KERISUS 27 (23 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. Avy Reichman of Queens, NY, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Dovid ben Avraham, for the day of his Yahrzeit.

[27a - 51 lines; 27b - 50 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 27a [line 2]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #1

[2] Gemara 27a [line 3]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #2

[3] Gemara [line 37]:

"DA"R (the letters Dalet, Alef, Reish) Yochanan"דא"ר יוחנן

This is an abbreviation for "d'Amrah Rebbi Yochanan" דאמרה רבי יוחנן

[4] Gemara [line 43]:

"Kedushas Damim Madcheh קדושת דמים מדחה

Rashi's Girsa is "Dichuy me'Ikara Havah Dichuy" דיחוי מעיקרא הוה דיחוי

[5] Gemara [line 45]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #20

[6] Rashi 27a DH d'Ha Chaser Lei ד"ה דהא חסר ליה:

The words "she'Hotzi'u" שהוציאו

should be "she'Hotzi" שהוציא

[7] Rashi DH v'Einah Kereivah ד"ה ואינה קרבה:

The words "Lo Hayesah Re'uyah" לא היתה ראויה

should be "v'Lo Hayesah Re'uyah" ולא היתה ראויה

[8] Rashi DH Shema Minah Telas ד"ה שמע מינה תלת:

The words "Keivan d'Amar" כיון דאמר

should be "Keivan d'Amrinan" כיון דאמרינן

[9] Gemara 27b [line 26]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6

[10] Gemara 27b [line 29]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10

[11] Gemara [line 41]:

The words "Nechalinun Al Of d'Naisi Of" נחלינון על עוף דנייתי עוף

should be "Nechalinun Al Of v'Naisi Of" נחלינון על עוף ונייתי עוף

[12] Gemara [line 48]:

Hagahos ha'Bach #2

It appears that there is a mistake here, and that the correct Girsa is as printed in our Gemara

*******************************************************

1)[line 5]בכינוס חומשין, מהו שיתכפר?B'CHINUS CHOMSHIN, MAHU SHE'YISKAPER?- Can a person buy an Asham with money separated as Chomesh payments for different Me'ilos? (see Insights #1)

2)[line 7]אדם מתכפר בשבח הקדשADAM MISKAPER B'SHVACH HEKDESH- a person may fulfill his obligation to bring a Korban with the "increase" of Hekdesh, such as if the animal gives birth or rises in value

3)[line 8]דקטרחקמיהD 'KATARACH KAMEI- he takes care of it

4)[line 17]ושבח דשוי תמניאV'SHAVACH, D'SHAVI TEMANYA- and it increased in value, and is worth eight [Zuzim]

5)[line 20]פטמוPETAMO- and he fattened it

6)[line 22]דהא חסר ליה תמניאD'HA CHASER LEI TEMANYA- he has a loss of eight [Zuzim]

7)[line 27]הא חסר ליה שבעהHA CHASER LEI SHIV'AH- that is, since the person already spent seven Zuzim on his Korban, he should not be required to give Hekdesh an additional Sela (four Zuzim). One more Zuz should suffice.

8)[line 28]תשלום דסלעTASHLUM D'SELA- the amount required in order to complete a full two Sela'im

9)[line 40]בעלי חיים נדחיןBA'ALEI CHAYIM NIDACHIN - animals can become irrevocably rejected (DICHUY: BA'ALEI CHAYIM)

(a)According to the Tana'im and Amora'im who rule Ba'alei Chayim Nidachim, if at one point in time an animal becomes unfit to be sacrificed, it remains unfit forever. The dissenting opinion rules that only Shechutim (slaughtered animals) become irrevocably rejected; under normal circumstances a live animal can regain its status of being fit to be sacrificed even though it once was not fit to be sacrificed (Yoma 64a).

(b)In our Sugya, this refers to a situation in which two partners owned an animal and one of them consecrated his half to Hekdesh. Since half an animal cannot be sacrificed, it is unfit for use and according to Rebbi Yochanan, who rules Ba'alei Chayim Nidachin, the animal becomes irrevocably rejected. Even if the first partner later buys the second half of the animal and consecrates that half as well, it cannot be used as a sacrifice. According to the opinion that rules Ba'alei Chayim Einam Nidachim, if the first partner buys the second half and consecrates it, the animal may be used as a sacrifice.

