ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
ERCHIN 10 (28 Teves) - Dedicated by Morris and Caroline Massel in loving memory of Morris' grandparents, Ezekiel and Sadie Massel z'l and Moses and Aziza Montefiore, all of whose Yahrzeits are in this season.
(a) Our Mishnah discusses various details concerning the instruments that were played in the Beis-ha'Mikdash. The maximum number of notes that were blown there each day there (on the Shofar) was forty-eight, the minimum twenty-one.
(b) Nevalim (harps) played were six and of flutes, twelve; the minimum of both - two.
(c) The twelve flutes - corresponded to the twelve days on which they were played ...
(d) ... and on which (whole) Hallel was recited - the days on which both the Korban Pesach Rishon and Sheini were brought, the first day of Pesach, Shevu'os and the eight days of Succos.
(a) During the rest of the year they played only - Nevalim and Kinoros (two kinds of harps) and cymbals.
(b) Throughout the year they played the instruments - as the Korban Tamid was being brought, to accompany the Levi'im sang the Shir shel Yom (the daily Psalm).
(c) The flutes were made - of bamboo (not of metal), because it produces a superior tone.
(d) They concluded with only a single flute - because it resulted in a more beautiful ending than two.
(a) According to Rebbi Meir, it was the Avadim of the Kohanim who played the instruments. Rebbi Yossi maintains that it was the families of Beis Pegarim and Beis Tzipra - who were known to be of pure stock, and who were therefore permitted to marry into families of Kohanim without further examination.
(b) 'meIm'um' means - from Im'um (the town from which they hailed).
(c) Rebbi Chanina ben Antignos disagrees with the previous Tana'im. In his opinion - it was actually the Levi'im who played the instruments.
(a) Our Mishnah does not conform to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, who requires a minimum of seven notes and a maximum of sixteen - because, as opposed to the Chachamim, who consider each note independent, he considers Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah as one note.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah derives his opinion from the Pesukim in Beha'aloscha "u'Seka'atem Teru'ah" and "Teru'ah Yiske'u", implying that they are all one note. The Chachamim learn from there that a Teru'ah must always be preceded by a Teki'ah and followed by one.
(c) The Chachamim learn their opinion from the Pasuk there "u've'Hakhil es ha'Kahal, Tiske'u ve'Lo Sari'u" - because if the three notes were considered one, why would the Torah prescribe half a note for this occasion?
(d) Rebbi Yehudah counters their proof - by arguing that gathering the community does not require a Halachic note, and is only blown as a signal (so it doesn't matter if it is only half a note).
(a) Rav Kahana's statement 'Ein bein Teki'ah u'Teru'ah ve'Lo K'lum' (allowing no break whatsoever between the Teki'ah and the Teru'ah) - conforms to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah.
(b) This is not so obvious though, as it might have been possible for the author to be the Rabbanan, who will then be coming to preclude Rebbi Yochanan's ruling. Rebbi Yochanan states that someone who hears the nine necessary notes, but spread out over nine hours - has fulfilled his obligation.
(c) Based on the wording of the Beraisa however, we know that this is not the case - since 'Ein bein Teki'ah u'Teru'ah ve'Lo K'lum' clearly indicates that Rav Kahana allows no break at all between one note and the other (which can only go according to Rebbi Yehudah, as we explained).
(a) We already connected the twelve days on which they blew the flute in the Beis-Hamikdash to the twelve days on which whole Hallel is recited. The other occasion on which whole Hallel is recited in Eretz Yisrael - is Chanukah ...
(b) ... which is not included in our Mishnah - because no Korban was brought on it.
(c) All of these are listed by Rebbi Yochanan citing Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak - who adds the second days of Pesach, Shavu'os and Shemini Atzeres (Simchas Torah), on which whole Hallel is also recited in Chutz la'Aretz (to form the eighteen days on which one recites whole Hallel).
(a) Even though whole Hallel is recited throughout Succos, it is not recited throughout Pesach - because (unlike the former, where the thirteen bulls decreased by one on each day of Succos), the Korban remained the same.
(b) Nevertheless, it is not recited on ...
1. ... Shabbos, even though special Korbanos are brought on it - because Shabbos is not a Mo'ed.
2. ... Rosh Chodesh, on which Korbanos are brought, and which is considered a Mo'ed - because one may perform Melachah on it.
3. ... Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur, when, in addition to the first two requirements, work is also forbidden, because of Rebbi Avahu who describes -how the Mal'achei ha'Shareis asked Hash-m why Yisrael do not sing Shirah on Rosh Hashanah, and how Hash-m replied that it is not befitting for them to do so on a day when 'the Books of the living and of the dead are open before Him'.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk "ha'Shir Yih'yeh lachem ke'Leil Haskadesh Chag" - that one only recites Hallel on a day which is called a 'Chag' (entailing a day on which Melachah is forbidden [precluding Rosh Chodesh]).
