[22a - 9 lines; 22b - 23 lines]

1)[line 2]הכותיםHA'KUSIM (KUSIM)

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and settled them in the Shomron (Samaria, hence they became known as Samaritans). They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos, converts because of lions).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

2)[line 4]מעשר ראשון / מעשר שניMA'ASER RISHON / MA'ASER SHENI (MA'ASROS: MA'ASER RISHON / MA'ASER SHENI)

See Background to Me'ilah 15:6.

3)[line 4]מיחל ושותה מידMEICHAL V'SHOSEH MIYAD - (a) and he redeems ("Meichal," short for "Mechalel") the Ma'aser Sheni and then he may drink the wine (RASHI); (b) he may begin ("Meichal," short for "Maschil") to drink the wine (RABEINU GERSHOM)

HADRAN ALACH HA'SHALI'ACH SHE'ASAH SHELICHUSO U'SELIKA LAH MASECHES ME'ILAH

TAM V'NISHLAM SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM

MASECHES KINIM

4)[line 1]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Nazir Tamei, and by a Metzora who is poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav; see below, entry #9:b) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but does not sever both Simanim ("v'Lo Yavdil" - Vayikra 5:8). (The Melikah of the Chatas anywhere on the Mizbe'ach does not invalidate it - Zevachim 63a.)

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").

5)[line 1]למטןLEMATAN- below [the Chut ha'Sikra, the red line that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach]

6)[line 1]חטאת בהמהCHATAS BEHEMAH (KORBAN CHATAS)

(a)If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to Kares b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to bring a Korban Chatas. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep. Since it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim (the highest sanctity of sacrifices), it may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah) and confesses his sin.

(b)The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures:

1.SHECHITAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah north of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen slaughters the animal, making sure to cut two Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus).

2.KABALAS HA'DAM - A Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil. The Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach) are removed from the animal.

3.HOLACHAH - The Kohen walks with the blood up to the top of the Mizbe'ach.

4.NESINAS HA'DAM - Using his finger, the Kohen applies some of the blood to each of the four Keranos of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra.

5.HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - The Eimurim are cast into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.

(c)The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured onto the southern Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Kohanim eat the rest of the Chatas Behemah in the Azarah.

7)[line 2]למעלןLEMA'ALAN- above [the Chut ha'Sikra]

8)[line 2]עולת העוףOLAS HA'OF

The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures: Melikah, Mitzuy, Haktaras ha'Rosh and Haktaras ha'Guf.

1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 97:9) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)

2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.

4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire. (See Background to Chulin 123:17 for more information.)

9)[line 3]עולת בהמהOLAS BEHEMAH (KORBAN OLAH)

(a)A person may offer a Korban Olah, which is burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Many other Korbenos Olah are Korbenos Tzibur (communal sacrifices) and are obligatory, such as the Temidim (Bamidbar 28:1-8) and Musafim (Bamidbar 28:9-29:39).

(b)Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner (of the Olas Nedavah) presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). Korbenos Tzibur do not require Semichah (Menachos 92a). The blood of the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba), below the Chut ha'Sikra. Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil, and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid., see Background to Sotah 15:9).

(c)The hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

10)[line 3]אם שנה בזה ובזה פסולIM SHANAH B'ZEH UV'ZEH PASUL- with regard to the Chatas ha'Of, if the Kohen performed the Hazayah above the Chut ha'Sikra, it invalidates it; performing Melikah anywhere on the Mizbe'ach does not invalidate the Chatas ha'Of (Zevachim 63a). Mitzuy, also, may be performed anywhere on the Mizbe'ach (ibid.), and there is an argument as to whether or not omitting Mitzuy invalidates the Chatas ha'Of altogether (Me'ilah 8b).

11)[line 4]קניםKININ (KINIM)

Kinim are bird offerings. A Ken (lit. nest) consists of two birds of the same type, either Torim or Bnei Yonah (see Background to Me'ilah 11:3). In a Ken Chovah one bird is brought as a Korban Chatas ha'Of and the other as a Korban Olas ha'Of. In a Ken Neder or Nedavah, both of the birds are Olos. A Ken Mefureshes refers to a pair of birds that have each been designated as a specific Korban. A Ken Sesumah refers to a pair of birds that have not been designated.

12)[line 4]החובהHA'CHOVAH (KEN CHOVAH)

(a)A Ken Chovah consists of two birds of the same type, either Torim or Bnei Yonah (see Background to Me'ilah 11:3) one as a Korban Chatas ha'Of and the other as a Korban Olas ha'Of.

(b)The following people are obligated to bring a Ken Chovah: a Zav (see Background to Kerisus 8:4); a Zavah (see below, entry #17); a poor Yoledes (see below, entry #16); a Nazir Tamei (see Background to Kerisus 27:14); a poor Metzora (see Background to Kerisus 8:16); a poor person who transgressed one of the following sins: Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1), Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Kerisus 12:7) or Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Kerisus 2:10).

13)[line 5]נדרים ונדבותNEDARIM U'NEDAVOS (KEN NEDER O NEDAVAH)

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary animal Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6) or Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37). Voluntary flour Korbanos are called Menachos (see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)Voluntary bird Korbanos (Ken Neder or Nedavah) are only Olos (see above, entry #5). They consist of two birds of the same type, either Torim or Bnei Yonah (see Background to Me'ilah 11:3).

(c)When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he afterwards sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or stolen or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or stolen or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.

22b----------------------------------------22b

14)[line 2]רבואRIBO- ten thousand

15)[line 3]חטאת שנתערבעה בחובהCHATAS SHE'NIS'ARVAH B'CHOVAH- a Chatas ha'Of (or many Chata'os ha'Of) that became intermingled with a Ken Chovah (or many Kinei Chovah; see above, entry #9)

16)[line 6]הנדבהHA'NEDAVAH- this word is being used in place of the word "Olah," since 1. a Chatas is never brought as a Nedavah; 2. Olos Nedavah are in general more numerous than Olos Chovah (ROSH)

17)[line 10]מחצה כשר ומחצה פסולMECHETZAH KASHER U'MECHETZAH PASUL- half of the total number of birds are offered as Korbanos and half of them are disqualified and must be left to die. (Of the Korbanos that are offered, half of them are offered as Olos and half of them are offered as Chata'os.)

18)[line 12]משם אחדMI'SHEM ECHAD- (lit. one name) one reason for bringing a Ken, as the next Mishnah illustrates

19)[line 14]לידהLEIDAH (YOLEDES)

(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she does not experience any bleeding). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If she gave birth to a female, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah (if she is the wife of a Kohen). 2. During the second stage, any blood that she experiences does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood during this period is called "Dam Tohar." Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.

(b)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Me'ilah 8:4). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a Yoledes a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

20)[line 15]זיבהZIVAH (ZAVAH)

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Erchin 8:1:a) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Kerisus 8:4:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a "Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom," because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.

(c)If a woman experiences bleeding for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count "Shiv'ah Neki'im," seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other bleeding. On the morning of the seventh day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

21)[line 19]שלקחו את קניהם בערובSHE'LAKCHU ES KINEIHEM B'EIRUV- who bought their Kinim together (but did not specify which birds belong to which woman, or which birds are Olos and which ones are Chata'os)

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