The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[78a - 39 lines; 78b - 48 lines]
1)[line 1]"תהיינה" כתיב"TIHEYENAH" KESIV- the word "Tiheyenah" (Vayikra 23:17) is written (a) with two letters "Yud," one of which hints that the Lachmei Todah loaves that are Chametz are made from ten Esronos of fine flour (RASHI KSAV YAD); (b) as a seemingly superfluous word, to teach that we should learn from the Shtei ha'Lechem, which require one Isaron per loaf, that the Lachmei Todah loaves that are Chametz also require one Isaron per loaf (for a total of ten Esronos of fine flour) (RASHI to Daf 77b DH Talmud Lomar, SHITAH MEKUBETZES to Daf 77b #1)
2)[line 2]אימא עשרה קפיזי?EIMA ASARAH KEFIZEI?- (a) Perhaps it teaches that the Lachmei Todah should be made from ten Kefiza measures (of one half of a Kav each)? (b) RASHI KESAV YAD cites an edited manuscript where the words "EIMA ASARAH KEFIZEI? AMAR RAVA" do not appear. The Girsa instead is "TIHEYENAH KESIV, ESER ESRONOS DIBER HA'KASUV"
3)[line 2]בעשרונות דבר הכתובB'ESRONOS DIBER HA'KASUV- the verse is referring to Esronos [and not to Kefizei]
4)[line 5]וכי דבר הלמד בהיקש חוזר ומלמד בהיקש?V'CHI DAVAR HA'LAMED B'HEIKESH CHOZER U'MELAMED B'HEKESH?
(a)One of the methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah is Hekesh, in which two subjects that are mentioned in a verse are compared. If there are a few possible Halachos that the Hekesh teaches, we learn all of them ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechtzah"). We do not say that it teaches us only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).
(b)Normal questions ("Pirchos") that can invalidate a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30) will not invalidate a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").
(c)The Gemara (Zevachim 49b-50a) investigates whether a Halachah that is extrapolated from one of these methods can be used further to teach the same Halachah in a different subject using another (or the same) one of these methods.
5)[line 6]הימנו ודבר אחר הואHEIMENU V'DAVAR ACHER HU- it is a case of "from it and from another." This means that (a) the Hekesh between Matzah and Chametz teaches that just as there must be ten Esronos of Chametz, there must also be ten Esronos of Matzah. This Halachah is actually a combination of two Halachos - first, that each loaf of Chametz is one Isaron, and, second, that there are ten such Esronos (for the ten loaves of Chametz). Since the number of Esronos is not learned through a Hekesh, the entire Halachah - ten Esronos - can be learned from Chametz to Matzah. (RASHI, 1st explanation; RASHI KESAV YAD); (b) the loaves of Chametz and of Matzah are all part of a single Korban. Therefore, the Hekesh from Shtei ha'Lechem to Chametz is considered to apply to Matzah as well, and we do not consider there to be a second Hekesh from Chametz to Matzah. (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
6)[line 9]"תביאו" רבויא היא"TAVI'U" RIBUYA HI- the word "Tavi'u" that is written in the verses of the Shtei ha'Lechem is seemingly superfluous, and is used to teach that the loaves of Chametz of the Lachmei Todah are baked from one Isaron
(a)The first seven days of the Avodah in the Mishkan in the desert were called "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the status of the Kohanim as Divine servants was "filled," coming to its completion (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days started on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.
(b)During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim and all of the parts and the utensils of the Mishkan were smeared with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6). Many Korbanos, called Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered (see below, (c)). Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol during these days, teaching the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).
(c)On the eighth day, Aharon and his sons offered the same Korbanos as on each of the Shiv'asYemei ha'Milu'im. The Korbanos consisted of a bull as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf, a ram as an Olah, another ram as a Korban Shelamim and three types of Matzah: Chalos Matzos, Chalos Lechem Shemen and Rekikim (Vayikra 8:14-36, Menachos 78a). The Chanukas ha'Nesi'im also began on that day. The Nesi'im (princes) of each tribe offered inauguration sacrifices for the twelve days beginning with Rosh Chodesh Nisan (Bamidbar 7:1-88). Nachshon ben Aminadav of the tribe of Yehudah was the first Nasi to contribute the voluntary sacrifices that were offered along with the Milu'im sacrifices of the Kohanim.
