1)

(a)Based on the Pasuk "Isheh Re'ach Nicho'ach la'Hashem, another Beraisa suggests that a Ger should be able to bring a Minchah (for the reason that we just explained). How does the Tana reject this suggestion, based on the Pasuk "Ka'asher Ta'asu Kein Ya'aseh"?

(b)And what does he learn from the word "Kachem" (in the Pasuk there "Kachem ka'Ger Yih'yeh lachem")?

(c)What does Rebbi Darshen from "Kachem ka'Ger .... "? Which three things did Yisrael have to undergo before they received the Torah?

1)

(a)Based on the Pasuk "Isheh Re'ach Nicho'ach la'Hashem, another Beraisa suggests that a Ger should be able to bring a Minchah (for the reason that we just explained). The Tana rejects this suggestion however, based on the Pasuk "Ka'asher Ta'asu Kein Ya'aseh" - and Yisrael entered into the B'ris with Korb'nos Dam (as we just learned).

(b)And he learns from the word "Kachem" (in the Pasuk there "Kachem ka'Ger Yih'yeh lachem") - that the Hekesh is only partial, and that the Ger does not therefore require a Shelamim in addition to an Olah.

(c)Rebbi Darshens from "Kachem ka'Ger .... " - that just as Yisrael had to undergo Milah, Tevilah and Hartza'as Damim (the atonement of Korbanos) before they received the Torah, so too does a Ger.

2)

(a)On what grounds does Rebbi reject the suggestion that one bird will suffice for the Ger's Korban?

(b)What do we learn from the word "ve'Hikrivo" (in the Pasuk in Vayikra [in connection with Olas ha'Of di'Nedavah] "Vehikrivo ha'Kohen el ha'Mizbe'ach")?

(c)How do we reconcile this with the previous statement?

(d)How about a Yoledes, who brings only one dove or pigeon?

2)

(a)Rebbi rejects the suggestion that one bird will suffice for the Ger's Korban - on the grounds that we never find one bird being brought on its own.

(b)We learn from the the word "ve'Hikrivo" (in the Pasuk in Vayikra [in connection with Olas ha'Of of a Nedavah] "Vehikrivo ha'Kohen el ha'Mizbe'ach") - that an Olas ha'Of di'Nedavah can consist of one bird.

(c)We reconcile this with the previous statement by restricting the current D'rashah to a Nedavah. We do not find it by a Korban Chovah.

(d)A Yoledes, who brings only one dove or pigeon as a Chatas, is not a problem either - since it is not brought alone, but together with a lamb.

3)

(a)How do we know that before Matan Torah, Yisrael had to undergo ...

1. ... Milah?

2. ... Hartza'as Damim?

3. ... Tevilah (based on the Pasuk in Mishpatim (with reference to Haza'ah) "Vayikach Moshe Chatzi ha'Dam ... "?

(b)What does Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learn from the Pasuk in Sh'lach-l'cha "ve'Chi Yagur Itchem Ger ... O Asher be'Sochechem le'Doroseichem"?

(c)What does the Beraisa expect a Ger nowadays to do about his Korban?

(d)On what grounds did Rebbi Shimon quoting Raban Yochanan ben Zakai, negate it?

3)

(a)We know that before Matan Torah, Yisrael had to undergo ...

1. ... Milah - from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "Ki Mulim Hayu Kol ha'Am ha'Yotz'im mi'Mitzrayim" [or from the Pasuk in Yechezkel "va'E'evor Alayich va'Er'ech Misboseses be'Demayich ... "]).

2. ... Hartza'as Damim - from the Pasuk in Mishpatim "va'Yishlach es Na'arei B'nei Yisrael va'Ya'alu Olos ... ".

3. ... Tevilah (based on the Pasuk there) "Vayikach Moshe Chatzi ha'Dam ... " because every Haza'ah requires Tevilah.

(b)Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learns from the Pasuk in Sh'lach-l'cha "ve'Chi Yagur Itchem Ger ... O Asher be'Sochechem le'Doroseichem" - that a Ger is acceptable nowadays, even though he cannot bring a Korban.

(c)The Beraisa expects a Ger nowadays - to set aside half a Dinar for his Korban, which he will bring after the Beis-Hamikdash is rebuilt.

(d)Rebbi Shimon quoting Raban Yochanan ben Zakai, negated it - because of 'Takalah' (the likelihood that he will inadvertently use the money).

4)

(a)Like which Tana does Rav Idi bar Gershom Amar Rav Ada bar Ahavah rule?

