POINT BY POINT OUTLINE OF THE DAF
prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) (Rav): "Achashverosh" is Achiv Shel Rosh, the equal of Nevuchadnetzar ha'Rasha, who was called Rosh - "Ant Hu Reishah Di Dahava";
1. He is the Ben Gilo of (has the same Mazel as) Rosh. Nevuchadnetzar killed, and destroyed (the Mikdash), Achashverosh sought to do the same;
i. At the beginning of Achashverosh's reign, they wrote accusations against the inhabitants of Yehudah and Yerushalayim (to prevent them from building the Mikdash).
(b) (Shmuel): (He is called Achashverosh because) in his days Hushcharu (were blackened) the faces of Yisrael like the bottom of a pot.
(c) (R. Yochanan): Anyone who recalls him says 'Ach l'Rosho' (gets a headache).
(d) (R. Chanina): All were made Rashin (poor) in his days - "Achashverosh imposed a tax..."
(e) "Hu Achashverosh" - he was evil from beginning to end.
(f) Also "Hu Esav", "Hu Dasan va'Aviram" and "Hu ha'Melech Achaz" teach that they were evil from beginning to end.
(g) "Avram Hu Avraham" and "Hu Aharon v'Moshe" teach that they are righteous from beginning to end.
(h) "David Hu ha'Katan" - he acted lowly from beginning to end;
1. Just like before he was king he lowered himself in front of his superiors in Torah, also in his kingship he lowered himself in front of his superiors in Chachmah.
(i) (Rav): "Ha'Molech" - he made himself king.
1. Some explain this to his credit, i.e. there was no one else as fitting as him to be king.
2. Some explain this to his detriment, i.e. he was not fitting to be king. He gave much money (to nobles and dignitaries) and became king.
(j) (Rav or Shmuel): "From Hodu until Kush" - these are at opposite ends of the world;
(k) (The other of Rav and Shmuel): They are next to each other. Just like he ruled over them, so he ruled from one end of the world to the other end. (Maharal (Or Chodosh p.77) - people feared him as if his capital was nearby. The first opinion agrees that Hodu and Kush are adjacent The entire world is between them, i.e. if one goes around the world from one to the other.)
(l) (Rav or Shmuel): "He (Shlomo) dominated the entire other side of the river, from Tifsach until Azah" - they are at opposite ends of the world;
(m) (The other of Rav and Shmuel): They are next to each other. Just like he ruled over them, so he ruled over the entire world.
(n) (Rav Chisda): "Seven and 20 and 100 provinces" - first he ruled over seven, then 20, and in the end 100.
(o) Question: If so, how will we explain "And the years of Amram were seven and 30 and 100 years?
(p) Answer: We expound regarding Achashverosh because the verse was not needed. It already says "From Hodu until Kush (the whole world)", so "seven and 20 and 100" must be to teach like we said.
3) THREE WHO RULED OVER THE WORLD
(a) (Beraisa): Three ruled over the world - Achav, Achashverosh and Nevuchadnetzar.
1. Ovadyah said "... There is no people or kingdom to which my master (Achav) has not sent... (and made them swear that they did not find Eliyahu. If Achav did not rule over them, he could not make them swear!)
2. It says regarding Nevuchadnetzar "And the people and kingdom which will not put its neck in the yoke of the king of Bavel (I will strike... )"
3. We explained about Achashverosh above.
(b) Question: There are others! Shlomo ruled over the world!
(c) Answer #1: He did not finish his reign (so he is not listed).
(d) Question: This is like the opinion that once he was deposed, he never resumed kingship. According to the opinion that he returned to kingship, why is he not listed?
(e) Answer #2: Shlomo's reign was different. He ruled over higher beings (Shedim) and lower beings (people) - "And Shlomo sat on the throne of Hash-m" (we list only kings who ruled only over people).
(f) Question: Why isn't Sancheriv listed? It says "Who among all the gods of these lands saved their land from my hand?!"
(g) Answer: He never conquered Yerushalayim.
(h) Question: Regarding Daryavesh it says "The king wrote to all the peoples, nations, and languages that dwell in all the land... "!
(i) Answer: There were seven nations over which he did not rule - "Daryavesh established his reign over 120 provinces."
(j) Question: Koresh said "Hash-m gave to me all the kingdoms of the world!"
(k) Answer: He was just aggrandizing himself (it was not true).
4) MISCALCULATIONS OF THE SEVENTY YEARS OF EXILE
(a) Contradiction: It says "k'Shevet ha'Melech" (when he became king), and it says immediately "in the third year of his reign"!
(b) Answer (Rava): "k'Shevet" means after his mind was Meyushav (settled).
1. Achashverosh: Belshatzar calculated and erred; I calculated and did not err. Hash-m promised to redeem Yisrael "when 70 years are completed for Bavel" (Rashash - the other verse does not belong here, rather, on 12a).
2. Belshatzar counted 45 years of Nevuchadnetzar (from the beginning of his reign), 23 of Evil-Merodach, and two of his own reign, making 70. He took out the Klei ha'Mikdash and used them.
i. Question: How do we know that Nevuchadnetzar reigned 45 years?
ii. Answer: We learned that the exile from Yerushalayim was in the seventh year, the eighth, the 18th, and the 19th.
iii. Some (Chachamim and Yehoyachin) were exiled in the seventh year from Nevuchadnetzar's conquest of Yehoyakim; this was the eighth year of Nevuchadnetzar's reign. The (Churban and) exile of Tzidkiyahu (and most of Yisrael) was in the 18th year from the conquest of Yehoyakim, which was the 19th year of Nevuchadnetzar's reign.
iv. We learned that Nevuchadnetzar conquered Ninveh in his first year; in his second year he conquered Yehoyakim.
v. "In the seventh year from Galus Yehoyachin... Evil Merodach (succeeded Nevuchadnetzar and) took Yehoyakim out of prison." It follows that Nevuchadnetzar reigned 37 and eight years, which is 45.
vi. We have a tradition that Evil Merodach reigned 23 years.
3. Belshatzar was sure that Yisrael would not be redeemed, therefore he took out the Klei ha'Mikdash and used them. This is why Daniel told him "You raised yourself against Hash-m, and brought His Kelim in front of you." "Belshatzar was killed on that night."
4. Achashverosh: I will not err. The prophecy did not say 'l'Malchus Bavel', rather, "l'Bavel", i.e. the (first) exile to Bavel! Belshatzar's calculation was eight years too early. It is now eight years later, i.e. one year of his reign, five of Daryavesh and Koresh, and two of my reign.
5. Achashverosh was sure that Yisrael would not be redeemed, since the 70 years had passed. He took out the Klei ha'Mikdash. The Satan came and danced among them, and killed Vashti.
(c) Question: His calculation was correct!
(d) Answer: No. He counted from Galus Yehoyachin; he should have counted from the Churban of Yerushalayim.
(e) Question: His calculation was 11 years too early. Achashverosh ruled 11 more years (14 in all); the Mikdash should have been rebuilt in his day. However, it says "The building of Beis Hash-m in Yerushalayim was stopped (and not finished until the second year of Koresh, who was after Achashverosh)!
(f) Answer (Rava): (Achashverosh counted whole years, but really) the years were partial (in all they were only 69).
(g) (Support - Beraisa): There was another year to (the 70 years of) Bavel; Daryavesh completed it.