Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)The Tana Kama discusses the assessment of Karka regarding paying off one's various obligations. With what quality land does one pay ...

1. ... damages?

2. ... one's debts?

3. ... one's wife's Kesubah?

(b)What is the source of the above Din regarding damages?

(c)Seeing as this is mi'd'Oraysa (See Tos.Yom-Tov), what is the Mishnah coming to teach us by inserting it here?

1)

(a)The Tana Kama discusses the assessment of Karka regarding paying off one's various obligations. One pays ...

1. ... damages from 'Idis' (best-quality fields) ...

2. ... one's debts from 'Beinonis' (middle-quality fields) and ...

3. ... one's wife's Kesubah from Ziburis (worst-quality fields).

(b)The source of the above Din regarding damages is - the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Meitav Sadeihu u'Meitav Karmo Yeshalem".

(c)Despite the fact that this is mi'd'Oraysa (See Tos. Yom-Tov), the Mishnah inserts it here (together with the other cases of Tikun ha'Olam), to teach us that, according to this Tana - the Chachamim obligate him to pay from his best-quality fields, even if they are superior to the best-property of the Nizak.

2)

(a)How do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "ve'ha'Ish asher Atah Nosheh bo Yotzi eilecha es he'Avot" that a Ba'al-Chov (a debtor) is only obligated to pay Ziburis?

(b)Why did the Chachamim institute Beinonis? Why is this Takanah known as 'Ne'ilas Deles'?

(c)Then why does the same reasoning not apply to Kesubas Ishah?

(d)With which of the Tana Kama's rulings does Rebbi Meir disagree?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

2)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "ve'ha'Ish asher Atah Nosheh bo Yotzi eilecha es he'Avot" that a Ba'al-Chov (a debtor) is only obligated to pay Ziburis - since a debtor would most likely bring out his worst-quality Keilim to the Shali'ach BeisDin ho is waiting outside.

(b)And the Chachamim instituted Beinonis - to encourage people to lend money to the poor. This Takanah is known as 'Ne'ilas Deles' - because paying off one's debts with poor-quality fields harms potential debtors, by closing the door on obtaining loans.

(c)The same reasoning does not apply to Kesubas Ishah - because, on account of the principle 'More than a man wants to marry, a woman wants to get married', the fact that they receive their Kesuvos from Ziburis will not deter them from marrying (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)Rebbi Meir disagrees - with the last of the Tana Kama's rulings. In his opinion, women too receive their Kesuvos from Beinonis, just like other debtors.

(e)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 2
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3)

(a)What is the definition of Nechasim Meshubadim (with regard to a Ba'al-Chov)?

(b)On what condition does the Mishnah permit the creditor to claim from them?

(c)What if the Nechasim B'nei-Chorin happen to be Ziburis?

(d)What does the Tana say regarding a creditor who claims from Yesomim?

3)

(a)'Nechasim Meshubadim' is - property (fields) that a Ba'al-Chov sells after the debt has taken place.

(b)The Mishnah permits the creditor to claim from them - provided there are no B'nei Chorin (fields that are still in the Ba'al-Chov's domain) ...

(c)... to which the creditor's claim is then restricted - even if they happen to be Ziburis (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(d)The Tana rules that from Yesomim - a creditor may only claim Ziburis.

Mishnah 3
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4)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses claiming Achilas Peiros and Sh'vach Karka'os. What do Achilas Peiros and Sh'vach Karka'os have in common? Who is claiming from whom?

(b)What exactly is ...

1. ... 'Achilas Peiros'?

2. ... 'Sh'vach Karka'os'?

(c)The third item on the current list is Mazon ha'Ishah ve'ha'Banos. What exactly is the Tana referring to?

(d)What does the Mishnah rule in all above cases?

(e)Why is that?

4)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses claiming Achilas Peiros, Sh'vach Karka'os, and Mazon ha'Ishah. What Achilas Peiros and Sh'vach Karka'os have in common is - the fact that in both cases, it is the purchaser from the Gazlan who is now claiming compensation from the Gazlan after the owner retrieved his field..

