POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
KESUVOS 16-17 - Generously sponsored by Marsha and Lee Weinblatt of Teaneck, New Jersey. May Hash-m bless them with a Kesivah va'Chasimah for a year of health, prosperity and much Yiddishe Nachas from their wonderful children and grandchildren.
1) DANCING IN FRONT OF THE "KALAH"
(a) (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): When dancing in front of the
Kalah, praise her like she is;
(b) Beis Hillel say, we say 'she is pretty and has grace.'
(c) Beis Shamai: If she is lame or blind, do we say that she
is pretty and has grace?! "Stay far from a false matter"!
(d) Beis Hillel: Don't you agree that when someone buys
something, we praise what he bought?!
1. From here we learn that a person should always be
(e) (Rav Dimi): In Eretz Yisrael, they sing in front of a
Kalah 'Without eye-color, rouge or braiding, she bears
(f) When R. Zeira was ordained, they sang 'Without eye-color,
mascara or braiding, he bears grace!'
(g) When R. Ami and R. Asi were ordained, they sang 'Like
these two we consider ordained, but not Sarmisin (people
who mix up Halachos) or Sarmitin (rags);
1. Some say, they said '...but not Chamisin (those who
do not say the reason or only a fifth of it, or only
learn a fifth of the Masechta) or Turmisin (empty
(h) When R. Avahu would come from the Beis Medrash to the
Kaiser's house, the maidservant would come out to greet
him and sing 'A prince of his people, a leader of his
nation, a radiant countenance, blessed is your coming in
(i) R. Yehudah used to take a myrtle branch and dance in
front of the Kalah, saying 'A pretty, graceful Kalah'.
(j) Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak used to juggle three
(k) R. Zeira: The elder is embarrassing us (he belittles the
honor of Chachamim)!
(l) When Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak died, a pillar of fire
separated him from the people.
1. We have a tradition - this only happens to one or
two people in a generation.
(m) Version #1 (R. Zeira): The myrtle branch helped him merit
(n) Version #2: His acting like a fool helped him.
(o) Version #3: His view about how to behave helped him.
(p) Rav Acha would carry the Kalah on his shoulders and
1. Rabanan: May we do similarly?
(q) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): One may look at the Kalah all
seven days, to endear her to the Chasan.
2. Rav Acha: You may, only if she is like a log to you.
(r) The Halachah does not follow him.
2) THE HONOR GIVEN TO THE DECEASED AND TO A "KALAH"
(a) (Beraisa): We divert a funeral procession to allow the
procession of a Kalah to pass first;
(b) We divert both of these to allow a Melech Yisrael to pass
(c) King Agripas allowed a Kalah to pass first. Chachamim
praised him for this.
(d) Question: Rav Ashi taught that even the opinion that
holds that a Nasi may forego his honor agrees that a king
1. "Put a king upon you" - his fear should be upon you!
(e) Answer: There was a fork in the road (so it was not
evident that he deferred to the Kalah).
(f) (Beraisa): We cease learning Torah to escort a Mes or a
Kalah. R. Yehudah used to do so.
(g) If enough people are at the funeral, we remain learning.
(h) Question: What is considered enough?
(i) Answer #1 - Version #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Ini): We need
12,000 men and 6,000 Shofar blowers (to announce the
(j) Version #2: We need 12,000 men, of whom 6,000 blow
Shofaros. (end of Version #2)
(k) Answer #2 (Ula): We need enough people to reach from the
gate of the city to the gravesite.
(l) Answer #3 (Rav Sheshes): The taking of Torah is like its
giving, with 600,000 people.
1. This applies to one who learned written and oral
2. For one who taught, there is no limit.
3) CUSTOMS AT THE WEDDINGS OF VIRGINS
(a) (Mishnah): If witnesses say that she went to Chupah with
(b) Question: What is Hinuma?
(c) Answer #1 (Surchav bar Papa): It is a dome of myrtle
(d) Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): It is a veil in which she dozes.