(b)Others cite this ruling with regard to the Beraisa, which discusses a Ger Toshav doing Melachah (for himself) on Shabbos. What is a Ger Toshav?

(c)The Tana Kama permits him to do the type of Melachos that a Yisrael may do on Chol ha'Mo'ed (i.e. whatever entails a loss). What does Rebbi Akiva say?

(d)Rebbi Yossi permits him to do even what a Yisrael is permitted to do on a regular weekday. To whom does Rebbi Shimon (like whom Rav Ada bar Ahavah rules) extend this ruling?

4)

(a)Rav Idi bar Gershom Amar Rav Ada bar Ahavah rules - like Rebbi Shimon.

(b)Others cite this ruling with regard to the Beraisa, which discusses a Ger Toshav - who undertakes not to worship idols (like Na'aman, captain of the Syrian army), doing Melachah (for himself) on Shabbos.

(c)The Tana Kama permits him to do the type of Melachos that a Yisrael may do on Chol ha'Mo'ed (i.e. whatever entails a loss) - Rebbi Akiva permits only those Melachos that a Yisrael may perform on Yom-Tov (i.e. Ochel Nefesh).

(d)Rebbi Yossi permits him to do even what a Yisrael is permitted to do on a regular weekday. And Rebbi Shimon (like whom Rav Ada bar Ahavah rules) extends this ruling - to (a Nochri), an Eved and an Amah who dwell with us (See Hashmatos Shitah Mekubetzes).

5)

(a)Our Mishnah lists the four people who bring a Korban for Meizid as well as for Shogeg. The first two are 'Ba al Shifchah Charufah' and 'Nazir she'Nitma'. What are the last two?

(b)Which Korban do both someone who has relations with a Shifchah Charufah and 'Shevu'as ha'Pikadon' bring?

(c)What does 'Shevu'as ha'Eidus' bring?

(d)In what respect does the Tana list 'Ba al Shifchah Bi'os Harbeh' and 'Nazir she'Nitma Tum'os Harbeh'? What do they have in common?

5)

(a)Our Mishnah lists the four people who bring a Korban for Meizid as well as for Shogeg: 'Ba al Shifchah Charufah' and 'Nazir she'Nitma' - 'Shevu'as ha'Eidus' and 'Shevu'as ha'Pikadon'.

(b)'Ba al Shifchah Charufah' and 'Shevu'as ha'Pikadon' both bring - an Asham.

(c)'Shevu'as ha'Eidus' brings - a Korban Oleh ve'Yored.

(d)The Tana lists 'Ba al Shifchah Bi'os Harbeh' and 'Nazir she'Nitma Tum'os Harbeh' in that - they both bring one Korban to cover many transgressions.

6)

(a)What do we learn from the words "asher Chata" (in the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos (in connection with a Shifchah Charufah) ...

1. ... "ve'Chiper alav ha'Kohen be'Eil ha'Asham ... al Chataso asher Chata"?

2. ... "ve'Nislach lo al Chataso asher Chata"?

(b)We will query this shortly from the fact that the Pasuk refers to Meizid, and not Shogeg. How will we therefore amend this answer?

(c)The Torah writes in Naso (in connection with a Nazir Tamei) "ve'Chi Yamus Meis alav be'Fesa Pis'om". How do we interpret ...

1. ... "be'Fesa" (based on the Pasuk [in Mas'ei, in connection with the cities of refuge "Im be'Fesa be'Lo Eivah Hadafo"])?

2. ... "Pis'om" (based on the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha [in connection with the Lashon ha'Ra that Miriam spoke about Moshe] "Vayomer Hash-m Pis'om el Moshe"?

(d)What additional interpretation of "Pis'om" does a second Beraisa (based on the Pasuk in Mishlei "u'Fesa'im Avru ve'Ne'enshu")?

(e)As a matter of fact, Pis'om itself implies Shogeg too, as we prove from another Pasuk in Mishlei (thereby incorporating all three meanings). Then why does the Pasuk find it necessary to insert "be'Fesa"?

6)

(a)We learn from the words "asher Chata" (in the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos (in connection with a Shifchah Charufah) ...

1. ... "ve'Chiper alav ha'Kohen be'Eil ha'Asham ... al Chataso asher Chata" - that someone who has relations with a Shifchah Charufah many times needs to bring only one Korban (even if each one is a different He'elam).

2. ... "ve'Nislach lo al Chataso asher Chata" - that an Asham Shifchah Charufah is brought for Meizid as well as for Shogeg.