(b)

1. ... 'Achilas Peiros' is - the fruit and vegetables which the purchaser planted and which the original owner took from him when he took back his field (See Tos. Yom-Tov), whereas ...

2. ... 'Sh'vach Karka'os' - is the improvements in the same field, which the purchaser initiated such as trees that he planted or if he fertilized the field.

(c)The third item on the current list is 'Mazon ha'Ishah ve'ha'Banos' - with reference to the condition that the husband is obligated to insert in the Kesubah, undertaking to sustain from his property after his death, his widow and any daughters that she bore him.

(d)The Mishnah rules in all above cases that - the claimants are not permitted to claim from Nechasim Meshubadim ...

(e)... because, since the amounts are unknown, there is no way that potential purchasers of the debtors' property can safeguard themselves against losing it to the above creditors.

5)

(a)What does the Tana finally say about someone who comes to return a lost article?

(b)What is the case?

(c)What is the reason for this ruling?

(d)What do all the rulings in this Perek to date have in common?

5)

(a)The Tana finally rules that someone who comes to return a lost article - does not need to swear ...

(b)... should the owner claim that he did not return all of it (even against the owner's claim that he only returned part of what he found) ...

(c)... because - if he would not be believed, nobody would ever bother to look after a lost article and return it.

(d)What all the rulings in this Perek to date have in common is that - they all fall under the heading of 'Tikun ha'Olam'.

Mishnah 4
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6)

(a)The Mishnah discusses orphans who relied on a Balabos to guide them or whose father appointed an Apotropus. What is an 'Apotropus'?

(b)What is it the acronym of?

(c)What ruling does the Tana issue regarding Ma'asering their fruit?

6)

(a)The Mishnah discusses orphans who relied on a Balabos to guide them or whose father appointed (See Tos. Yom-Tov) an 'Apotropus' - someone who manages the estate of orphans.

(b)It is the acronym of - the two Latin words 'Pater (father) and 'Putus' (children).

(c)The Tana obligates them both - to Ma'aser the Yesomim's fruit (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

7)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, an Apotropus whom the father appointed must swear to the Yesomim, but not one who has been appointed by the Beis-Din. What must the former swear?

(b)Why specifically the former and not the latter?

(c)What does Aba Shaul say?

(d)What is his reason?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

7)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, an Apotropus whom the father appointed must swear to the Yesomim - that he did not take anything for himself, but not one who has been appointed by the Beis-Din (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(b)... because he only accepted the appointment due to a debt of gratitude toward the father for some favor that he did him, in which case the obligation to swear will not deter him from accepting it, which is not the case by an Apotropus that is appointed by the Beis-Din, who is simply doing the Yesomim a favor.

(c)Aba Shaul says - the opposite ...

(d)... because, unlike an Apotropus appointed by the father, one who is appointed by the Beis-Din will accept the appointment in spite of the oath, sue to the good name that this gives him as being a trustworthy person.

(e)The Halachah is - like Aba Shaul (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

8)

(a)The Mishnah exempts Reuven who is Metamei, Medame'a or Menasech Shimon's food be'Shogeg from paying. What is the definition of ...

1. ... 'Medame'a'?

2. ... 'Menasech'?

(b)What loss does one cause by performing ...

1. ... the former?

2. ... the latter?

(c)Why is he then Patur?

(d)Then why did the Chachamim obligate him to pay if he does it be'Meizid?

8)

(a)The Mishnah exempts Reuven who is Metamei, Medame'a or Menasech Shimon's food be'Shogeg from paying. The definition of ...

1. ... 'Medame'a' is - mixing T'rumah with Chulin.

2. ... 'Menasech' is - mixing Yayin Nesech with Kasher wine (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The loss one causes by performing ...

1. ... the former is that - the owner will now be forced to sell it cheaply to Kohanim.

2. ... the latter is that - he renders it Asur be'Hana'ah.

(c)And the reason that he is Patur is - because, min ha'Torah, 'Hezek she'Eino Nikar' (an invisible damage) is Patur (even be'Meizid).

