ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah - permits Leining the Megilah sitting down (See Tiferes Yisrael & Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Tana also permits two people to Lein the Megilah - despite the principle that 'Two voices cannot be heard simultaneously' (as we find with regard to Leining in the Torah [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(c) This is - on account of the Megilah's popularity, people pay more attention and manage to hear the Ba'al Korei.
(a) When the Tana attributes the B'rachah over the Megilah to Minhag - he is referring to the B'rachah Achronah ...
(b) ... because the three B'rachos that we Lein before Leining it are obligatory (like the B'rachos before most Mitzvos.
(d) According to some opinions, we repeat "Shehechiyanu" by day (in spite of having already recited it the night before) - since the day reading is the Ikar ...
(e) And this opinion is the more logical one (See also Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) Regarding the Leining on Monday, Thursday and Shabbos Minchah, what does he prohibits ...
1. ... adding to the three (See Tos. Yom-Tov) regular Aliyos, and rules that one does not ...
2. ... Lein from the Navi (Maftir).
(b) According to the Mishnah, on the days that one Leins - the Kohen recites the B'rachah Rishonah and Acharon, the B'rachah Achronah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The Chachamim instituted that nowadays, each Aliyah recites
1. ... the B'rachah Rishonah - because of the people who arrive late to Shul and will otherwise think that Leining does not require a ...
2. ... B'rachah Achronah - because of people who leave early and will otherwise think that it does not require a B'rachah Achronah.
(a) Besides Rosh Chodesh, we call up four people to the Torah - on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(b) The Tana prohibits ...
1. ... adding an Aliyah and rules that one does not ...
2. ... Lein the Haftarah.
(c) We add the fourth Aliyah - because that is the Din wherever there is Musaf but it is not a Yom-Tov.
(d) Here too, the first and the last Aliyos respectively, recite the two B'rachos, (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) And why do we call up ...
1. ... five people on Yom-Tov - because of Bitul Melachah (i.e. which did not apply to the previous group).
2. ... six people on Yom Kipur - because it carries a Chiyuv Kareis and ...
3. ... seven on Shabbos - because it carries a Chiyuv Sekilah.
(b) The Mishnah rules that calling up less - is prohibited.
(c) Once again - it is the first and the last Aliyos respectively, who recite Birchos ha'Torah.
(d) The Halachah differs in the last three cases from the previous cases - in that a. one is permitted to add Aliyos (See Tos. Yom-Tov), and b. one Leins the Haftarah.
(a) The Mishnah now lists all the things that require ten people. The first is Porsin al Sh'ma. The meaning of ...
1. ... 'Porsin' is a piece/part (from the word 'P'rusah').
2. ... 'Porsin al Sh'ma' is - when ten people arrive in Shul after the community have recited the Sh'ma, whereupon one of them says Kadish, Borchu and the first B'rachah of the Sh'ma (Yotzer ha'Me'oros [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(b) The next four are 'Ein Ovrin Lifnei ha'Teivah ve'Ein Nos'in Kapeihem - (with reference to being the Shatz and the Kohanim Duchening [See Tos. Yom-Tov], respectively) 've'Ein Korin ba'Torah ve'Ein Maftirin be'Navi' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) We learn these from the Pasuk in Emor "Venikdashti be'Soch B'nei Yisrael" - which teaches us that 'Every Davar she'bi'Kedushah requires (at least) ten people.
(d) And we know that "Eidah" refers to ten people from a Gezeirah-Shavah "Toch" "Toch" (from the ten wicked Meraglim Parshas Sh'lach l'ch).
(a) The next four are 'Ein Osin Ma'amad u'Moshav, ve'Ein Omrim Birchas Aveilim, ve'Tanchumei Aveilim u'Birchas Chasanim'. 'Ma'amad u'Moshav' is - the custom to stop the funeral procession to eulogize the deceased ...
(b) ... seven times (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) Each time - they announce 'Stop dear friends; be seated dear friends!'.
(d) This needs ten people - since it is sort of pointless when there are less (See Tos. Yo-Tov).
(a) The definition of ...
1. ... 'Birchas Aveilim' is - the B'rachah that someone recites after the burial, when they reach the street (as described in the first Perek of Kesuvos [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
2. ... 'Tanchumei Aveilim' is - the two rows through which the mourners pass, whilst the people comfort them.
3. ... 'Birchas Chasanim' is - Sheva B'rachos.
(b) The last item on the current list is - Mezuman with the Name of Hash-m (Elokeinu) ...
(c) Which requires ten people - because it is sort of pointless (as we explained by 'Ma'amad and Moshav' [See also Tiferes Yisrael]).
(d) The Tana adds assessing land belonging to Hekdesh that needs to be redeemed. This case differs from all the previous ones - in that the ten must include at least one Kohen ...