10)[line 42]תמורהTEMURAH

(a)The Torah prohibits making a Temurah, which is a Chulin animal exchanged for an animal designated as a Korban in an attempt to transfer the Kedushas ha'Guf of the Korban onto a replacement Korban. The verse states, "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not Kodesh], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it will be Kodesh" (Vayikra 27:10). The CHINUCH explains that the reason for the prohibition of Temurah is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #351, #352). (For the definitions of and difference between Kedushas ha'Guf and Kedushas Damim, see Background to Chulin 139:6.)

(b)For example, the Mishnah (Temurah 26b) teaches that a person can make a Temurah by taking two animals, one of which was designated as a Korban, and saying "Zo Tachas Zo" - "This [animal] is instead of this [animal]" or "Zo Temuras Zo" - "This is in place of this" or "Zo Chalifas Zo" - "This is in exchange for this." The second animal, or the Temurah, is usually a valid Korban. If it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).

(c)A person who intentionally makes a Temurah receives Malkus (lashes). Sometimes, even if a person makes a Temurah b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he receives Malkus (see Chart #4 to Temurah 17a). (For a discussion of the difference between Temurah and Chilul (redemption), see Background to Bava Metzia 57:2.)

(d)In the case described in our Sugya, the Temurah may not be offered.

11)[line 43]קדושת דמים מדחהKEDUSHAS DAMIM MADCHEH- an animal whose value is consecrated and not its body may become forever unfit for the Mizbe'ach (see Girsa Section #4, that Rashi's Girsa here is DICHUY ME'IKARA HAVAH DICHUY - even if the animal was unfit at the time it was consecrated, (i.e., there was no moment that it was an acceptable Korban), it becomes Nidcheh (irrevocably rejected — see previous entry). The dissenting opinion rules that an animal becomes Nidcheh only if the animal became unfit after it was once fit to be sacrificed (Sukah 33b).

12)[line 43]יש דיחוי בדמיםYESH DICHUY B'DAMIM- an animal whose value is consecrated and not its body may become forever unfit for the Mizbe'ach

13)[line 45]לא נתנה תורה קצבה במחוסריכפרהL O NASNAH TORAH KITZVAH B'MECHUSAR KAPARAH- the Torah did not fix a minimum price for the sheep brought by those who bring their Korbanos in order to enter the Mikdash and to eat Kodshim (see Background to Kerisus 8:12)

14)[line 50]אשם נזירASHAM NAZIR - the Korban Asham of a Nazir who becomes Tamei (NAZIR)

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.

(b)If an ordinary Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it (see Background to Chulin 29:15) to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings the sacrifices of a Nazir who becomes Tamei and begins counting anew the days of Nezirus that he accepted upon himself. The sacrifices he brings are two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (young common doves), one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. (These Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving that he, and every Nazir, brings upon the completion of his Nezirus.)

(c)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).

15)[line 50]דלבטלה הוא דאתיDEL'VATALAH HU D'ASI- since it comes for no known reason; i.e. not for atonement, and not to enable him to count anew the days of Nezirus

27b----------------------------------------27b

16a)[line 19]סתומיםSETUMIN- unspecified [money]; i.e. money that was set aside for the purchase of a set of Korbanos without designating which Korban would be purchased with which part of the money

b)[line 19]מפורשיןMEFURASHIN- specified [money]; i.e. money that was set aside for the purchase of a set of Korbanos and the person designated which money would be used to buy each one of his Korbanos, the Chatas, the Olah and the Shelamim

17)[line 29]קרבנו על חטאתוKORBANO AL CHATASO- the term "Al Chataso" is written twice with regard to a Korban Chatas; once in the verse dealing with the Chatas of the Kohen Mashi'ach (Vayikra 4:3), and once in the verse dealing with the Chatas of an ordinary individual (ibid. 4:28)

18)[line 32]מביאין מהקדש כשבה שעירהMEVI'IN ME'HEKDESH KISBAH, SE'IRAH- a person can bring a female goat (Se'irah) as a Korban Chatas with money that he had set aside to buy a female sheep (Kisbah) as a Chatas

19)[line 32]תורין ובני יונהTORIN U'VNEI YONAH- the turtle-doves or common doves that one brings as a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Kerisus 22:11) if he is too poor (Dal) to bring a sheep

20)[line 33]עשירית האיפהASIRIS HA'EIFAH- the tenth of an Eifah of fine flour that one brings as a Korban Oleh v'Yored if he is destitute (Dalei Dalus) and cannot even afford two birds

21)[line 41]נחלינון על עוףNECHALINUN AL OF- the money which was originally set aside for buying a sheep or goat may be used to buy bird offerings instead, if he became poor. The Kedushah which was in the money is transferred onto the birds and the money may now be used as regular Chulin money.

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