(b)We will query this shortly from the fact that the Pasuk refers to Meizid, not Shogeg, and we will amend this answer to - 'an Asham Shifchah Charufah is brought for Shogeg as well as for Meizid.

(c)The Torah writes in Naso (in connection with a Nazir Tamei) "ve'Chi Yamus Meis alav be'Fesa Poi'om". We interpret ...

1. ... "be'Fesa" (based on the Pasuk in connection with the cities of refuge "Im be'Fesa be'Lo Eivah Hadafo") to mean - be'Shogeg.

2. ... "Pis'om" (based on the Pasuk in connection with the Lashon ha'Ra that Miriam spoke about Moshe "Vayomer Hash-m Pis'om el Moshe") to mean - be'Oneis.

(d)A second Beraisa (based on the Pasuk in Mishlei "u'Fesa'im Avru ve'Ne'enshu") also interprets "Pis'om" as - Meizid.

(e)As a matter of fact, Pis'om itself implies Shogeg too, as we prove from another Pasuk in Mishlei (thereby incorporating all three meanings). Nevertheless, the Pasuk finds it necessary to insert "be'Fesa" - because otherwise, we would have confined it to 'Shogeg', since the majority of Korbanos come to atone for a Shogeg.

7)

(a)What do we learn from the fact that the Torah omits the word "ve'Ne'elam" in connection with Shevu'as ha'Eidus?

(b)Does this mean that the Torah write "ve'Ne'elam" in connection with all Chayvei Chata'os?

(c)And what do we learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Secheta" (Shevu'as ha'Eidus) "Secheta" (Shevu'as ha'Pikadon)?

7)

(a)From the fact that the Torah omits the word "ve'Ne'elam" in connection with Shevu'as ha'Eidus, we learn - that it is subject to a Chatas be'Meizid too.

(b)This does not mean that the Torah writes "ve'Ne'elam" in connection with all Chayvei Chata'os - but that it does throughout the Parshah of Korban Oleh ve'Yored, where Shevu'as ha'Eidus is written.

(c)And from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Secheta" (Shevu'as ha'Eidus) "Secheta" (Shevu'as ha'Pikadon) we learn - that Shevu'as ha'Pikadon too is subject to a Chatas be'Meizid

8)

(a)Rebbi Chanina Tirna'a asked Rebbi Yochanan how many Korbanos a person must bring for having relations with five Shifchos Charufos, but in one He'elam. What did he answer?

(b)And what did he answer when Rebbi Chanina Tirna'a queried him from five Ha'alamos on one Shifchah (our Mishnah), which is only Chayav one Korban?

(c)And he took his cue from Arayos. What do we learn from the word/s ...

1. ... "Ishah" (in the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos [in connection with Arayos] "ve'el Ishah be'Nidas Tum'asah ... ")?

2. ... "ve'Hi Shifchah" (in the Pasuk in Kedoshim ("ve'Ish asher Yshkav es Ishah ... "ve'Hi Shifchah Necherefes le'Ish"?

8)

(a)Rebbi Chanina Tirna'a asked Rebbi Yochanan how many Korbanos a person must bring for having relations with five Shifchos Charufos, but in one He'elam, to which he answered - 'five'.

(b)When Rebbi Chanina Tirna'a queried him from five Ha'alamos on one Shifchah (our Mishnah), which is only Chayav one Korban - he answered that five bodies is worse than five Ha'alamos.

(c)And he took his cue from Arayos. We learn from ...

1. ... the word "Ishah" (in the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos [in connection with Arayos] "ve'el Ishah be'Nidas Tum'asah ... ") - that in all cases of adultery (and incest) one is Chayav for each woman (even though they are all in one Ha'alamah).

2. ... "ve'Hi Shifchah" (cited above) - that one is Chayav for each Shifchah.

9b----------------------------------------9b

9)

(a)Our Mishnah includes in the list of one Korban for many Tum'os, 'Nazir she'Nitma', which we already discussed above in the first Perek. And we establish the Mishnah like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah. What will then be the case?

(b)Why can the author not be Rebbi, assuming the subsequent Tum'os took place on ...

1. ... the seventh day?

2. ... on the eighth day?

(c)The source of their Machlokes lies in a Beraisa which discusses the Pasuk in Naso (in connection with a Nazir who becomes Tamei) "ve'Kadash es Rosho ba'Yom ha'Hu". Rebbi comments 'be'Yom Hava'as Korb'nosav'. What does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah say?

