ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The minimum area of a window in a wall that divides between two Chatzeros that give the residents the option of making either two separate Eruvin or one combined one is - four by four Tefachim.
(b) And when the Tana says that it must be 'within ten Tefachim', he means - that part of it (however minimal [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) must be within ten Tefachim from the ground.
(c) The reason for the minimum of ...
1. ... four by four Tefachim is - because less than that is too small to pass through and it cannot therefore be considered a 'Pesach' (an entrance, without which the two Chatzeros cannot be considered one).
2. ... 'within ten Tefachim in height' - is because, in similar fashion, it cannot easily be used to bridge the two Chatzeros.
(a) If the above specifications are not met - then each Chatzer may make its own Eiruv, but are not allowed to combine.
(b) Even a dividing window that is above ten Tefachim permits them to make a combined Eiruv however - if it is inside a house with a ceiling (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(c) ... since in the house, there are chairs and boxes which facilitate using the top of even a higher wall.
(a) The Mishnah rules that if a wall is higher than ten Tefachim that divides between two Chatzeros - each Chatzer mat make an Eiruv, but not a combined one.
(b) The width of the wall currently under discussion - is at least four Tefachim (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) The Tana permits both sets of residents to climb to the top of the wall, to eat fruit that is lying there - but not to carry it down ...
(d) ... and carry it into he house, though carrying it into the Chatzer is permitted (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah - permits making a joint Eiruv in z case where a breach in the wall dividing two Chatzeros provided it is less than ten Amos, but not if it more ...
(b) ... because up to ten Amos, a breach has the Din of a Pesach, but not if it ten Amos or more.
(c) If one makes a joint Eiruv in a case where the wall exceeds ten Amos - then neither is allowed to carry (since each one forbids the other, as we learned in the previous Perek).
(a) An empty ditch that divides two Chatzeros must measure - four Tefachim wide by ten Tefachim deep to preclude the possibility of making a joint Eiruv ...
(b) ... because then it is difficult to cross from one Chatzer to the other.
(c) Even if the ditch measures four by ten Tefachim, the two Chatzeros may make a joint Eiruv - if the ditch does not cut the two Chatzeros completely in two.
(d) Where the ditch is filled with ...
1. ... stubble or straw - the Din is as above.
2. ... earth or stones - then they are permitted to make a joint Eiruv ...
(e) ... one tends to be Mevatel earth and stones, making it a permanent 'Pesach', which is not the case by stubble and straw, which the owners will remove should they need it (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) If one places a plank to act as a bridge between the two Chatzeros - it too, must be four Tefachim wide to be considered a Pesach, thereby permitting them to make a joint Eiruv.
(b) The Tana adds 've'Chein Sh'nei Gezuztera'os Zu K'neged Zu' - (ledges that jut out from the wall of a R'shus ha'Yachid above the R'shus ha'Rabim (See Pirush ha'Mishnayos le'ha'Rambam) ...
(c) ... over which they placed a plank (to enable them to go from one to the other).
(d) In both of these cases - the residents of the two Chatzeros are permitted to each make their own Eiruv, should they so choose.
(a) The Tana rules that in a case where a haystack that is ten Tefachim tall and that divides between two Chatzeros - they are allowed to make two Eruvin but not a joint one.
(b) He permits the animals from each Chatzer - to eat from its own side of the haystack.
(c) We might otherwise have thought that it is forbidden - or ear that they eat sufficient to reduce the height of the haystack to less than ten Tefachim, and that people will not realize it and continue to carry in their respective Chatzer.
(d) And the reason that it is permitted is because the animals would have to so much hay, that the haystack is reduced to ess than ten Tefachim along a width of at least ten Amos (otherwise it is considered a Pesach), and it is highly unusual for animals to eat so much.
(a) When placing the barrel of wine (for Shituf Mavo'os) one declares - 'This barrel is for all the residents o the Mavoy!'
(b) The Tana permits the Mezakeh's ...
1. ... grown-up son and daughter to acquire it on behalf of the residents, but not his small son and daughter.
2. ... Eved Ivri and Amah Ivriyah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to acquire it on behalf of the residents, but not his Eved Cana'ani and Shifchah Cana'anis.
(c) He cannot be Mezakeh the Eiruv through his ...
1. ... small son and daughter - since they do not have a 'Yad' to acquire on behalf of others.
2. ... Eved Cana'ani and Shifchah Cana'anis - since whatever they acquire, they acquire on his behalf.
(d) His wife - is eligible to acquire on behalf o the residents (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) To ensure that the residents of the Mavoy are partners in the wine, the one who is being Zocheh - must pick up the barrel at least one Tefach on their behalf.
