hebrew
1)

What does 'Pituchei Chosam" mean?

1.

Rashi and Targum Yonasan: It means the the letters were (not written, but) engraved 1 on the stones. 2


1

Using the Shamir worm (Torah Temimah, citing Sotah, 48b)).

2

Like the letters on the seal of a signet-ring (Rashi).

2)

And what does the Torah mean when it writes "Musabos Mishb'tzos Zahav"?

1.

Rashi: Refer to 28:4:2:1. 1

2.

Ramban: It means that the stones were surrounded by prongs. 2


1

Consequently the stone was covered on five sides by the golden setting, and it was only the surface of the stone that was visible.

2

Which rendered visible the majority of the stone, as is customary withy precious stones.

Chumash: Perek: Pasuk:
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