(e) (Beraisa): In Yehudah, these customs (cited in the
Mishnah) prove that she was a virgin.
(f) Question: What constitutes a proof in Bavel?
(g) Answer (Rav): (Women put) oil on the heads of the
(h) Question (Rav Papa): Do Chachamim for have warts, for
which they need oil?!
(i) Answer (Abaye): You are an orphan with respect to this
custom! Did your mother never do it for you?!
1. Version #1: Once, a Chacham married his son into the
family of Rabah bar Ula. They anointed the
Chachamim's heads with oil.
(j) Question: What is done at the wedding of a non-virgin?
2. Version #2: This was done when Rabah bar Ula married
his son into the family of a Chacham.
(k) Answer (Rav Yosef): They do not throw parched grain.
4) ONE WHO CLAIMS THAT HE BOUGHT A FIELD FROM SHIMON'S FATHER
(a) (Mishnah): R. Yehoshua agrees that if Reuven says to
Shimon ('this field belonged to your father and I bought
it from him', he is believed).
(b) Question: (Since this is because 'the ox is not
slaughtered in front of you'), why didn't the Tana teach
that R. Yehoshua agrees that Reuven is believed to say
'this field was yours, and I bought it from you'?
(c) Answer: If so, the Seifa would have to say 'if there are
witnesses that it used to belong to Shimon, Reuven is
not believed.' We cannot teach this if it used to be
1. If Reuven has a Chazakah on the field (he used it
for three years and no one protested, which proves
that it is his), he should be believed!
(d) Question: The same applies to our Mishnah (when he says
'I bought this field from your father')!
2. If Reuven has no Chazakah on the field, of course he
is not believed!
1. If Reuven has a Chazakah on the field, he should be
(e) Answer: Our Mishnah teaches about when Reuven used the
field for two years in the life of Shimon's father, and
one year after he died and it passed to Shimon (who was a
minor. If there are witnesses that it used to belong to
Shimon's father, Reuven is not believed.)
2. If he has no Chazakah on the field, of course he is
1. This is like Rav Huna, who taught that one cannot
make a Chazakah on the field of a child, even after
the child grows up.
(f) Question: Did Rav Huna merely teach the law of our
(g) Answer #1: This law is not explicit in the Mishnah, so
Rav Huna taught it explicitly.
(h) Answer #2: His Chidush is that one cannot make a
Chazakah, even after the child grows up.
(i) Question: The Mishnah should teach that Reuven bought the
field from Shimon, and used the field two years in
Shimon's presence, and one year when Shimon was away,
e.g. he fled!
(j) Answer: No matter why he fled, there is no Chidush!
1. If he feared for his life, obviously Reuven is not
believed! (Since Shimon was afraid to protest,
uncontested use of the field is not a Chazakah.)
2. If he fled for monetary concerns, he should have
protested! We hold that a protest not in front of
the Machazik (the one who claims that he bought it)
is a good protest. (Shimon has a Chazakah, so
obviously, he is believed!)
i. (Mishnah): There are three regions in Eretz
Yisrael regarding Chazakah: Yehudah, the other
(east) side of the Jordan River, and Galil. A
Chazakah is valid only if the Machazik was in
the same region.
ii. Question: If the Tana does not require a
protest to be in front of the Machazik, a
Chazakah should be valid even if they are in
different regions! If he requires a protest to
be in front of the Machazik, even if the
Machazik is in the same region, it should not
be a Chazakah if he is in a different city!
iii. Answer (R. Aba bar Mamal): (Normally) he does
not require a protest to be in front of the
Machazik. The Mishnah discusses when there is a
Cherem (people are not allowed to travel from
one region to the other, so word does not
iv. Question: If so, why does the Mishnah discuss
Yehudah and Galil? (It should discuss regions
with a Cherem between them!)
v. Answer: Our Mishnah teaches that we assume that
there is a Cherem between Yehudah and Galil.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Kesuvos