POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf
1) PREFACES TO "MEGILAS ESTHER" (cont.)
(a) Rav Dimi bar Yitzchak would begin with "We are slaves,
and in our bondage Hash-m did not abandon us, and He
stretched over us Chesed in front of the kings of Persia"
- this was in the days of Haman.
(b) R. Chanina bar Papa would begin with "You made a man ride
on our heads, we entered fire and water":
1. "In fire" was in the days of Nebuchadnetzar ha'Rasha
(he threw us into the furnace). "In water" was in
the days of Paro. "And you brought us out to
satiation" in the days of Haman.
(c) R. Yochanan would begin with "He remembered His Chesed
and faithfulness to Beis Yisrael. All ends of the land
saw the salvation of Elokeinu." All ends of the land saw
Hashem's salvation in the days of Mordechai and Esther.
(d) Reish Lakish would begin with "Like a roaring lion and a
hungry bear, a Rasha rules over a poor nation."
1. "A roaring lion" is Nebuchadnetzar ha'Rasha, about
whom it says "A lion rose from his thicket";
(e) R. Eliezer would begin with "Ba'Atzaltayim Yimach
ha'Mekareh uv'Shiflus Yadayim Yidlof ha'Bayis" - because
of the laziness of Yisrael who did not engage in Torah,
the hater of (a euphemism) Hash-m became Mach (unable to
2. "A hungry bear" is Achashverosh, about whom it says
"And another animal, a second, like a bear";
i. (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): This refers to Persians,
who eat and drink like a bear, and are clothed
with flesh like a bear, and grow hair like a
bear, and have no rest like a bear.
3. "A Rasha rules" is Haman;
4. "Over a poor nation" is Yisrael, who lack Mitzvos.
1. "Mach" means poor - "v'Im Mach Hu me'Erkecha";
(f) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak would begin with "... If Hash-m
had not been for us when a man rose against us" - a man
(Haman) who was not a king.
2. "ha'Mekareh" is Hash-m - "ha'Mekareh va'Mayim
(g) Rava would begin with "Bi'Rvos Tzadikim Yismach ha'Am" -
this refers to Mordechai and Esther, "Veha'Ir Shushan
1. "uvi'Mshol Rasha Ye'anach Am" is Haman - "veha'Ir
(h) Rav Masnah would begin with "For who is a great nation to
whom Hash-m is close?"
(i) Rav Ashi would begin with "Has any god ever tried (to
redeem a nation through wonders like Hash-m did in
(j) (Rav): "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Achashverosh" - we read this
Vai v'Hi (woe and mourning).
1. Haman's decree (did not allow Yisraelim to be kept
alive for slaves) embodied "You will be sold to your
enemies for slaves (and no one will buy)."
(k) (Shmuel): "I did not despise them" - in the days of the
Yevanim; "I did not abhor them" - in the days of
Nebuchadnetzar; "to destroy them" - in the days of Haman;
"to annul my covenant with them" - in the days of the
Persians; "for I am Hash-m Elokeihem" - in the days of
Gog and Magog.
1. (Beraisa): "I did not despise them" - in the days of
the Babylonians, I prepared for them Daniel,
Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah;
(l) R. Levi would begin with "If you will not drive out the
inhabitants of the land (they will afflict you".
Likewise, we did not totally wipe out Amalek, and we were
afflicted by Haman).
2. "I did not abhor them" - in the days of the Yevanim,
I prepared for them Shimon ha'Tzadik, Chashmonai and
his sons, and Matisyahu Kohen Gadol;
3. "To destroy them" - in the days of Haman, I prepared
for them Mordechai and Esther;
4. "To annul my covenant with them" - in the days of
the Persians, I prepared for them the house of
Rebbi, and Chachamim of the generations;
5. "For I am Hash-m Elokeihem" - in the future, no
nation will be able to rule over them.
(m) R. Chiya would begin with "Like I intended to do to them,
I will do to you."
(a) (Rav): "Achashverosh" is Achiv Shel Rosh, the equal of
Nebuchadnetzar ha'Rasha, who was called Rosh - "Ant Hu
Reishah Di Dahava";
1. He is the Ben Gilo of (has the same Mazel as) Rosh.
Nebuchadnetzar killed and destroyed (the Mikdash),
Achashverosh sought to do the same;
(b) (Shmuel): (He is called Achashverosh because) in his days
Hushcharu (were blackened) the faces of Yisrael like the
bottom of a pot.
i. At the beginning of Achashverosh's reign, they
wrote accusations against the inhabitants of
Yehudah and Yerushalayim (to prevent them from
building the Mikdash).
(c) (R. Yochanan): Anyone who recalls him says 'Ach l'Rosho'
(gets a headache).
(d) (R. Chanina): All were made Rashin (poor) in his days -
"Achashverosh imposed a tax..."
(e) "Hu Achashverosh" - he was evil from beginning to end.
(f) Also "Hu Esav", "Hu Dasan va'Aviram" and "Hu ha'Melech
Achaz" teach that they were evil from beginning to end.
(g) "Avram Hu Avraham" and "Hu Aharon v'Moshe" teach that
they are righteous from beginning to end.
(h) "David Hu ha'Katan" - he acted lowly from beginning to
1. Just like before he was king he lowered himself in
front of his superiors in Torah, also in his
kingship he lowered himself in front of his
superiors in Chachmah.
(i) (Rav): "Ha'Molech" - he made himself king.
1. Some explain this to his credit, i.e. there was no
one else as fitting as him to be king.
(j) (Rav or Shmuel): "From Hodu until Kush" - these are at
opposite ends of the world;
2. Some explain this to his detriment, i.e. he was not
fitting to be king. He gave much money (to nobles
and dignitaries) and became king.