8)[line 12]שתי ידות כמצה של תודהSHTEI YADOS K'MATZAH SHEL TODAH- two measures, like the Matzah of the Todah (i.e. the Chalos and Rekikin of the Todah)
9a)[line 13]נמצא עשרה קבין (ירושלמית) [ירושלמיות]NIMTZA ASARAH KABIN (YERUSHALMIS) [YERUSHALMIYOS]- we find that it is made from ten Kabin Yerushalmiyos
b)[line 14]שהן ששה עשרונות ועודייןSHE'HEN SHISHAH ESRONOS V'ODYAN- which are six Esronos and more (i.e. and two thirds of an Isaron)
10)[line 16]"וּמִסַּל הַמַּצּוֹת אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי ה', לָקַח חַלַּת מַצָּה אַחַת, וְחַלַּת לֶחֶם שֶׁמֶן אַחַת, וְרָקִיק אֶחָד, וַיָּשֶׂם עַל הַחֲלָבִים וְעַל שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין.""UMI'SAL HA'MATZOS ASHER ... LAKACH CHALAS MATZAH ACHAS V'CHALAS LECHEM SHEMEN ACHAS V'RAKIK ECHAD"- "And from the basket of Matzos that was before HaSh-m, he took one Matzah mixed with oil, one Matzah made of boiled flour mixed with oil, and one flat Matzah saturated with oil" (Vayikra 8:26)
11)[line 20]אנתא דמשחאANATA D'MISHCHA- (a) a thick dough fried in oil (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) a cake of congealed oil (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
12)[line 22]"זֶה קָרְבַּן אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיבוּ לַה' בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ ...""ZEH KORBAN AHARON U'VANAV ASHER YAKRIVU LA'SH-M B'YOM HIMASHACH OSO ..."- "This is the offering of Aharon and his sons that they should offer on the day that he is annointed [as Kohen Gadol ...]" (Vayikra 6:13)
13a)[line 24]חינוכוCHINUCHO- the first day [that he performs the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash]
b)[line 24]המשחוHIMASHCHO- the day that he is annointed [as Kohen Gadol]
14)[line 27]שתי עשרונות האיפהSHTEI ESRONOS HA'EIFAH- [two Menachos Chavitin, which are made from two Esronos i.e.] two tenths of an Eifah
15)[line 33]לרביעית שמןLI'REVI'IS SHEMEN- one Revi'is [ha'Log] (75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of olive oil (for the Chalos and Rekikin of the Nazir)
16)[line 34]"[וְסַל] מַצּוֹת [סֹלֶת חַלֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם:"[V'SAL] MATZOS [SOLES CHALOS BELULOS BA'SHEMEN U'REKIKEI MATZOS MESHUCHIM BA'SHEMEN]"- "[And a basket of] Matzos [containing fine flour Matzos mixed with oil and flat Matzos saturated with oil]" (Bamidbar 6:15)
17)[line 38]כלל ופרט אין בכלל אלא מה שבפרטKLAL U'FRAT EIN B'CHLAL ELA MAH SHEB'FRAT
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Kelalei and Peratei (see Background to Menachos 28:31), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Kelal u'Ferat, Ein ba'Kelal Ela Mah sheba'Perat."
(b)When a Kelal (general term) is followed by a Perat (specification), without teaching any new Halachos that pertain to that Perat, then the Halachah of the verse is limited and applies only to the Perat.
18)[line 1](לפנים) [בפנים](LIFNIM) [BIFNIM]- inside [of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
19)[line 2]לא קדש הלחםLO KIDASH HA'LECHEM- the loaves of the Lachmei Todah do not become sanctified
20)[line 3]עד שלא קרמו פניה בתנורAD SHE'LO KARMU PANEHA BA'TANUR- before it forms a crust in the oven
21)[line 6]חומת בית פאגיCHOMAS BEIS PAGI- the wall of Beis Pagi. Beis Pagi is (a) the name of an area located at the city limits of Yerushalayim (the word "Pagi" has the connotation of a belt (O.F. cengle), in the sense of a wall that surrounds the city - RASHI to Sotah 45a and to Bava Metzia 90a); (b) under the protrusions of the outer wall of the city of Yerushalayim (the word is related to "Pagei Te'einah," undeveloped figs - SHITAH MEKUBETZES to Menachos 63a #26, 1st explanation); (c) the name of a certain tower that protruded from the outer wall of Yerushalayim (SHITAH MEKUBETZES ibid. 2nd explanation)
22)[line 8]בעינן "על" בסמוךBA'INAN "AL" B'SAMUCH- we need [to fulfill the word] "Al" [in the verse (Vayikra 7:12), which means] "alongside"
23a)[line 11]השוחט את הפסח על החמץHA'SHOCHET ES HA'PESACH AL HE'CHAMETZ (KORBAN PESACH)
(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is a male lamb or goat within its first year.
(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.)