(d)Nevertheless, the Chachamim obligated him to pay if he does it be'Meizid - because of Tikun ha'Olam, so that people should not make a habit of being Metamei other people's property with impunity (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

9)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses Kohanim who render other people's Korbanos Pigul. What exactly do they do?

(b)What does the Tana say about them?

(c)What loss do they cause the owner of the Korban?

(d)What if it is a Korban Nedavah, which the owner is not obligated to replace?

9)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses Kohanim who render other people's Korbanos Pigul - by Shechting or sprinkling the blood of the Korban (See also Tos. Yom-Tov) with the intention of eating it after the designated time.

(b)The Tana obligates them to pay the owner of the Korban ...

(c)... who no longer obtains a Kaparah for his sin.

(d)And if it is a Korban Nedavah, which the owner is not obligated to replace - he compensates him for the upset that he caused him, because he did not succeed in bringing the Korban that he intended to bring.

Mishnah 5
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10)

(a)What did Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda testify about a Chereshes (a deaf-mute girl) whose father married her off, even though her marriage is valid min ha'Torah?

(b)Why is that (bearing in mind that she has no Da'as to receive her Get)?

(c)He also testified that a Ketanah bas Yisrael who is a Yesomah and who is married to a Kohen may eat Terumah. What is a 'Yesomah'?

(d)Bearing in mind that the marriage is only mi'de'Rabbanan, how can she eat Terumah?

(e)Why might we have thought otherwise?

10)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda testified that a Chereshes (a deaf-mute girl) whose father married her off, even though her marriage is valid min ha'Torah - can leave her husband with a Get ...

(b)... despite the fact that she has no Da'as to receive it - because a man is entitled to divorce his wife without her Da'as (consent).

(c)He also testified that a Ketanah bas Yisrael who is a 'Yesomah' - whose father died and who was married off by her mother or brothers, to a Kohen, may eat Terumah.

(d)Precisely because the marriage is only mi'de'Rabbanan - she is only permitted to eat Terumah de'Rabbanan.

(e)We might otherwise have thought - that we decree Terumah de'Rabbanan on account of Terumah d'Oraysa.

11)

(a)What did Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda also testify in the current case, in the event that the girl dies?

(b)On which principle is this ruling based (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(c)Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda also testified that if a thief builds a Marish that he stole into his mansion, he only needs to pay for it (and is not obligated to return the actual Marish). What is a 'Marish'?

(d)And his reason is because of Takanas ha'Shavim. What is 'Takanas ha'Shavim'?

11)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda also testified in the current case, that in the event that the girl dies - her husband inherits her ...

(b)... based on the principle - 'Hefker Beis-Din Hefker' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda also testified that if a thief builds a Marish - a beam that he stole into his mansion, he only needs to pay for it (and is not obligated to return the actual Marish [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(d)And his reason is because of 'Takanas ha'Shavim' - to encourage thieves to confess and return what they stole (which they will not do if it means tearing down their houses to return stolen beams).

12)

(a)What did he finally testify with regard to a stolen Chatas that is not publicly known to be stolen?

(b)His reason is because 'Tikun ha'Mizbe'ach'. What does he mean by that?

12)

(a)He finally testified that a stolen Chatas that is not publicly known (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to be stolen - atones for its owner (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)His reason is because 'Tikun ha'Mizbe'ach' by which he means - to prevent a situation where the Kohanim, upset that they brought Chulin to the Azarah (which is what it really is), will be so upset that they become lax in bringing the Korbanos.

Mishnah 6
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13)

(a)The Mishnah rules that the Din of Sikrikun did not apply during the period when the attacking enemy decreed the death-penalty in Yehudah (See Tos. Yom-Tov). What does 'Sikrikun' mean?

(b)What is the 'Din of Sikrikun'?

(c)Why did it not apply during that period?

(d)This is based on the principle 'Taluhu va'Zavin, Zevineih Z'vini'. What does this mean?

