to the "fourth Se'ah," i.e. the suppliers of wine, oil and flour for the Beis ha'Mikdash would agree on a price at the time of the harvest; if the price went down, the suppliers would have to provide the same supplies at the lower price. The extra wine, oil and flour supplied are the Mosar ha'Nesachim.

(b)Rebbi Chiya bar Yosef states that the term "Mosar Nesachim" refers to the heaping measure, i.e. the suppliers would give heaping measures of these supplies to the treasurers of the Beis ha'Mikdash whereas the treasurers would sell them to the people with a leveled measure; the leftover supplies are the Mosar ha'Nesachim.

13)[line 38] KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH

(a)In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that become unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. This money was used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money was placed in one of the six Shofaros (collection boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash and was used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed as Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).

(b)(RASHI to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were also called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" to the Mizbe'ach ["Kayitz" refers to cut figs, a common dessert food].)

14a)[line 40] HA'MEKABEL ALAV L'SAPEK SILTOS ME'ARBA- a person who accepted upon himself to supply fine flour to the Beis ha'Mikdash (for the Menachos) at the price of four Se'in for a Sela

b)[last line] V'AMDU B'SHALOSH- and the price of flour went up to the extent that three Se'im were selling for a Sela

90b----------------------------------------90b

15a)[line 5] , IM YESH ZEVACH ACHER, YAKRIVO IMO- if there is another Korban that is in need of flour, oil or wine for Menachos, the Beirutzei Midos can be used for that Korban

b)[line 5] , V'IM LANU, YIPASLU V'LINAH- and if they were left over until the morning, they become invalidated due to that which they were left until the next day

c)[line 6] , V'IM LAV, MEKAITZIN BAHEN ES HA'MIZBE'ACH- and if not (i.e. if there is no other Korban in need of flour, oil or wine for Menachos, and they were not left over until the next morning), the Beirutzei Midos can be used for Korbenos Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach

16)[line 14]BECHOR

(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of cattle, goats or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. Only a Mumcheh (an expert) has the authority to pronounce that a Bechor has a Mum (Bechoros 28a). After its blood and Eimurim (see Background to Menachos 47:8) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.

(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen. It must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it develops a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner. It may not be redeemed with money.

(d)Intentionally inflicting a Mum in a Bechor is prohibited, as in all animals of Kodshim, as the verse states, "Tamim Yiheyeh l'Ratzon Kol Mum Lo Yiheyeh Vo" - "it shall be complete (unblemished) to find favor, no blemish shall be in it" (Vayikra 22:21). RASHI (to Menachos 56a DH Lo Yiheyeh and to Bechoros 33b DH Kol Mum) teaches that the intention of Chazal is that the verse is read, "Lo Yehayeh Vo" - "do not cause [a blemish] in it." A person who inflicts a blemish in an animal of Kodshim (or its Temurah, with the exception of the Temurah of a Bechor and Ma'aser Behemah,) receives Malkus. (See SEFER HA'CHINUCH #287.)

(e)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #393, #445).

17)[line 14]MA'ASER (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)

(a)Every year, a person must collect all of the Kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m." - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m."

(b)Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.

(c)If one designated the tenth animal as Ma'aser Behemah, no other animal can become Ma'aser Behemah afterwards. However, if two animals exited the corral at the same time and the owner designated both as Ma'aser (the tenth animal), both become Kodesh (one is considered Ma'aser Behemah, and the other must be brought as a Shelamim; see RASHI to Kidushin 51a DH v'Achad Asar). In addition, Ma'aser Behemah has the feature that it takes effect even in error. If the tenth animal was not called "tenth" but the animals that were next to the tenth animal were called "tenth," then they, too, become consecrated, according to all opinions. Beis Shamai cites a case where the owner called the ninth animal "tenth," the tenth, "ninth" and the eleventh, "tenth." The ninth animal is put out to pasture and may be eaten after it develops a Mum (blemish). The tenth animal is brought as the Korban Ma'aser Behemah. The eleventh animal is brought as a Korban Shelamim (Mishnah Bechoros 60a).

18)[line 16]" ' , , , ', .""VA'ASISEM ISHEH LA'SH-M OLAH O ZEVACH, L'FALEI NEDER O VI'NEDAVAH, O B'MO'ADEICHEM, LA'ASOS REI'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M, MIN HA'BAKAR O MIN HA'TZON"- "And when you make a fire-offering to HaSh-m consisting of a burnt offering or a sacrifice, in fulfillment of a vow or in a free-will offering, or on your appointed [festive] times, to cause satisfaction to HaSh-m, from cattle or from sheep or goats." (Bamidbar 15:3)

19a)[line 22] / NEDER / NEDAVAH

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.