9)

(a)Our Mishnah includes in the list of one Korban for many Tum'os, 'Nazir she'Nitma', which we already discussed above in the first Perek. And we establish the Mishnah like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah - who says that Nezirus de'Taharah begins on the seventh day (after his hair has been shaven) and the Mishnah speaks when he became Tamei twice after that

(b)The author cannot be Rebbi, because assuming the subsequent Tum'os took place on ...

1. ... the seventh day - because according to him, the Nezirus de'Taharah begins only on the eighth day.

2. ... on the eighth day - because, seeing as the time to bring the Korban had already arrived, he will be Chayav another Korban for the new Tum'ah.

(c)The source of their Machlokes lies in a Beraisa which discusses the Pasuk in Naso (in connection with a Nazir who becomes Tamei) "ve'Kadash es Rosho ba'Yom ha'Hu". Rebbi comments 'be'Yom Hava'as Korb'nosav', whereas Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah explains - 'be'Yom Tiglachto'.

10)

(a)The third case discussed in the Mishnah of someone who is Chayav one Korban for many transgressions is a man who warns his wife through a number of witnesses not to seclude herself with a specific man. Which Korban is the Tana referring to?

(b)And the fourth case is a Meztora who has been stricken a number of times. What exactly is the case?

(c)What does the Tana Kama say in a case where the subsequent bouts of Tzara'as take place after he has brought the two birds?

(d)What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

10)

(a)The third case discussed in the Mishnah of someone who is Chayav one Korban for many transgressions is a man who warns his wife through a number of witnesses not to seclude herself with a specific man. And the Korban referred to by the Tana is - the Minchas Kena'os (consisting of barley) that is brought by the husband.

(b)And the fourth case is a Metzora who has been stricken a number of times. The exact case is - where after counting seven days, he is stricken again before he has managed to bring his Korbanos on the eighth, and this repeats itself a number of times.

(c)In a case where the subsequent bouts of Tzara'as take place after he has brought the two birds, the Tana Kama rules - that if this occurs up to the time that he has brought his Chatas, he still brings one Korban.

(d)According to Rebbi Yehudah - it is the bringing of the Asham that divides the Korbanos.

11)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Naso "Zos Toras ha'Kena'os" regarding the Korban of a Sotah)?

2. ... in Metzora "Zos Toras ha'Metzora"?

(b)What problem do we have with our Mishnah, which states 'Heivi Tziparin ve'Nisnaga, Lo Alu lo ad she'Yavi Chataso'?

(c)So we amend it to read 'Heivi Tziparin ve'Nisnaga, Ein Meivi Ela Korban Echad'. In what connection does the Mishnah then mention the Chatas, according to the Tana Kama, and the Asham, according to Rebbi Yehudah?

11)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Naso "Zos Toras ha'Kena'os" (regarding the Korban of a Sotah) - that sometimes a Sotah brings one Chatas for many warnings.

2. ... in Metzora "Zos Toras ha'Metzora" - that the same applies to the Korban of a Metzora.

(b)The problem with our Mishnah, which states 'Heivi Tziparin ve'Nisnaga, Lo Alu lo ad she'Yavi Chataso' - is that it implies that the Metzora is obligated to bring the two birds for each plague, whereas we learned earlier that all the plagues are considered one extended Tzara'as.

(c)So we amend it to read 'Heivi Tziparin ve'Nisnaga, Ein Meivi Ela Korban Echad'. And the Mishnah mention the Chatas, according to the Tana Kama, and the Asham, according to Rebbi Yehudah - to determine whether he has to bring the Korban of a Metzora Ani or of a Metzora Ashir.

(d)This means that if he changes his status between the time he became a Metzora and the time he brings his Korban, then his Korban change accordingly (even if he already brought the birds) as long as he has not brought, either the Chatas or the Asham (as we will now explain).

(d)What exactly does this mean?

12)

(a)We learned in a Mishnah in Nega'im 'Metzora she'Heivi Ashamo ve'He'eshir, ha'Kol Holech Achar Chatas, Divrei Rebbi Shimon'. What does ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah say?

2. ... Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov (in a Beraisa) say?

(b)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, they all derive their opinions from the same Pasuk " ... asher Lo Tasig Yado be'Taharaso". What is the basic meaning of the Pasuk?

(c)Rebbi Shimon extrapolates 'Davar ha'Mechapro, and Rebbi Yehudah 'Davar ha'Machshiro'. What does Rebbi Yehudah mean by that?

(d)And what does Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov then mean when he says 'Davar ha'Gorem lo Taharah'?