(d)If the person who slaughters the Pesach, the Kohen who casts the blood on the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen who burns the Eimurim on the Mizbe'ach or one of the people of the Chaburah have one k'Zayis or more of Chametz in their possession at the time that the Pesach is slaughtered, they have transgressed the prohibition from the verse, "Lo Sishchat Al Chametz Dam Zivchi" (Shemos 34:25). The sacrifice itself is Kosher but the person is liable to Malkus if he received the proper warning (RAMBAM Hilchos Korban Pesach 1:5).
b)[line 13]אף התמידAF HA'TAMID (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
(c)Rebbi Yehudah rules that the same Halachah of not slaughtering the Korban Pesach while in possession of Chametz applies to the Korban Tamid, as well.
24)[line 15]אחד מבני חבורהECHAD MI'BNEI CHABURAH- one of the people who is appointed to the Korban before it is slaughtered (see above, entry #23a:c)
25)[line 19]אבראיAVRAI- outside [of the Azarah]
26)[line 22]"עַל חַלֹּת לֶחֶם חָמֵץ יַקְרִיב ...""AL CHALOS LECHEM CHAMETZ YAKRIV"- "Along with loaves of bread that is Chametz he shall offer..." (Vayikra 7:13)
27)[line 25]שחט שלא לשמןSHACHAT SHE'LO LI'SHEMAN- if he slaughtered the animal not for the sake of a Korban Tamid
28)[line 26]יוצאין במצה נאYOTZ'IN B'MATZAH NA- one fulfills the requirement [to eat Matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan] with Matzah that has baked enough such that were one to break it, no strings of dough extend to connect the broken pieces
29)[line 26]מצה העשויה באילפסMATZAH HA'AFUYAH B'ILFAS- Matzah that is baked [in an oven while is rests] in a frying pan
30)[line 27]כל שפורסה ואין חוטין נמשכין הימנהKOL SHE'PORSAH V'EIN CHUTIN NIMSHACHIN HEIMENAH- were one to break it, no strings of dough extend to connect the broken pieces
31a)[line 34]לאחריות קא מיכויןL'ACHRAYUS KA MICHAVEIN- he brings them with the intention that they should be for insurance (to replace the first forty loaves if they become unusable)
b)[line 34]לקרבן גדול קא מיכויןL'KORBAN GADOL KA MICHAVEIN- he brings them with the intention that he wishes to offer a large Korban [of eighty loaves instead of only forty]
32)[line 35]כלי שרת מקדשין שלא מדעתKLEI SHARES MEKADSHIN SHE'LO MI'DA'AS- putting something into a Keli Shares sanctifies it, even if there was no intention for it to be sanctified
33)[line 39]לית ליה תוךLEIS LEI TOCH- it has no receptacle
34)[line 41]אלימאALIMA- it is stronger
35)[line 42]חוץ לזמנהCHUTZ LI'ZEMANAH (PIGUL)
(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam - see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. Similarly, a Minchah that was offered with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time becomes disqualified.
(b)It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh." - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)
36)[line 42]חוץ למקומהCHUTZ LI'MEKOMAH (CHUTZ LI'MEKOMO)
(a)A Korban that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or offering it outside of the area designated for it becomes disqualified, and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra 19:7).
(b)If a person intentionally eats from a Korban that was offered with the intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from it unintentionally, he does not bring a Korban Chatas.
37)[line 43]שחטה ונמצאת טריפהSHACHATAH V'NIMTZEIS TEREIFAH - one who slaughters an animal that was presumed to be Kosher but was then found to be a Tereifah (an animal with a fatal blemish) (TEREIFAH)
(a)A Tereifah is an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in its death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year - see Chulin 42a-b.)
(b)The Chachamim and Rebbi Shimon argue about the status of an act of Shechitah when the animal was found to be a Tereifah. According to the Chachamim, the act of Shechitah is valid. According to Rebbi Shimon, it is not considered a Shechitah since it does not make the animal permitted to be eaten.
38)[line 44]בעלת מוםBA'ALAS MUM - an animal with a blemish
(a)There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).
(b)The following is a list of blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice (Vayikra 22:22-24, based partially on Rav Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah"). Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the names of the Mumim, all of the blemishes are known through tradition (RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah to Bechoros 7:2).
1.AVERES - blind (even in one eye)
2.SHAVUR - broken-limbed
3.CHARUTZ - gashed; this includes a perforated or split eyelid, nose or lip, or a gash anyplace where there is a bone
4.YABELES - warts
5.GARAV - mange, the animal equivalent of eczema
6.YALEFES - ringworm
7.SARU'A - an extra limb or an overgrown limb
8.KALUT - a missing limb or un-split hooves
9.MA'UCH - testicles crushed by hand
10.KATUS - testicles crushed by an implement
11.NATUK - testicles that are pulled loose
12.KARUS - severed testicles
39)[line 45]איל המילואיםEIL HA'MILU'IM- the ram of the Milu'im sacrifices (see above, entry #7)
40)[line 45]שני כבשי עצרתSHNEI KIVSEI ATZERES
The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17, see next entry) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour. In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)