20a)[line 25] OLOS RE'IYAH V'SHALMEI CHAGIGAH

(a)Every Jewish male is required to appear before HaSh-m in the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash and to bring a Korban Re'iyah on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos (Devarim 16:16). The Korban Re'iyah is a Korban Olah. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days. On Shavu'os it may be brought on Shavu'os or on the six days following the festival. Beis Hillel rules that the minimum amount that one must spend for a Korban Re'iyah is one Me'ah (Chagigah 2a).

(b)In addition, every Jewish male is obligated to bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, (which is offered in the manner of a Korban Shelamim) as the verse states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14). Beis Hillel rules that the minimum amount that one must spend for a Korban Chagigah is two Me'in (ibid.).

(c)The Mitzvah of Simchah (Devarim 27:7) that applies on the three festivals of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos requires a person to eat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no other sacrifice is available, the person brings a special Korban, known as Shalmei Simchah, for the purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Women are also obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1), in the sense that a woman's husband or father, and a widow's neighbor or supporter, must give her Shalmei Simchah to eat in order to make her joyous (Kidushin 34b, BA'AL HA'ME'OR to Kidushin 6a, RA'AVAD and KESEF MISHNEH ibid. - see, however, ME'IRI to Rosh Hashanah 6a and LECHEM MISHNEH to Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 14:14, who contend that according to the Rambam, women even have the obligation of bringing Shalmei Simchah.)

21)[line 28] SE'IREI CHATAS (SE'IREI REGALIM)

(a)A Sa'ir (male goat) is offered as a Korban Chatas on the festivals among the Korbenos Musaf that the Torah requires (Bamidbar 28:16-29:38). As with all Korbenos Chatas, it is Kodshei ha'Kodashim, and is eaten by male Kohanim on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night. This Korban is brought even on Shabbos.

(b)When offered on Shabbos, the Sa'ir may not be cooked until nightfall. Kohanim that choose to eat it raw before that time may do so (as in the Mishnah Menachos 99b).

(c)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2b) states that there is an argument among the Tana'aim with regard to the atonement that these Korbanos provide:

1.According to Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2), when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards.

2.According to Rebbi Meir, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned. Only after he ate the Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while he was Tamei did he find out about his status of Tum'ah. In addition, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards. Furthermore, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im (see Background to Shevuos 2:14).

3.According to Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon, they provide atonement for a person who sinned with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, when he did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned, and he did not find out about it afterwards. Furthermore, they provide atonement for a person who was Tahor who ate Kodshim that were Temei'im.

22)[line 29]" [ , '.]""V'CHI SA'ASEH VEN BAKAR [OLAH O ZAVACH, L'FALEI NEDER O SHELAMIM LA'SH-M.]"- "And if you shall offer a young bull [as a burnt offering or as a sacrifice, to fulfill a vow or as a peace offering to HaSh-m.]" (Bamidbar 15:8)

23)[line 30] , ? BEN BAKAR BI'CHELAL HAYAH, V'LAMAH YATZA? L'HAKISH ELAV- the young bull was already included [in the general verse "va'Asisem Isheh la'Sh-m... Min ha'Bakar" (Bamidbar 15:3; see above, entry #18)], and why was it singled out in this verse? To compare other sacrifices to it

24)[line 32]"... ...""... LA'ASOS REI'ACH NICHO'ACH ..."- (this is the continuation of the elucidation of the verse (Bamidbar 15:3; see above, entry #18) that was interrupted by verse 8 - see previous two entries)

25)[line 43] ""AD SHE'YIFROT LECHA HA'KASUV "YACHDAV"- until the verse specifies for you, "Yachdav" - "together." Rebbi Yonasan and Rebbi Yoshiyah argue regarding the implication of the conjunctive "Vav" - "and." Rebbi Yonasan rules that the "Vav" between two words connotes that the Halachah applies to either one of them, and not necessarily only to both of them together, unless the verse specifically states "Yachdav." As an example of this, RASHI to Bava Metzia 95a) quotes the verse, "Lo Sacharosh b'Shor uva'Chamor Yachdav" - "Do not plow with an ox and donkey together" (Devarim 22:10). Had the verse not written "Yachdav," we would have understood the verse to mean that one may not plow with either an ox or with a donkey at all. Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that even without the word "Yachdav" the Halachah applies to either one of them, or to both of them together.

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