1)

CHILDREN WHO CONVERT

(a)

(Mishnah): If a girl converted, was redeemed from captivity, or (was a Kena'ani slave and) was freed, if she was at most three years old at the time, (when she marries) her Kesuvah is 200. There is Ta'anas Besulim.

(b)

(Gemara - Rav Huna): If a minor wants to convert, we immerse him (in a Mikvah to convert him) on the volition of Beis Din.

(c)

Question: Does Rav Huna come to teach that Zachin l'Adam she'Lo b'Fanav (we may do something purely beneficial for a person in his absence)? A Mishnah explicitly teaches this!

1.

(Mishnah): Zachin l'Adam she'Lo b'Fanav, but we cannot do something detrimental to a person in his absence.

(d)

Answer: We might have thought that conversion is not Zechus for a Nochri, for he prefers immorality. We hold that a slave prefers immorality!

1.

Rav Huna teaches that this applies only to an adult, who has tasted immorality. A child has not, so conversion is Zechus for him.

(e)

Support (Mishnah): If a girl converted... when she was at most three...

1.

Suggestion: She was converted on the volition of Beis Din!

(f)

Rejection: No, she converted with her father. Children are happy with what their father does.

2)

A CHILD CONVERT CAN RENOUNCE THE CONVERSION

(a)

(Rav Yosef): When a child convert grows up, he can renounce the conversion.

(b)

Question (Abaye - Mishnah): If a girl converted before three years, her Kesuvah is 200.

1.

If she can renounce the conversion, would we give to her a Kesuvah?! She might return to being a Nochris and keep the money!

(c)

Answer: We do not give to her the Kesuvah until she grows up.

(d)

Question: Still, she may renounce the conversion after she receives the Kesuvah!

(e)

Answer: If she does not renounce it the moment she matures, she cannot renounce it later.

(f)

Question (Rava - Mishnah): If a man rapes a girl who converted before the age of three, he pays her a fine.

1.

If she can renounce the conversion, would we give to her a fine?! She might return to being a Nochris and keep the money!

(g)

Answer: We do not give to her the fine until she grows up.

(h)

Question: Still, she may renounce the conversion after she receives the fine!

(i)

Answer: If she does not renounce it the moment she grows up, she cannot renounce it later.

(j)

Abaye did not ask Rava's question. He understood that we fine a rapist (even though she may renounce the conversion) to punish him for his sin.

(k)

Rava did not ask Abaye's question. He understood that she has a Kesuvah (even though she may renounce the conversion) lest it be light in her husband's eyes to divorce her.

3)

MUKAS ETZ

(a)

(Mishnah - R. Meir): The Kesuvah of the following is 200:

1.

A girl less than three years old who had Bi'ah with a boy above nine, a girl above three who had Bi'ah with a boy below nine, and a Mukas Etz;

(b)

Chachamim say, the Kesuvah of a Mukas Etz is 100.

(c)

If a Besulah was widowed, divorced, or had Chalitzah after Nisu'in, her Kesuvah is 100. There is no Ta'anas Besulim.

11b----------------------------------------11b

(d)

If a girl above three converted, was redeemed from captivity, or was freed, her Kesuvah is 100. There is no Ta'anas Besulim.

(e)

Version #1 (Gemara - Rav Yehudah citing Rav): If a Katan (less than nine) had Bi'ah with a girl above three, she becomes a Mukas Etz.

(f)

(Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): Whatever is not considered Bi'ah does not give her the status of Mukas Etz.

(g)

Version #2: The opinions of Rav and Shmuel were taught Stam (Rav Yehudah did not cite them). (end of Version #2)

(h)

Question (Rav Oshaya): Our Mishnah lists separately a boy below nine who had Bi'ah with a girl above three and a Mukas Etz!

(i)

Answer (Rava): Read the Mishnah thusly: if a boy above nine years that had Bi'ah with a girl less than three does not affect anything;

1.

This is like sticking a finger in the eye - it causes it to tear, and the tears are replaced;

2.

If a boy below nine had Bi'ah with a girl above three, he makes her a Mukas Etz:

3.

R. Meir and Chachamim argue about the Kesuvah of a Mukas Etz.

4)

THE ARGUMENT IN THE MISHNAH

(a)

(Rami bar Chama): If the Chasan did not know at the time of Chupah that she is a Mukas Etz, the Tana'im agree that she does not get any Kesuvah. The Tana'im argue about only when he knew that she is a Mukas Etz;

1.

R. Meir considers a Mukas Etz to be like a Bogeres (a girl who became a Na'arah more than six months ago; her Besulim can fall out by themselves). Chachamim consider her to be like a non-virgin.

2.

R. Meir does not consider her to be a non-virgin, since no action was done to her by man.

3.

Chachamim do not consider her to be a Bogeres, since an action was done to her.

(b)

Question (Rav Nachman - Mishnah - R. Gamliel and R. Eliezer): If she claims that she is a Mukas Etz, and he claims that she had Bi'ah, she is believed.

1.

(Even though he did not know, she receives a Kesuvah. Rami bar Chama is refuted.)

(c)

(Rava): R. Meir says that whether or not he knew that she is a Mukas Etz, her Kesuvah is 200. Chachamim say that if he knew, she receives 100; if not, she receives nothing.

(d)

Rava retracted from this, as we will explain.

(e)

(Beraisa): The case of Motzi Shem Ra is that he comes to Beis Din and says 'Ploni, I did not find Besulim in your daughter.' If witnesses say that she had Bi'ah during Eirusin, her Kesuvah is 100.

(f)

Objection: If there are witnesses, she is stoned for adultery!

(g)

Correction: Rather, if there are witnesses that she had Bi'ah during Eirusin, she is stoned. If she had Bi'ah before Eirusin, her Kesuvah is 100.

(h)

(R. Chiya bar Avin): This shows that if a Kalah claimed to be a virgin and was found not to be a virgin, her Kesuvah is 100.

(i)

Question (Rav Nachman - Mishnah): A Chasan did not find Besulim. She claims that she was raped after Kidushin, i.e. his field was flooded (it is his bad fortune). He claims that (perhaps) it happened before Kidushin, so it was a Mekach (Kidushei) Ta'us ...

1.

(If his claim is true,) his Kidushin was a mistake so she has no Kesuvah!

(j)

Answer (R. Chiya bar Avin citing Rav Amram and the greatest sages of the generation): It was a Mekach Ta'us, i.e. the Kesuvah is not 200, rather it is 100!

(k)

Rejection (Rava): This is not a proper answer. Mekach Ta'us connotes that it is totally invalid!

(l)

Question: If so, this contradicts the Beraisa, which says that (if there are witnesses) she receives 100!

(m)

Answer: We needed to correct the Beraisa. We can correct it to read 'If there are witnesses that she had Bi'ah during Eirusin, she is stoned. If she had Bi'ah before Eirusin, she receives nothing. If she is a Mukas Etz, she receives 100.

(n)

Question: Rava said that if she is found to be a Mukas Etz, Chachamim say that she receives nothing!

(o)

Answer: Rava retracted from that.

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