(e) ... which we learn from - the ten times the word "Kohen" is mentioned in the combined Parshiyos of Erchin, Beheimah and Karka (in Bechukosai [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(a) When the Tana concludes 've'Adam ka'Yotzei bahen', he is referring to the assessment of how much a person who states 'D'mi alai' is obligated to pay as if he was an Eved.
(b) We learn this from the Pasuk in Bechukosai "Vehisnachaltem Osam li'Veneichem Achareichem", which teaches us - that an Eved is compared to land (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The smallest number of Pesukim that a person may Lein be'Tzibur is - three (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) A Meturg'man is - someone who translates each Pasuk of the Leining into Arama'ic (i.e. Targum Unlklus [See Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael]).
(c) The largest number of Pesukim that he may translate at a time is - one ...
(d) ... because, since he recites it by heart, we are afraid that he may err if he recites more.
(e) He is allowed three Pesukim in the Navi however - because a mistake there is not as crucial as one in the Torah.
(a) The Metug'man confined to one Pasuk at a time even in the Navi - if the three consecutive Pesukim comprise three Parshiyos.
(b) The other distinction that the Tana draws between Leining the Torah and Leining the Navi is - to permit scrolling from one place to another in the latter but not in the former (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) He allows scrolling even in the Torah however - if it is in one Inyan, like the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur, who scrolled from Acharei-Mos to Emor.
(a) The maximum that one is permitted to scroll is - until the Meturg'an has finished translating (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(b) ... since it is not Kavod Tzibur to keep them waiting.
(a) The Tana rules that - a person who regularly volunteers (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to Lein Maftir is Poreis al Sh'ma and Over lifnei ha'Teivah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(b) ... because, since Maftir is the least important Aliyah (See Tos. Yom-Tov), we compensate him, by giving him the Kedushah in Birchas Yotzer.
(c) And where the volunteer is a Katan, he says - that the honor is given to his father or his Rebbe (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(d) ... seeing as a Katan is not permitted to do either.
(e) Assuming he is a Kohen, he also - leads the Duchening (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Mishnah permits a Katan to Lein and to translate. Some Ge'onim qualify the former ruling by confining it from Shelishi and onwards (See also Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) The Tana forbids him however ...
1. ... to be Poreis al Sh'ma or ...
2. ... to Daven before the Amud ...
(c) ... due to the principle that 'Whoever is not himself Chayav cannot be Motzi others' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) And the reason that the Tana forbids a Kohen Katan to Duchen is - because it is not Kavod ha'Tzitur to have to rely on a Katan for their blessings (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) The Mishnah permits a Poche'ach - (someone who is wearing torn clothes and whose bare arms can be seen) to be Poreis al Shm'a and to translate (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Tana forbids him however to ...
1. ... Lein - because it is not Kavod ha'Torah, and to ...
2. ... Daven before the Amud or to Duchen - because it is a disgrace for the Tzibur.
(c) The Tana Kama permits a blind man to be Poreis al Sh'ma and to translate ...
(d) ... the former (e though he does not benefit directly from the light) - because he benefits via others who help him along the way.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah does not permit a man who was born blind to be Poreis al Sh'ma - since he never benefited from it, and does ot therefore fully appreciate it.
(b) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah forbids a Kohen with a blemish on his hands to Duchen - because it will cause people to look at his hands whilst he is Duchening ...
(b) ... and someone who looks at the hands of a Kohen whilst he is Duchening - will find that his eyesight will become dim ...
(c) This in turn, is - because the Shechinah rests on the hands of a Kohen whilst heis Duchening.
(d) If the Kohen has a blemish on his face or on his feet - he is also forbidden to Duchen ...
(e) ... even on his feet - since a Kohen is obligated to remove his shoes before Duchening.
(a) The reason that we are concerned that one might look at the Kohen's face or feet is - because once one's are attracted to any part of the Kohen, it is only a short step to looking at his hands.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah adds to the list - a Kohen whose hands are dyed Istis and Pu'ah.
(c) 'Istis' is a dye similar to the color Techeiles, Pu'ah is - a red-colored root that is used for dyeing.
(d) The Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah , who permits Duchenig with dye on his hands - if the Kohen's work entails using dyes (since the people are used to seeing him like that and nobody will be inclined to gaze at him whilst he is Duchening).
(a) The Mishnah rules that someone who states that he will not Daven before the Amud wearing ...
1. ... colored clothes - is not permitted to do so even wearing white ones.
2. ... shoes - is not permitted to do so even bare-footed ...
(b) ... since idolaters tend to be particular about that, and we suspect that he has joined their ranks.
(a) The Tana states that round-shaped Tefilin (besides that they pose) - contain no element of Mitzvah ...
(b) ... since the square shape of Tefilin is Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai.
(c) The danger that they pose is - that they may pierce the wearer's head should he inadvertently knock them (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) And he also says that someone who wears Tefilin on his forehead or on the palm of his hand - is like Miynus (heresy) (in that one interprets Pesukim according to one's whim and fancy).
