POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf
1) EXPOUNDING NAMES IN THE "MEGILAH "(cont.)
(a) Answer #4 (Rava): Keneses Yisrael blames Yehudah and
Binyamin for what happened:
1. It blames Yehudah for not killing Shim'i, which
enabled the birth of Mordechai, who provoked Haman;
(b) Answer #5 (R. Yochanan): Really, Mordechai comes from
Binyamin. He is called Yehudi because he denied idolatry;
2. It blames Binyamin (from which came Sha'ul) for not
killing Agag, from whom came Haman.
1. Anyone who denies idolatry is called Yehudi, like it
says "these Yehudi men...(do not bow to your
(c) When R. Yehudah ben Pazi would start to expound Divrei
ha'Yomim, he would say 'All Your words are one (even
though many names are often given for the same person),
and we know how to expound them!'
(d) Question: "His wife ha'Yehudiyah gave birth to Yered..."
- why is Basyah called Yehudiyah?
(e) Answer: It is because she denied idolatry;
1. (R. Yochanan): "Paro's daughter went down to wash in
the river" - she descended to cleanse herself from
the idolatry of her father's house.
(f) Question: Why does it say that she gave birth to him
(Moshe)? She (only) raised him!
(g) Answer: This teaches that if one raises an orphan in his
house, is considered as if he fathered him.
(h) "Yered" is Moshe. He is called Yered because manna Yarad
(descend) for Yisrael in his days.
(i) He is (also) called "Gedor" because Gadar (he fenced) the
breaches in Yisrael.
(j) He is called "Chever" because Chiber (he connected)
Yisrael to their father in Heaven.
(k) He is called "Socho" because he was like a (protecting)
Sukah to Yisrael.
(l) He is called "Yekusi'el" because Kavu YiSrael
la'Kel (Yisrael hoped to Hash-m) in his day.
(m) He is called "Zanu'ach" because Hizni'ach (he made
Yisrael abandon) their sins.
(n) It says "Father of" three times, because he was a father
in Torah, in wisdom, and in prophecy.
(o) Question: Why does it say "Basyah, whom Mered married"?
Kalev married her!
(p) Answer: Hash-m said 'Kalev, who Marad (rebelled) against
the counsel of the Meraglim, should marry Basyah, who
rebelled against her father's idolatry.'
(q) (Rava): "That was exiled from Yerushalayim (with those
whom Nebuchadnetzar forcibly exiled)" - Mordechai
willingly exiled himself.
(r) Question: Why does it say "He raised Hadasah" - elsewhere
she is called Esther!
(s) Answer #1 (Beraisa - R. Meir): Her name is Esther.
Tzadikim are called Hadasah - "And he stands among the
(t) Answer #2A (R. Yehudah): Her name is Hadasah. She is
called Esther because Masteres (she hides) her words -
"Esther does not tell which is her nation."
(u) Answer #2B (R. Nechemyah): Her name is Hadasah. The
nations called her Esther because she was beautiful like
Istahar (the moon).
(v) (Ben Azai): Esther was not tall or short; she was
average, like a Hadasah (myrtle).
(w) (R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): Esther was green (like
myrtle); Hash-m strung Chesed over her (so all considered
2) THE SELECTION OF ESTHER
(a) Question: Why does it say "For she has no father or
mother", and also "When her father and mother died"?
(b) Answer (Rav Acha): When her mother became pregnant, her
father died; when she was born, her mother died.
(c) (Beraisa - R. Meir): "Mordechai took her l'Bas (for a
daughter)" - we read this l'Bayis (a wife).
1. Similarly, "The poor man has nothing, except for one
small sheep (a metaphor for Bas Sheva)...it sleeps
in his bosom and was to him like a Bas.
(d) (Rava): "And the seven young girls" - Esther would count
the days of the week through them (to know when it is
2. Question: Sleeping in his bosom is no reason to call
it a daughter!
3. Answer: We must read this 'k'Bayis' (and similarly
(e) Opinion #1 (Rav): "And he (Hegai) changed her and her
girls" - he fed her food of Yisraelim.
(f) Opinion#2 (Shmuel): He fed her necks of swine. (Tosfos -
she did not eat them; Rashi - she was not punished for
eating them, for she was forced.)
(g) Opinion#3 (R. Yochanan): He fed her seeds (like Daniel,
Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah ate) - "The steward
removed the royal food and gave them seeds."
(h) Question: "Six months with Shemen ha'Mor" - what is this?
(i) Answer #1 (R. Chiya bar Aba): It is satchet.
(j) Answer #2 (Rav Huna): It is oil of olives which did not
reach one third growth;
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Anfekinon is oil of olives
which did not grow a third.
(k) Girls anoint with it to make hair fall out and to soften
(l) (R. Yochanan): "In the evening she comes, and in the
morning she returns" - amidst the detriment of the Rasha
we hear his praise, that he would not have relations
during the day.
(m) (R. Elazar): "And Esther bore grace" - every person
thought that she was from his nation.
(n) "Esther was taken in the month of Teves" - this is
winter, when a body enjoys (the warmth of) another body.
(o) (Rav): "And the king loved Esther more than all the
women...and more than all the virgins" - if he desired
the 'taste' of (relations with) a virgin, he tasted it;
if he desired a non-virgin, he tasted it.
(p) "The king made a great party", but she did not reveal
(her nation to him); he pardoned taxes (in her honor),
and she did not reveal; he sent gifts (to nobles in her
name), and she did not reveal.
(q) "When virgins were gathered a second time" - Mordechai
counseled him that a woman envies only a marital rival.
