BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
KESUVOS 104 - 110 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.
[105a - 45 lines; 105b - 50 lines]
1a) [line 1] TISHAVA BA'SOF - (lit. she takes an oath at the end) when she hears that her husband has passed away or when he sends her a Get to divorce her, she must take an oath attesting that she has not taken any of her husband's money unjustly before she can collect her Kesuvah
b) [line 1] V'LO SISHAVA BI'TECHILAH - but she does not take an oath when she asks to receive money for food (lit. at the onset. However, she may not ask for money within the first three months of her husband's departure, since there is a Chazakah that a person who travels abroad leaves enough provisions in his house for at least three months -- Kesuvos 107a)
2) [line 9] D'CHASHIV LEI KETANI - the Mishnah listed (a) the two most important judges; (b) the two judges who are mentioned below in the Mishnah (TOSFOS DH d'Chashiv)
3) [line 12] KITMAH NETI'AH - an animal that cut down a sapling
4) [line 24] TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH
(a) Every year, one half a Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Yoma 55:7, "Shekalim").
(b) At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)
(c) There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).
(d) The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh. The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).
5) [line 25] LO SAFKU - if it did not suffice to buy their food (The 99 Maneh were the wages for the three Batei Dinim of Admon, Chanan ha'Mitzri and Chanan ben Avishalom. Each Beis Din consisted of 23 judges. As such, each judge received approximately 143 Zuzim. -- MAHARSHA)
6) [line 26] ISTIRA MI'ZAKAI V'ISTIRA ME'CHAYAV - a Sela Medinah (a Sela of Kesef Medinah, provincial coinage, the value of which is one-eighth of Kesef Tzuri, the denominations of coins used in Tzor) from the litigant who was acquitted and a Sela Medinah from the litigant who was found guilty
7) [line 28] L'ATZLUYEI DINA - to tip the judgement [in favor of one of them]
8) [line 32] AGRA - wage
9a) [line 34] AGAR DINA - the wage for judging
b) [line 34] AGAR BETEILA - the wage for being idle from work [at the time that he is in judgment]
10) [line 34] MECHU'AR - repulsive, disgusting
11) [line 37] BETEILA D'LO MUCHECHA - idleness that is not evident
12) [line 37] TAHI B'AMBARA D'CHAMRA - would sniff stores of wine [to see which wine was about to spoil]
13) [line 39] D'DALI LI B'CHARIKAI - who will draw water [and water my fields] in my place
14) [line 40] SEMUYOS - blind
15) [line 2] TEIRUF DA'AS - confusion, befuddlement of the mind
16) [line 4] "MELECH B'MISHPAT YA'AMID ERETZ V'ISH TERUMOS YEHERSENAH." - "The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts destroys it." (Mishlei 29:4)
17) [line 6] SHE'MECHAZER AL HA'GERANOS - who walks from one threshing floor to another
18) [line 8] D'SHA'IL SHE'EILTA - who [regularly] borrows [animals and utensils]
19) [line 9] D'LEIS LEI L'OSHOLEI - who does not have anything to lend
20) [line 12] L'ACHSHUVINHU HU D'BAI - he wanted to give them prominence
21) [line 14] IKARVA LEI DA'ATEI L'GABEI - he becomes close to him
22) [line 16] SHE'HU CHAD - that it is one, i.e. it makes the giver and receiver into one person
23) [line 19] TZURBA - a young Talmid Chacham
24) [line 20] D'MERACHAMIN LEI BENEI MASA - who is well-liked by the people of his city
25) [line 21] D'MA'ALI TEFEI - that he is very upstanding or righteous
26) [line 21] D'LO MOCHACH LEHU B'MILEI DI'SHEMAYA - he does not rebuke them in spiritual matters
27) [line 22] MINAIHU SANU LI - some of them hate me [because I passed judgement against them]
28) [line 24] IM MERACHEM, KULHU RACHAMU LI - if any of them like me, then they all like me
29) [line 26] HAVAH AVAR B'MAVRA - was crossing a bridge
30) [line 28] PARACH GADFA A'REISHEI - a feather flew on his head
31) [line 30] HAVAH SHADI RUKA KAMEI - spittle was lying on the ground in front of him
32) [line 30] KASYEI - he covered it
33) [line 32] ARISEI - his sharecropper
34) [line 32] KANTA D'FEIREI - a basket of fruits
35) [line 35] ZUZA D'RABANAN - a pair of scholars
36) [line 35] BAHADI D'KA'AZIL V'ASI - while he was walking back and forth
37) [line 35] AMAR, IY BA'I TA'IN HACHI - he said to himself, if he wants he could claim like this
38) [line 36] TIPACH NAFSHAM - May their souls rot! Woe unto them!
39) [line 38] REISHIS HA'GEZ
(a) Every time a flock of sheep is shorn, it is a Mitzvas Aseh to give the first shearings to a Kohen, as stated in Devarim (18:4), "v'Reishis Gez Tzoncha Titen Lo." Although the Mishnah (Chulin 135a) states that this Mitzvah applies both in Eretz Yisrael and in Chutz la'Aretz, the Halachah follows the ruling of Rebbi Ila'i (ibid. 136b, Berachos 22a) who rules that the Mitzvah applies only in Eretz Yisrael (Rambam Hilchos Bikurim ch. 10).
(b) The owner is obligated to give the first shearings to the Kohen only when a minimum amount of fleece is shorn from a minimum number of sheep. The minimum number of sheep is two according to Beis Shamai and five according to Beis Hillel. The Halachah follows Beis Hillel (Chulin 135a). The minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn from each of the five sheep is the amount of fleece that weighs a "Maneh u'Feras" (a Maneh and a half) according to Rebbi Dosa ben Harkinas (ibid.). (A Maneh is one hundred silver Dinerin, each one of which occupies the volume of 96 grains of barley -- Kidushin 12a.) As such, the total minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn according to Rebbi Dosa is 750 silver Dinerin. According to the Rabanan, the weight of twelve Sela'im must be shorn from each sheep, for a total of 60 Sela'im (i.e. 240 Dinerin), according to Shmuel, who holds the Halachic opinion -- Chulin 137b. Rav maintains that according to the Rabanan the wool of all five animals must weigh 150 Dinerin.
(c) After all of one's sheep are shorn, one must give to the Kohen one-sixtieth of all of the shearings, whether it is a lot or a little (as long as the minimum required amount is fulfilled, as mentioned above). When one gives the wool to the Kohanim, he must not give less than the weight of five Shekalim (ten Dinerin) of wool to each Kohen, which is the amount that suffices to make a belt (Chulin 138a).
40) [line 38] MI'DUCH PELAN - from such-and-such a place
41) [line 44] GILDANEI D'VEI GILEI - very small fish
42) [line 45] DINA D'MAR LO BA'INA - I do not need the master to judge me
43) [line 45] D'LO L'MAN'AN MAR ME'AKRUVEI BIKURIM - that the master should not prevent me from bringing Bikurim
44) [line 47] "V'CHARMEL B'TZILKONO" - "And there came a man from Ba'al-Shalisha, and brought the man of HaSh-m bread of the first fruits, twenty loaves of barley, and fresh ears of grain in its husk. And he said, 'Give to the people, that they may eat.'" (Melachim II 4:42)
45) [last line] HAVAH KA'IM DINA D'YASMEI KAMEI - there was a case in which one side was litigants who were orphans, that was waiting for him to judge
Index to Background for Maseches Kesuvos