13)

(a)The Mishnah rules that the Din of 'Sikrikun' - Nochri land-thieves who kill anyone who refuses to give them their fields, did not apply during the period when the attacking enemy decreed the death-penalty in Yehudah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The 'Din of Sikrikun' is - that whoever purchases land from them is obligated to come to terms with the owner.

(c)It did not apply during that period - because the owners were Makneh their fields to the Sikrikun with a full heart ...

(d)... based on the principle 'Taluhu va'Zavin, Zevineih Z'vini' - If Reuven hangs Shimon on a tree and threatens to leave him there unless he sells his field, the subsequent sale is valid (because he genuinely means to sell it).

14)

(a)What does the Tana say about the period after that?

(b)What will the Din therefore be in a case where one first purchased the field from ...

1. ... the Sikrikun and then from the owner?

2. ... the owner and then from the Sikrikun?

(c)What is the reason for the former ruling?

14)

(a)The Tana adds however, that regarding the period after that - the Din of Sikrikun was reintroduced.

(b)Consequently, if one first purchased the field from ...

1. ... the Sikrikun and then from the owner - the sale is invalid.

2. ... the owner and then from the Sikrikun - the sale is valid.

(c)The reason for the former ruling is - because the owner corroborated the sale only because he was afraid of the Sikrikun.

15)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who purchases certain property to which a woman is entitled both from her and from her husband. Which property is the Tana talking about?

(b)What does the Tana now say about someone who purchases it first from ...

1. ... the husband and then from the wife?

2. ... the wife and then from the husband?

(c)What is the reason for the former ruling?

15)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses someone who purchases certain property to which a woman is entitled - property that has been set aside for her Kesubah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) both from her and from her husband.

(b)The Tana now rules that one purchases it first from ...

1. ... the husband and then from the wife - the sale is invalid.

2. ... the wife and then from the husband - the sale is valid.

(c)The reason for the former ruling is - because the woman corroborated the sale only only in order to make her husband happy.

16)

(a)The above is the opinion of the Mishnah Rishonah. According to the Beis-Din shel Achareihem, the purchaser is obligated to pay the original owner a quarter of the field (See Tos. Yom-Tov). Why is that?

(b)What does the Tana rule in the current case where the owner has the money to pay for the field?

(c)What Takanah did Rebbi institute via a special Beis-Din in connection with a field that remained in the hands of the Sikrikun for twelve months?

(d)What is the purchaser nevertheless obligated to give the owner?

16)

(a)The above is the opinion of the Mishnah Rishonah. According to the Beis-Din shel Achareihem, the purchaser is obligated to pay the original owner a quarter of the field (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - because the Sikrikun (who obtained the fields free of charge) tended to sell them at twenty-five per cent below their real price.

(b)The Tana rules in the current case - that if the owner has the money to pay for the field - then the purchaser is obligated to sell it back to him (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(c)Rebbi instituted via a special Beis-Din in connection with a field that remained in the hands of the Sikrikun for twelve months that - whoever purchases the field from the Sikrikun is permitted to keep it ...

(d)... though he remains obligated to give the owner - a quarter of the value.

Mishnah 7
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17)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about a Cheresh who hints (Romez) that he wants a certain transaction to take place?

(b)And the same applies to Nirmaz. What does 'Nirmaz' mean?

(c)According to ben Beseira, the same applies to Kofetz ve'Nikpatz. What is the technical difference between 'Romez ve'Nirmaz' on the one hand, and 'Kofetz ve'Nikpatz' on the other?

(d)On what condition does ben Beseira issue the latter ruling?

(e)Like whom is the Halachah?

17)

(a)The Mishnah rules that if a Cheresh hints (Romez) that he wants a certain transaction to take place - then it does.

(b)And the same applies to 'Nirmaz' - meaning that what others hint to him is effective too (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)According to ben Beseira, the same applies to 'Kofetz ve'Nikpatz' - which means mouthing the words that one is trying to say (which is inferior to) 'Romez ve'Nirmaz' which entails hinting with ones hands or head.

(d)ben Beseira issue the latter ruling with regard to - Metalt'lin that he sells (See Tos. Yom-Tov) exclusively.

(e)The Halachah is - not like ben Beseira.