Even so, "Esther did not tell her origin".
(r) (R. Elazar): "Hashem's eyes do not overlook (reward due
to) a Tzadik" - as a reward for Rachel's Tzni'us, Sha'ul
descended from her; as a reward for Sha'ul's Tzni'us,
Esther descended from him.
1. Question: What was Rachel's Tzni'us?
(s) Question: What was Sha'ul's Tzni'us?
2. Answer - Question: "Yakov told Rachel that he is her
father's brother" - he is her father's nephew!
i. Answer: Yakov asked her to marry him; she
agreed, but said 'My father is a deceiver, and
you cannot overcome him.'
ii. Yakov: I am his brother in deceit.
iii. Rachel: May a Tzadik do so?!
iv. Yakov: Yes; "With a pure one, be clear, with a
crooked one, be crooked." What is his trickery?
v. Rachel: I have an older sister, he will not
marry me off before her.
vi. Yakov gave to her Simanim. When the night (of
the wedding) came, Rachel feared that her
sister will be shamed, so she gave the Simanim
vii. Support - Question: "In the morning, behold it
was Leah" - until now, it was it not Leah?
viii.Answer: Rather, because of the Simanim which
Rachel gave to Leah, Yakov did not know until
(t) Answer: "He did not tell to him (his uncle) about the
kingship" (that Sha'ul will be king).
(u) (R. Elazar): When Hash-m apportions greatness to a
person, he apportions to his children and grandchildren
for all generations - "He seated them (kings) forever,
and elevated him";
1. If the person gets haughty, Hash-m lowers him - "If
they will be bound in fetters."
3) MORDECHAI SAVED THE KING
(a) (R. Yirmeyah): "And Esther fulfilled the words of
Mordechai" - she showed her Dam Nidah to the Chachamim.
(b) (Rabah bar Leima): "As she used to when he raised her" -
she would get up from the bosom of Achashverosh, are
Tovel, and sit in the bosom of Mordechai.
(c) (R. Chiya bar Aba): Hash-m made a master (Paro) angry at
his servants, to do the will of a Tzadik, i.e. Yosef -
"And there was with us a young Ivri..."
(d) Hash-m angered servants on their master to do the will of
a Tzadik, i.e. Mordechai - "Bigsan and Seresh got
angry...and the matter became known to Mordechai."
(e) (R. Yochanan): Bigsan and Seresh were Tarsiyim, and spoke
in Torsi. 'From the day Achashverosh came, we have not
slept. Let us put poison in the bowl so he will die.'
They did not know that Mordechai was from the Sanhedrin
and knew all 70 languages.
(f) One said 'Our watches are not the same; I will guard both
(g) This explains "the matter was investigated and it was
found" - they were not at their watches.
(h) Question: Why does it say "After these things...."?
(i) Answer (Rava): (Haman was raised) after Hash-m created
the cure (a reason for Achashverosh to love Mordechai)
for the malady.
1. This is like Reish Lakish said, that Hash-m does not
strike Yisrael unless he creates the cure first -
"When I cure Yisrael, (afterwards) the sin of
Efrayim is revealed (through the punishment)."
2. Regarding other nations, Hash-m strikes first and
then creates the cure - "Hash-m will strike
Mitzrayim, a blow and (then a) cure."
4) THE DECREE OF HAMAN
(a) (Rava): "It was scornful in his eyes to strike Mordechai
alone" - first (he wanted to kill) Mordechai alone;
later, the nation of Mordechai, i.e. Chachamim; in the
end, all the Jews.
(b) (Beraisa): "He cast a Pur (lottery)" - when the lottery
fell in Adar, he was exceedingly happy, for it fell in
the month of Moshe's death.
1. He did not know that Moshe died and was born on the
seventh of Adar.
(c) (Rava): "Yeshnu (there is) Am Echad)..." - no one knows
how to speak Lashon ha'Ra as well as Haman:
1. Haman: Let us destroy them.
(d) (Reish Lakish): "(I will give) 10,000 talents of silver
(to destroy them) - Hash-m knew that Haman would offer
Shekalim to destroy Yisrael, therefore Hash-m commanded
that we give Shekalim first (to redeem ourselves);
2. Achashverosh: I am afraid lest their G-d do to me
like He did to those before me (e.g. Paro or
3. Haman: (You need not worry, for) Yashnu (Yisrael are
sleeping) from the Mitzvos.
4. Achashverosh: There are Rabanim among them (who are
5. Haman: They are one nation (all are sleeping).
6. Do not think that I will make a bald patch in your
kingdom - "They are scattered among the nations";
7. Do not think that there is benefit from them -
"u'Mefurad" they are scattered like a Predah (mule)
which bears no fruit" (Maharsha - we expound
u'Mefurad because it is extra, it already says
8. Do not think that there is a small province of them
- "in all provinces of your kingdom" (Rashi;
Maharsha - he already said that he will not make a
bald patch because they are scattered! Rather, do
not think that you can gather and resettle them in a
small province, for there are too many - "in all
(127) provinces of your kingdom").
9. "Their laws are different from every nation" - they
do not eat our food, and don't marry our women or
10. "They do not keep the king's laws" - all year they
avoid work, saying 'Today is Shabbos, today is
11. "It is not worth leaving them (alive)" - they eat
and drink and despise the kingdom! If one of them
found a fly in his wine, he removes the fly and
drinks. If you would touch the cup, he would spill
it on the ground and not drink it.
1. (Mishnah): On the first of Adar we announce about
Index to Outlines for Maseches Megilah