(d) We nevertheless recite Hallel on Chanukah (even though it has none of the above specifications) - because the source of reciting Hallel then is (not because it is a Mo'ed, but) because of the great miracle that occurred on it.
(a) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak queries Rebbi Yitzchak's reason for not reciting Hallel on Purim (that Hallel is not recited on a miracle that took place in Chutz la'Aretz), like we do on Chanukah - inasmuch as Yetzi'as Mitzrayim too, took place in Chutz la'Aretz, yet we recite Hallel on Pesach.
(b) We resolve the problem by citing a Beraisa, which draws a distinction between before Yisrael's entry into Eretz Yisrael (Yetzi'as Mitzrayim) - when we do recite Hallel, and after it (the miracle of Purim) - when we don't.
(c) According to Rav Nachman, 'K'riyasa Zu Haleila' - by which he means that reading the Megilah is considered like Hallel.
(d) Rav Nachman resolves his answer with the previous Beraisa - by differentiating between the period that Yisrael are living in Eretz Yisrael (when Hallel is not recited over a miracle that takes place in Chutz la'Aretz), and the period when they are in Galus (when it is).
(e) To answer the current Kashya, Rava draws a distinction between Pesach and Purim, based on the Pasuk in Hallel "Hallelu Avdei Hash-m, Hallelu es Shem Hash-m" - in that we are able to praise Hash-m on Pesach in our capacity as His servants (as is implied by "Avdei Hash-m" ['ve'Lo Avdei Par'oh'], since the totality of the slavery in Egypt would never be repeated), though we cannot say this on Purim, as we still slaves to Achashverosh and to the likes of him (as long as we are in Galus).
(a) Even though a flute is called 'Ibuv', the Tana refers to it as 'Chalil' (from the word 'Chali', which means sweet) - on account of its sweet sound.
(b) When the king ...
1. ... had the thin flute (from the days of Moshe) in the Beis-Hamikdash overlaid with gold - its superior tone deteriorated.
2. ... had the gold removed - it regained its initial sweetness.
(c) When the Chachamim had the notched copper cymbals ...
1. ... repaired - by experts from Alexandria, it lost its pleasant sound.
2. ... when they reverted it to how it was before - it too, regained its initial pleasantness.
(d) And the same happened to the copper mortar (also from the days of Moshe) in the Beis-Hamikdash. It was used - to grind the spices for the Ketores.
(a) The cymbals and the mortar, which were both used for the first time in the period of the Mishkan (Rabeinu Gershom), could not be fixed for use in the second, yet when they were used in their broken state, they both worked perfectly.
(b) Based on the Pesukim in Melachim and Divrei Hayamim "Nechoshes Memurat" and "Nechoshes Maruk"), the kind of copper that was used to manufacture them - was light and shining (see also Rabeinu Gershom).
(c) Rav and Shmuel argue over the meaning of the words "Shenayim Chamudos" (in the Pasuk in Ezra " ... Shenayim Chamudos ka'Zahav"). One of them explains that each one weighed as much as two of gold. According to the other one - the two of them together weighed the equivalent of one golden one ...
(d) ... which is supported by the Beraisa cited by Rav Yosef.
(a) After amending the word (in the Pasuk in Ezra) "Shenayim" to 'Sheniyim' Raban Shimon ben Gamliel explains the Pasuk to mean - that there were two of each (two sets of cymbals and two mortars).
(b) In another Beraisa, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel describes how the water of the Shilo'ach (which flowed through the Beis-Hamikdash) was initially the thickness of an Isar coin at its source. When the king ordered them to widen it - it actually produced less water, and when they narrowed it down again to what it was before, it once again produced the amount of water that it did originally ...
(c) ... conforming to the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Al Yis'halel Chacham be'Chochmaso", which teaches us - the limitations of man's wisdom, when pitted against that of Hash-m (to conform with mantra 'Man plans and G-d laughs') ...
(d) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel also stated - that they deliberately declined to use a bell to terminate the music because its thick tone would have spoiled the music.
(a) The shovel described by Rava bar Shilo ... Amar Shmuel, that was used in the Beis-Hamikdash - to remove the ashes from the Mizbe'ach, was unusual - in that it contained ten flute-like holes, from each of which a bamboo protruded. Each bamboo in turn, had ten holes ...
(b) ... enabling it to produce a hundred notes all in all.
(c) The Beraisa, which describes it as one Amah long, one Amah wide and with a handle protruding from it, is even more amazing. The Tana arrives at a thousand notes - by virtue of the fact that each bamboo was able to produce a hundred notes (and not just ten).
(d) The sign that reminds us that the Beraisa gives the more numerous figure - is 'Masnita Guzma' (meaning that Beraisos tend to exaggerate).