[18a - 14 lines; 18b - 52 lines]

1)[line 1]מכדיMICHDI- let us see

2)[line 4]מיהדר מפרש בהו רחמנא למה ליMEHADAR MEFARESH BEHU RACHMANA LAMAH LI- why does the Torah go back and repeat them explicitly again?

3)[line 4]לאוי ליחודי להוL'YACHUDEI LEHU LAVEI- [they are repeated in order] to designate for them negative prohibitions

4)[line 6]זריקהZERIKAH (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)

The offering of a Korban consists of four primary actions. These four Avodos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the lifeblood of the Korban in a vessel), Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (dashing the blood upon the Mizbe'ach).

5)[line 9]דלכהנים חזיDEL'KOHANIM CHAZI- and that for Kohanim it (the offering) is fit [for consumption]

6)[line 11]למחיצתוL'MECHIZASO- outside of its boundary


7)[line 5]בכליל תהיהB'KALIL TIHEYEH- [one transgresses a Lav when he eats] anything which is included in the verse, "Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel" - "... it shall be entirely offered, it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16) - that is, it must be entirely burned


(a)KORBAN CHATAS - If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to Kares b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to bring a Korban Chatas. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep.

(b)KORBAN ASHAM VADAI - The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The animal offered is usually a ram that costs at least two Sela'im. The first three involve transgressions:

1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Shevuos 34:24).

2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).

3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah Charufah (e.g. a maidservant who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22; see Background to Kidushin 23:11b).

4.ASHAM NAZIR: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a Nazir who becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus (Bamidbar 6:12; see Background to Shevuos 22:3).

5.ASHAM METZORA: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12; see Background to Shevuos 8:6).

(b)ASHAM TALUY - If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt. (For further details of the Asham Taluy, see Background to Bava Kama 110:23:4:b)

(c)The offering of an Asham is similar to that of a Chatas. The main distinction between them is that the blood of an Asham is applied to the northeastern and southwestern Keranos only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba).

(d)The Gemara here teaches that when one eats from a Chatas or an Asham before the Zerikah, he is punished with Malkus.

9)[line 11]לאו הבא מכלל עשה לאו הואLAV HA'BA MI'CHELAL ASEH, LAV HU

A Lav ha'Ba mi'Chlal Aseh is a prohibition that is learned by inference from a Mitzvas Aseh. One opinion maintains that such a Lav has the force of an explicit Lo Ta'aseh.

10)[line 24]בכורים הנחה מעכבת בהן קרייה אין מעכבת בהןBIKURIM, HANACHAH ME'AKEVES BAHEN, KERIYAH EIN ME'AKEVES BAHEN (BIKURIM)

(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought.

(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these seven are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land. (-Heard from a leading botanist.) (MK))

(c)Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be returned to, and eaten in, Yerushalayim.

(d)In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit to Yerushalayim, but he does not recite the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei).

(e)The Gemara here teaches that the placement of Bikurim before the Mizbe'ach is essential to the fulfillment of the Mitzvah, but the recitation of the verses is not essential to the Mitzvah.

11)[line 30]כל הראוי לבילה אין בילה מעכבת בוKOL HA'RA'UY L'VILAH, EIN BILAH ME'AKEVES BO

(a)Regarding a Minchah that is a Nedavah (voluntary meal offering), the Torah states "v'Chol Minchah Velulah va'Shemen" (Vayikra 7:10), from which we learn that the oil that is poured onto the Minchah should be mixed throughout. Nevertheless, if the oil wasn't mixed throughout, the Minchah is still Kesheirah.

(b)However, if someone brings so much flour that it is impossible for the oil to be mixed throughout, the Minchah is Pesulah. Therefore, the Mishnah (Menachos 103b) states that if someone brings a Minchah to be offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may not contain more than sixty Esronim of flour (approximately 129.6, 149.4 or 259.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).

12)[line 39]משראו פני הביתMI'SHERA'U PENEI HA'BAYIS- from when they saw the front of the house. (The Bikurim become permitted to be eaten from the moment that they enter the Azarah.)

13)[line 44]תנופהTENUFAH

Waving portions of certain Korbanos and meal-offerings is called Tenufah; the Kohen, together with the owner of the Korban (when it is not a Korban Tzibur), waves them in all four directions and up and down (RASHI Menachos 62a DH Molich. TOSFOS to Sukah 37b DH Kedei, ponders whether all Tenufos were done in this fashion, or whether some Tenufos only required lifting and lowering).