(a) We learn that ...
1. ... the Tefilin shel Rosh must be worn in a location where there is hair - from a Gezeirah-Shavah "bein Einecha" "bein Einecha" (from the prohibition of making a bald patch over a deceased relative).
2. ... the Tefilin shel Yad must be worn on the upper arm - from the word "al" (in the Pasuk "u'Keshartem osam le'Os al Yadecha").
(b) Another way of defining the former is - there where the brain of a baby is soft (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah describes someone who ...
1. ... overlays his Tefilin with gold or who ...
2. ... wears the Tefilin shel Yad on his sleeve (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - as someone goes in the way of people who go after their own interpretations (i.e. which is almost as bad as Miynus [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(b) We learn that Tefilin ...
1. ... may not be overlaid with gold - from the Pasuk in Parshas Bo (in connection with Tefilin) - 'in order that the Torah of Hash-m shall be in your mouth (in other words whatever has to do with the Mitzvos of the Torah must be made of a material that is edible).
2. ... shel Yad should be underneath one's sleeve and not on top of it (apart from the fact that the sleeve is a Chatzitzah)
(a) The Tana describe declaring that 'The good people shall bless Hashem' as Derech Miynus - because it goes against the Din that requires including even the Resha'im (who have done Teshuvah) in should join together with the good ones when they gather together to Daven on Ta'aniyos).
(b) We learn this - from the Chelb'na (galbanum) which was included in the Ketores despite its unpleasant odor.
(a) Someone who declares that Hash-m's mercy extends to a bird's nest, who states that Hash-m should be mentioned for the good and who says 'Modim' 'Modim' share - must all be silenced
(b) A person who declares that Hash-m's mercy extends to a bird's nest means - that just as Hash-m displayed His merciful trait by commanding us to send away the mother bird before taking the babies, so too, should He display His Mercy towards us.
(c) What is wrong with saying ...
1. ... it is - that that is not necessarily the reason for the Mitzvah, which is actually a Gezeiras ha'Kasuv.
2. ... that Hash-m should be mentioned for the good is - that we are obligated to thank Hash-m for everything that happens to us, even if appears to be bad (because everything that Hash-m does is for the good, whether we realize it or not).
3. ... 'Modim' 'Modim' is - that it conveys the impression that one is thinking two G-ds (Chas ve'Shalom).
(a) The Mishnah instructs us to silence someone who is 'Mechaneh ba'Arayos' - wich means that he interprets the Isur of incest to mean that one is not permitted to reveal the shame of his close relatives in public (which Chazal refer to as 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah she'Lo ka'Halachah').
(b) The Tana issues a similar ruling with regard to someone who mistranslates the Pasuk "And do not pass some of your children to Molech" to mean - that it is prohibited to have relations with a Nochris, who will bear him children to Avodah-Zarah.
(c) This ruling differs from the previous case - in that one does not simply silence him, but that one does so angrily ...
(d) ... because not only has he changed the meaning of the Pasuk, but he has declared Chayav Kareis someone who has relations with a Nochris, which he is not (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah permits reading ...
1. ... Ma'aseh (the episode with) Reuven - (the Pasuk "Vayishkav es Bilhah") but not translating it (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... and translating Ma'aseh Tamar (and Amnon [See also Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael]).
(b) In the latter case, we are not concerned about the Kavod of David - since during most of the Parshah, Amnon is referred to simply as "Amnon", and not as 'Amnon ben David'.
(a) The Mishnah - permits the first part of Ma'aseh Eigel to be read and translated, but the second part to be read only.
(b) The second part constitutes - Chapter 32, Pasuk 21-26 & Pasuk 35 (all of which contain Aharon's name).
(c) The Tana is strict regarding the latter - because of the Kavod of Aharon (whom Moshe rebukes there).
(d) We would have thought that the same stringency should apply to the the first part of Ma'aseh ha'Eigel - due to the Kavod of Yisrael (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) Birchas Kohanim may neither be read or translated (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - out of concern that the Pasuk "May Hash-m lift His Countenance towards you (which has connotations of favoritism) will be misconstrued.
(b) Neither, says the Mishnah, may Ma'aseh David ve'Amnon (See also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Birchas Kohanim' & DH 'Ma'aseh David ve'Amnon') - which refers to those Pesukim which call Amnon "Amnon ben David".
(a) The Tana Kama forbids Leining Ma'aseh ha'Merkavah (in Yechezkel) as the Haftarah - because to avoid asking queatiuons and to delving into its deeper meaning.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah however - permits it (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) Rebbi Eliezer forbids Leining "Hoda es Yerushalayim" (in Yechezkel [which publicizes the Yerushalayim's sins] - out of Kavod Yerushalayim (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Halachah - however, is that one may (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
Nishlemah Maseches Megilah