BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
1) [line 7] "ISAI GUVRIN YEHUDA'IN..." - "There are certain Jews [whom you have set over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego; these men, O king, have not regarded you; they serve not your gods, nor worship the golden image that you have set up.]" (Daniel 3:12)
2) [line 18] K'SUKAH - similar to a Sukah; like a protective covering
3) [line 18] SHE'HIZNI'ACH AVONOSEIHEN SHEL YISRAEL - he cleansed the sins of Israel
4) [line 29] YERAKROKES - with a pale complexion. ("Yarok," in Hebrew, means both "green" and "yellowish," TOSFOS Sukah 31b DH ha'Yarok. In this case it appears to mean the latter.)
5) [line 37] KADLEI D'CHAZIREI - (a) (O.F. bacons) [fatty] sides of salty bacon (RASHI) -- that she did not eat (TOSFOS); (b) heads of lettuce (ARUCH)
6) [line 38] ZER'ONIM - seeds
7) [line 38] "VA'YEHI HA'MELTZAR..." - "Thereafter the steward would take away their food and wine that they were meant to drink, and gave them seeds." (Daniel 1:16)
8) [line 39] SHEMEN HA'MOR - myrrh oil
9) [line 40] Satkas - oil prepared with spices (myrrh oil)
10) [line 41] ANPEKINON - a type of oil, that is mentioned regarding Menachos. The Mishnah (Menachos 85b) states that l'Chatchilah it may not be used for Menachos
11) [line 41] MESHIR ES HA'SEI'AR - it makes hair fall out
12) [line 42] ME'ADEN ES HA'BASAR - rejuvenates the flesh
13) [line 48] DALEI KARGA - he lifted the taxes [in all of the countries under his dominion]
14) [line 49] SHADAR PARDISHNEI - he sent gifts [to the ministers of all of the countries in her name]
15) [line 1] "LO YIGRA MI'TZADIK EINAV..." - "He will not remove His eyes from a righteous person until he is on the throne with kings; He establishes them [there] for ever, and they are exalted." (Iyov 36:7) - The Gemara shows that HaSh-m fullfils the wish of the righteous by rewarding them with descendents that follow in their footsteps.
16) [line 9] LISGUYEI B'REMIYUSA - to act crookedly
17) [line 10] "IM NAVAR TITAVAR V'IM IKESH TITAPAL" - "With the pure You show Yourself pure; and with the perverse You show Yourself cunning." (Shmuel II 22:27) - This verse describes the ways of HaSh-m. The Gemara takes it as a requirement for the conduct of a righteous person.
18) [line 23] HEGIS DA'ATO - he becomes haughty
19) [line 30] TARSIYIM - Tarsians, people who came from Tarsus (RASHI, TOSFOS Chulin 57b DH Matlis, ARUCH)
20) [line 32] LISHKAS HA'GAZIS - The Room of the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges that was located in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Great Sanhedrin was the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought (Devarim 17:8).
21) [line 36] "K'ROF'I L'YISRAEL V'NIGLAH AVON EFRAYIM..." - "When I would have healed Yisrael, then the iniquity of Ephraim was uncovered, [along with the wickedness of Samaria; for they commit falsehood; and a thief comes, the bandits rob outside.]" (Hoshea 7:1)
22) [line 41] TA NEICHLINHU - come, let's destroy them
23) [line 41] MISTEFINA - I am afraid
24) [line 45] D'MAFKEI L'CHOLA SHATA B'SHaHI PaHI (or "SHABBOS HA'YOM, PESACH HA'YOM") - they waste the whole year by saying: today is Shabbos, today is Pesach [and we cannot work]
25) [line 50] SHEKALIM
(a) In the Beis ha'Mikdash, many public sacrifices were offered (for example the daily Temidim, the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals, etc.). In order to finance these Korbanos, one half a Shekel was collected from every Jew, both those living in Eretz Yisrael and in the Golah, once a year.
(b) The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c) The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not less than the value of half a Shekel.
(d) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).
26) [last line] KIL'AYIM (KIL'EI ZERA'IM)
It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim," - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field." (Vayikra 19:19), and "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem." - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited." (Devarim 22:9). If one sows Kil'ayim, the produce becomes prohibited ('Kidesh,' from the word in the verse, 'Tikdash').
Index to Background for Maseches Megilah