18)

(a)The Mishnah discusses the purchases and sales of Pe'utos. What are 'Pe'utos'?

(b)What is the difference between sharp (business-savvy) Pe'utos and average Pe'utos?

(c)What ruling does the Tana issue concerning Metalt'lin?

18)

(a)The Mishnah discusses the purchases and sales of Pe'utos - Ketanim ...

(b)... seven and eight-year- olds if they are sharp (business-savvy); nine and ten-year-olds if they are of average intelligence.

(c)The Tana rules that as far as Metalt'lin is concerned - their transactions are valid (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 8
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19)

(a)The Tana now lists the order of priorities regarding the Aliyos to the Torah as Kohen, Levi and Yisrael. What if the Kohen wants to pass on the honor to a Levi or a Yisrael?

(b)What is the reason for this ruling as well as all the remaining rulings until the end of the Perek?

(c)On what condition is the Gabai permitted, strictly speaking, to call up a Yisrael before a Kohen?

(d)On which statement of Chazal (taken from a Mishnah in Horiyos) is this ruling based?

19)

(a)The Tana now lists the order of priorities regarding the Aliyos to the Torah as Kohen, Levi and Yisrael. The Kohen - does not have the authority to pass on the honor to a Levi or a Yisrael.

(b)The reason for this ruling as well as all the remaining rulings until the end of the Perek is - on account of Darkei Shalom (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)Strictly speaking - the Gabai is permitted to call up a Yisrael before a Kohen - if he is more learned than the latter.

(d)This ruling is based on the statement of Chazal (taken from a Mishnah in Horiyos) - 'Gadol Mamzer Talmid-Chacham mi'Kohen Gadol Am-ha'Aretz'.

20)

(a)What is the Minhag nowadays regarding calling up a Talmid-Chacham before a Kohen?

(b)Is there any difference regarding the current Dinim between Shabbos and Yom-Tov, on the one hand , and Monday and Thursday on the other?

(c)What is the reason for this?

20)

(a)The Minhag nowadays - is not to call up a Talmid-Chacham before a Kohen.

(b)The current Dinim apply - irrespective as to whether it is on Shabbos or Yom-Tov, on the one hand , or Monday or Thursday on the other ...

(c)... to avoid Machlokes ('Why did they call up P'loni and not P'loni' [See also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

21)

(a)What happens when there is no Kohen in Shul? What does 'Nispardah ha'Chavilah' mean?

(b)Some say that the Levi may be called up first (See Tiferes Yisrael). What do others say?

(c)The Tana includes in the same list (of Darkei Shalom) placing the Eiruv 'in an old house'. Which Eiruv is he talking about?

(d)What does he mean by 'an old house'?

(e)What is the underlying reason behind this Takanah?

21)

(a)When there is no Kohen in Shul, we say - 'Nispardah ha'Chavilah', meaning that order is Bateil (in that the Levi no longer receives the second Aliyah or subsequent ones.

(b)Some say that the Levi may be called up first (See Tiferes Yisrael). Others say -that he is not called up at all.

(c)The Tana includes in the same list (of Darkei Shalom) always placing the Eiruv - Chatzeiros 'in an old house' ...

(d)... by which he means - also placing it in the same house in the Chatzer ...

(e)... so that people who are used to seeing the Eiruv there, who don't se it there one Shabbos, should not accuse the residents of the Chatzer of carrying without an Eiruv (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

22)

(a)Next on the list is a pit that is 'next to the stream'. What does the Tana mean by that?

(b)And what does he mean when he writes that wild animals that are caught in a trap are subject to theft? Why does the trap not acquire the animal fully on behalf of the owner?

(c)What does Rebbi mean when he says 'Gezel Gamur'?

(d)What are the ramifications of their Machlokes?

22)

(a)Next on the list is a pit that is 'nearest to the stream', bt which the Tana means that - if a stream that runs past a number of private water-pits, the one that is the closest to the source of the stream, where it separates from the river, always has the first rights to draw water from it.