12)

(a)We learned in a Mishnah in Nega'im 'Metzora she'Heivi Ashamo ve'He'eshir, ha'Kol Holech Achar Chatas, Divrei Rebbi Shimon' ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah says - 'ha'Kol Holech Achar Asham.

2. ... Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov (in a Beraisa) says - ha'Kol Holech Achar Tziporin.

(b)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, they all derive their opinions from the same Pasuk "... asher Lo Tasig Yado be'Taharaso", which basically means - that he brings the Korban Metzoro of a poor man even though he has now become rich.

(c)Rebbi Shimon extrapolates 'Davar ha'Mechapro, and Rebbi Yehudah 'Davar ha'Machshiro' - by which he means the Asham, which permits him to eat Kodshim.

(d)And when Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov says 'Davar ha'Gorem lo Taharah' - he means the birds, because the sprinkling of their blood begins the Metzora's purification process.

13)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses a woman who miscarries one baby girl after the other, within the eighty days of Taharah of the previous one. After how many days must each one have been born?

(b)What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(c)What is his reason? Why is she not Tamei for the second and fourth babies?

(d)He adds 've'Chein Te'omim'. How is this possible even by baby boys? How many babies must the woman have miscarried?

13)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses a woman who miscarries one baby girl after the other, within the eighty days of Taharah of the previous one. Each miscarriage must have taken place at least fifty-four days after the previous one (fourteen days of Tum'ah and forty days for the baby to form).

(b)Rebbi Yehudah rules - that she must bring a Korban for the first and the third babies, but not for the second and the fourth ...

(c)... because the latter were born within the M'los of the first and the third babies respectively (whereas the third was not born within the M'los of the second).

(d)He adds 've'Chein Te'omim' - which is possible even in the case of boys, where she became pregnant with triplets, had her first miscarriage after forty days, the second one within the forty days of the first one, and the third one within the forty days of the second one, where, like in the previous case, the second Leidah is not counted.

14)

(a)What does the Tana Kama of our Mishnah learn from the word "Toras" (in the Pasuk in Tazri'a "Zos Toras ha'Yoledes la'Zachar ve'la'Nekeivah")?

(b)We initially think that "Zos" then comes to preclude 'Yoledes be'Zov' from the concession. What is the case?

(c)On what grounds do we reject even the need for such a D'rashah? To what do we compare it?

(d)So what do we learn from "Zos"?

14)

(a)The Tana Kama of our Mishnah learns from the word "Toras" (in the Pasuk in Tazri'a "Zos Toras ha'Yoledes la'Zachar ve'la'Nekeivah") - that the woman in our Mishnah brings only one Korban.

(b)We initially think that "Zos" then comes to preclude 'Yoledes be'Zov' from the concession - where a woman had three sightings on three consecutive days, and gave birth (not on the fourth day [since the blood would then be Dam Leidah, and not Dam Zivus] but) - on the fifth day.

(c)We reject even the need for such a D'rashah however - by asking whether if she ate blood and gave birth, we would also need a Pasuk to teach us that she must bring two Korbanos.

(d)So we conclude that - "Zos" comes to obligate two Korbanos, there where the second baby is born after the M'los of a baby girl (i.e. on the eighty-first day).

15)

(a)We suggest that, according to Rebbi Yehudah, the first birth determines the Korban, and we also count the days to M'los from it. How do we know ...

1. ... the first ruling?

2. ... the second ruling?

(b)And what do the Rabbanan say?

(c)What problem do we have with this explanation?

(d)And we answer that we might otherwise have thought that Rebbi Yehudah will concede by the case of twins that we count from the second and third Leidos too. Why is that?

15)

(a)We suggest that according to Rebbi Yehudah, the first birth determines the Korban and we also count the days to M'los from it. We learn ...

1. ... the first ruling, because otherwise, why does the second birth not have a M'los?

2. ... the second ruling, because otherwise, the third birth would not require a Korban, because it would be within the M'los of the second one.

(b)According to the Rabbanan, on the other hand - it is the second birth that determines the Korban and we also count the days to M'los from it.

(c)The problem with this explanation is - that this seems such an obvious explanation that it does not need to be mentioned.

(d)And we answer that we might otherwise have thought that Rebbi Yehudah will concede by the case of twins that we count from the second and third Leidos too - because since the pregnancies were simultaneous, even he ought to agree that it is like one extended birth, and that we will therefore reckon the M'los of all the births (and bring only one Korban at the end).

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