[19a - 38 lines; 19b - 43 lines]

1)[line 9]משוםMISHUM- in the name of

2)[line 11]ודין הואV'DIN HU- and it can be logically understood

3)[line 11]הבאת מקוםHAVA'AS MAKOM- the obligation to be brought to Yerushalayim

4)[line 14]בפני הביתBIFNEI HA'BAYIS- in front of the Beis ha'Mikdash. This means that the Bechor is eaten only when the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing.

5)[line 15]מתן דמים ואימורין לגבי מזבחMATAN DAMIM V'EIMURIN L'GABEI MIZBE'ACH- [it requires] the placing of its blood and its Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned) [on the Mizbe'ach]

6)[line 24]לא פסיקא ליהLO PESIKA LEI- it cannot be stated in an unqualified manner

7)[line 25]במה הצדB'MAH HA'TZAD - through an analogy based upon a common property shared by two subjects (BINYAN AV)

In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" - "father" in this sense means a Biblical source) is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.

8)[line 28]קדושה ראשונה קדשה לשעתה וקדשה לעתיד לבאKEDUSHAH RISHONAH KIDSHAH L'SHA'ATAH V'KIDSHAH L'ASID LA'VO - the first sanctification brought about sanctity at that time, and for the future (after the Churban)

(a)Chazal refer to three distinct sanctities when they discuss whether or not Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Sha'atah v'Kidshah l'Asid Lavo: the sanctity of the Beis ha'Mikdash; the sanctity of Yerushalayim; and the sanctity of Eretz Yisrael.

(b)The Beis ha'Mikdash had to be sanctified in order for the sacrifices to be offered there. Similarly, Yerushalayim had to be sanctified in order for Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni to be eaten there. Shlomo ha'Melech sanctified the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim. According to one opinion, their Kedushah remained even after the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim were destroyed by the Babylonians and Romans. There is a Tana who argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and when Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again.

(c)Eretz Yisrael had to be sanctified in order for the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, such as Terumos and Ma'asros, to be practiced. Yehoshua sanctified Eretz Yisrael through conquest. According to one opinion, the Kedushah of the land remained even after the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael and laid waste to the land. Another Tana argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz no longer applied. When Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again - see Insights to Megilah 10a and to Temurah 21a.

9)[line 37]וכי דבר הלמד מהקש חוזר ומלמד בהקשV'CHI DAVAR HA'LAMED B'HEKESH CHOZER U'MELAMED B'HEKESH - and can a law derived through a Hekesh teach another law through a Hekesh? (HEKESH)

(a)One of the methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah is Hekesh, in which two subjects that are mentioned in a verse are compared. If there are a few possible Halachos that the Hekesh teaches, we learn all of them ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechtzah"). We do not say that it teaches us only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).

(b)Normal questions ("Pirchos") that can invalidate a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30) will not invalidate a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").

(c)The Gemara (Zevachim 49b-50a) investigates whether a Halachah that is extrapolated from one of these methods can be used further to teach the same Halachah in a different subject using another (or the same) one of these methods.

19b----------------------------------------19b

10)[line 4]תנינא חדא זמנאTANINA CHADA ZIMNA- we already learned this once before

11)[line 6]במעשר שני טהור וגברא טהורB'MA'ASER SHENI TAHOR V'GAVRA TAHOR- our Mishna is discussing a case where the ma'aser sheni is tahor and a person is tahor.

12)[line 12]טומאת הגוףTUM'AS HA'GUF (KODSHIM: TUM'AS BASAR / TUM'AS HA'GUF)

(a)TUM'AS HA'GUF - A person who is Tamei may not eat Kodshim, as the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" (Vayikra 12:4).

(b)The punishment for transgressing this Lav intentionally is Kares. If one transgresses it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Kerisus 22:11; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167). If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition.

(c)TUM'AS BASAR - If an animal of Kodshim becomes Tamei, its meat is forbidden to be eaten as it states, "veha'Basar Asher Yiga b'Chol Tamei Lo Ye'achel" - "and the [sacrificial] meat that will touch any source of Tum'ah shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 7:19).

(d)If a person eats a k'Zayis of sacrificial meat that is Tamei b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is not Chayav Kares (Pesachim 24b; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #145).

13)[line 13]בהדיא כתיבB'HEDYA KESIV- it is written in the Torah explicitly

14) ]line 18] בקערה אחתB'KE'ARAH ACHAS- in a single bowl

15)[line 26]בפסיעה אחתB'PESI'AH ACHAS- with one step

16)[line 29]כולו להכי הוא דאתאKULO L'HACHI HU D'ASA- [perhaps] it (the word "Se'eso") is entirely needed to teach this (Rav Asi's law, and not Rebbi Elazar's)

17)[line 36]נקיט ליה בקניאNAKIT LEI B'KANYA- he was carrying the Ma'aser Sheni on a stick

18)[line 41]תאנה של טבלTE'ENAH SHEL TEVEL- a fig of Tevel, from which Terumah or Ma'aser has not yet been separated

19)[line 42]תרומתה בעוקצהTERUMASAH B'UKTZAH- let this fig's Terumah be at the place of its point

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