(b)And when he writes that wild animals that are caught in a trap are subject to theft - he means that no-one other than the owner of the trap is permitted to remove them, even though, min ha'Din, he does not acquire them - because the Tana is speaking about a trap that does not have an inside (which would acquire it on behalf of the owner).

(c)When Rebbi Yossi says 'Gezel Gamur', he means - Gezel Gamur mi'de'Rabbanan ...

(d)... in which case Beis-Din will order him to return the animal to the owner of the trap (See Tos. Yom-Tov), which they will not do according to the Tana Kama.

23)

(a)What does the Tana Kama say about the findings of a 'Chashu'?

(b)What does Rebbi Yossi say?

(c)Rebbi Yossi and the Tana Kama also argue over a poor man who is picking olives from the top of an olive-tree. What does each one say?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah in all three cases?

23)

(a)The Tana Kama rules that the findings of a 'Chashu' - are subject to Gezel because of Darkei Shalom (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

(b)Rebbi Yossi says - 'Gezel Gamur (mi'de'Rabbanan)'.

(c)Rebbi Yossi and the Tana Kama also argue over a poor man who is picking olives from the top of an olive-tree. Once again - according to the Tana Kama the olives that fall, are subject to Gezel because of Darkei Shalom (See Tos. Yom-Tov), Rebbi Yossi - 'Gezel Gamur ... '.

(d)The Halachah in all three cases is - like the Tana Kama.

24)

(a)What does the Mishnah finally say about poor Nochrim collecting Leket, Shikchah and Pe'ah?

24)

(a)The Mishnah finally rules that - one may not stop poor Nochrim from collecting Leket, Shikchah and Pe'ah, because of Darkei Shalom.

Mishnah 9
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25)

(a)The Mishnah permits a woman to lend her friend who is suspect on transgressing Sh'mitah a Nafah, a K'varah and a mill. What is her friend suspect of doing?

(b)What is the difference between a 'Nafah' and a 'K'varah'?

(c)In which two ways does the Tana forbid assisting her?

(d)Why is the wife of a Chaver nevertheless permitted to select kernels and to grind them together with the wife of Am-ha'Aretz, despite the suspicion that they might not be Ma'asered?

25)

(a)The Mishnah permits a woman to lend her friend who is suspect on transgressing Sh'mitah - by guarding Sh'mitah-fruit and of putting it away after the time of Biy'ur, a Nafah, a K'varah and a mill.

(b)'Nafah' is - a funnel, and a 'K'varah' - a sieve.

(c)The Tana forbids assisting her - by selecting the kernels and grinding them together with her.

(d)The wife of a Chaver is nevertheless permitted to select kernels and to grind them together with the wife of Am-ha'Aretz, despite the suspicion that they might not be Ma'asered - since we assume that most Amei-ha'Aretz separate Ma'asros.

26)

(a)From which point on is she forbidden to help her?

(b)Why is that?

(c)On which principle is this ruling based?

(d)Why did the Chachamim permit these cases during the periods that the Eishes Am-ha'Aretz is not actually sinning?

26)

(a)She is forbidden to help her however - the moment water is added to the ground kernels ...

(b)... because her Keilim are probably Tamei, and once the flour is kneaded, it becomes Muchshar Lekabeil Tum'ah and ...

(c)... it is forbidden to render Chalah Tamei.

(d)The Chachamim permit these cases during the periods that the Eishes Am-ha'Aretz is not actually sinning - on account of Darkei Shalom.

27)

(a)What distinction does the Mishnah finally draw between a Nochri and a Yisrael who are working in the fields during the Sh'mitah?

(b)The Tana also permits giving Shalom to a Nochri on account of Darkei Shalom. Why would we otherwise have thought that it is forbidden?

27)

(a)The Mishnah finally - permits encouraging a Nochri who is working in the fields during the Sh'mitah (to wish him success in his work) but not a Yisrael.

(b)The Tana also permits giving Shalom to a Nochri on account of Darkei Shalom. We would otherwise have thought that it is forbidden - because 'Shalom' is the Name of Hash-m, and it seems degrading to use the Name of Hash-m on a Nochri.

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