(k) (The other of Rav and Shmuel): They are next to each
other. Just like he ruled over them, so he ruled from one
end of the world to the other end. (Maharal (Or Chodosh
p.77) - people feared him as if his capital was nearby.
The first opinion agrees that Hodu and Kush are adjacent
The entire world is between them, i.e. if one goes around
the world from one to the other.)
(l) (Rav or Shmuel): "He (Shlomo) dominated the entire other
side of the river, from Tifsach until Azah" - they are at
opposite ends of the world;
(m) (The other of Rav and Shmuel): They are next to each
other. Just like he ruled over them, so he ruled over the
(n) (Rav Chisda): "Seven and 20 and 100 provinces" - first he
ruled over seven, then 20, and in the end 100.
(o) Question: If so, how will we explain "And the years of
Amram were seven and 30 and 100 years?
(p) Answer: We expound regarding Achashverosh because the
verse was not needed. It already says "From Hodu until
Kush (the whole world)", so "seven and 20 and 100" must
be to teach like we said.
3) THREE WHO RULED OVER THE WORLD
(a) (Beraisa): Three ruled over the world - Achav,
Achashverosh and Nebuchadnetzar.
1. Ovadyah said "...There is no people or kingdom to
which my master (Achav) has not sent... (and made
them swear that they did not find Eliyahu. If Achav
did not rule over them, he could not make them
2. It says regarding Nebuchadnetzar "And the people and
kingdom which will not put its neck in the yoke of
the king of Bavel (I will strike...)"
3. We explained about Achashverosh above.
(b) Question: There are others! Shlomo ruled over the world!
(c) Answer #1: He did not finish his reign (so he is not
(d) Question: This is like the opinion that once he was
deposed, he never resumed kingship. According to the
opinion that he returned to kingship, why is he not
(e) Answer #2: Shlomo's reign was different. He ruled over
higher beings (Shedim) and lower beings (people) - "And
Shlomo sat on the throne of Hash-m" (we list only kings
who ruled only over people).
(f) Question: Why isn't Sancheriv listed? It says "Who among
all the gods of these lands saved their land from my
(g) Answer: He never conquered Yerushalayim.
(h) Question: Regarding Daryavesh it says "The king wrote to
all the peoples, nations, and languages that dwell in all
(i) Answer: There were seven nations over which he did not
rule - "Daryavesh established his reign over 120
(j) Question: Koresh said " Hash-m gave to me all the
kingdoms of the world!"
(k) Answer: He was just aggrandizing himself (it was not
4) MISCALCULATIONS OF THE SEVENTY YEARS OF EXILE
(a) Contradiction: It says "k'Shevet ha'Melech" (when he
became king), and it says immediately "in the third year
of his reign"!
(b) Answer (Rava): "k'Shevet" means after his mind was
1. Achashverosh: Belshatzar calculated and erred; I
calculated and did not err. Hash-m promised to
redeem Yisrael "when 70 years are completed for
Bavel" (Rashash - the other verse does not belong
here, rather, on 12a).
(c) Question: His calculation was correct!
2. Belshatzar counted 45 years of Nebuchadnetzar (from
the beginning of his reign), 23 of Evil-Merodach,
and two of his own reign, making 70. He took out the
Klei ha'Mikdash and used them.
i. Question: How do we know that Nebuchadnetzar
reigned 45 years?
3. Belshatzar was sure that Yisrael would not be
redeemed, therefore he took out the Klei ha'Mikdash
and used them. This is why Daniel told him "You
raised yourself against Hash-m, and brought His
Kelim in front of you." "Belshatzar was killed on
ii. Answer: We learned that the exile from
Yerushalayim was in the seventh year, the
eighth, the 18th, and the 19th.
iii. Some (Chachamim and Yehoyachin) were exiled in
the seventh year from Nebuchadnetzar's conquest
of Yehoyakim; this was the eighth year of
Nebuchadnetzar's reign. The (Churban and) exile
of Tzidkiyahu (and most of Yisrael) was in the
18th year from the conquest of Yehoyakim, which
was the 19th year of Nebuchadnetzar's reign.
iv. We learned that Nebuchadnetzar conquered Ninveh
in his first year; in his second year he
v. "In the 3seventh year from Galus
Yehoyachin...Evil Merodach (succeeded
Nebuchadnetzar and) took Yehoyakim out of
prison." It follows that Nebuchadnetzar reigned
37 and eight years, which is 45.
vi. We have a tradition that Evil Merodach reigned
4. Achashverosh: I will not err. The prophecy did not
say 'l'Malchus Bavel', rather, "l'Bavel", i.e. the
(first) exile to Bavel! Belshatzar's calculation was
eight years too early. It is now eight years later,
i.e. one year of his reign, five of Daryavesh and
Koresh, and two of my reign.
5. Achashverosh was sure that Yisrael would not be
redeemed, since the 70 years had passed. He took out
the Klei ha'Mikdash. The Satan came and danced among
them, and killed Vashti.
(d) Answer: No. He counted from Galus Yehoyachin; he should
have counted from the Churban of Yerushalayim.
(e) Question: His calculation was 11 years too early.
Achashverosh ruled 11 more years (14 in all); the Mikdash
should have been rebuilt in his day. But it says "The
building of Beis Hash-m in Yerushalayim was stopped (and
not finished until the second year of Koresh, who was
(f) Answer (Rava): (Achashverosh counted whole years, but
really) the years were partial (in all they were only
(g) (Support - Beraisa): There was another year to (the 70
years of) Bavel; Daryavesh completed it.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Megilah