(b) All this is not necessary - if the residents themselves supplied the wine.
(a) If the food diminished (from the Shi'ur that we will learn shortly), the Mezakeh - must re-place it ...
(b) ... without necessarily informing the other residents of the Mavoy (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) If additional residents come to live in one of the Chatzeros that comprise the Mavoy - then the Shi'ur must be supplemented accordingly.
(b) In this case however, one needs to inform the new residents, provided that is, that the Chatzer in which they live has another entrance that leads to a second Mavoy - since they may well prefer to participate in the Eiruv of the other Mavoy (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) If it doesn't - then it is not necessary to inform them.
(d) This dual ruling is based on the dual principle - 'Zachin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav ve'Ein Chavin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav'.
(a) If there are a lot of residents - (eighteen people [See Tos. Yom-Tov]), the Shi'ur for Shitufei Mavo'os (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is sufficient for two meals (See Tos. Yom-Tov& Tiferes Yisrael) ...
(b) ... eighteen ki'Gerogros (dried figs).
(c) If there are less residents then the Shi'ur is - one ki'Gerogeres per person.
(d) The significance of a ki'Gerogeres is - that it is the Shi'ur for which one is Chayav if one carries it on Shabbos (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) Rebbi Yossi ascribes the above Shi'ur to the beginning of an Eiruv Chatzeros (where one also made a Shituf Mavo'os). As far as the remains of a broken Eiruv is concerned, he holds - that even a Kol she'Hu will suffice.
(b) The reason for his leniency is - strictly speaking, having made a Shituf Mavo'os, it is not necessary to make an Eiruv Chatzeros, and the Chachamim only required it so the children should not forget the concept of Eiruv (as we have already learned).
(c) The Halachah however - is not like him (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The only two things that one cannot use to make an Eiruv or a Shituf, according to Rebbi Eliezer are - water and salt.
(b) Rebi Eliezer can ony be talking about an Eiruv T'chumin (and not an Eiruv Chatzeros) - because Eiruv Chatzeros requires specifically bread.
(c) 'ba'Kol Me'arvin does however incorporate Eiruv Chatzeros - in that Rebbi permits even slices of bread, whereas ...
(d) Rebbi Yehoshua - requires a whole loaf.
(e) The Halachah is - Rebbi Yehoshua.
(a) Rebbi Yehoshua, forbids a piece of bread even if it measure a Sa'ah - but permits supplying a loaf that measures an Isar (a fraction of a Sa'ah).
(b) The reason for the latter ruling is - to avoid strife (someone who gave a whole loaf complaining to someone who gave only a broken piece).
(c) It will only apply however - on condition that it complies with the measurement that we learned earlier.
(d) The Rambam disagrees with this explanation. According to him - what the Tana means is that if the loaf measures a Sa'ah - then one may use it to cover all the residents of the Chatzer, and the above Shi'ur no longer applies (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) Rebbi Eliezer permits the resident of a Mavoy to give money to a store-keeper or a baker to be Mezakeh wine or bread towards an Eiruv Chatzeros or a Shituf Mavo'os that the other residents are making (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Nosein Adam' & 'Lo Zachu ... ') - provided he lives in the same Chatzer as the purchaser.
(b) The Chachamim disagree - because money does not acquire (and the purchaser will therefore need to make a proper Kinyan for the transaction to take effect).
(c) It will not help even if the same storekeeper is Mezakeh all the other residents with a valid Kinyan - since the storekeeper did not intend to be Mezakeh him by way of a gift, seeing as he took money from him.
(a) If Reuven gives Shimon (a co-resident) a small coin with a request to be Mezakeh him in the Eiruv - the Chachamim agree that his money acquires for him ...
(b) ... since a Balabos does not generally sell loaves or wine, Reuven meant to make him a Shali'ach, as if he had said to him 'Make an Eiruv on my behalf' (See Tos. Yom-Tov); whereas in the previous case, he intended to acquire the loaves or the wine with the maney that he gave him.
(a) The Mishnah has been speaking until now, about an Eiruv Techumin. Regarding the equivalent case by an Eiruv Chatzeros, Rebbi Yehudah rules - that Reuven acquires a portion in the Eiruv in all cases ...
(b) ... because, whereas Eiruv Techumin may well not be to the person's advantage (since he may not want to go in that direction [See Tos. Yom-Tov), Eiruv Chatzeiros generally is (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH "Aval ... ').
(c) These rulings are based on the principle 'Zachin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav, ve'Ein Chavin le'Adam she'Lo be'Fanav'.
(d) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yehudah (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Aval be'Eruvei Chatzeros').