hebrew
1)

Who were the Nefilim? When did they live?

1.

Rashi: Giants who lived in the time of Enosh and Kayin, who 'fell (caused their own deaths), and took down the whole world as well.

2.

Ramban (citing the Ibn Ezra and the Radak): Men who caused the hearts of those who saw them to drop.

3.

Targum Yonasan 1 : The Nefilim refers to Shamchaza'i and Uzi'el (or Aza'el), who fell from heaven... (refer to 6:2:3:3).

4.

Ramban: Refer to 6:4:3:3.


1

Refer to 6:1:2:3. and 6:4:3:4.

2)

Why does the Torah see fit to add "and also after that"?

1.

Rashi: Even after they saw how in the generation of Enosh, one third of the world was destroyed by a flood, they persisted in their evil ways and did not do Teshuvah.

2.

Ramban (quoting the Ibn Ezra): These giants lived even after the Flood - with reference, either to the wives of No'ach's sons, who were their descendents and who resembled them, or to Og, who, according to the Midrash, survived the Flood (and who was saved together with others).

3.

Seforno: The Nefilim were in the land when Hashem gave them a hundred and twenty years to do Teshuvah, and also after that - when the time elapsed, and they had not done Teshuvah.

3)

Who were the rebels (the "Giborim"), the men of name (mentioned in the Pasuk)?

1.

Rashi #1: The people specified by the Pasuk earlier - 'Irad, Mechuya'el and Mesusha'el', who names suggest destruction (because they were blotted out and destroyed).

2.

Rashi #2 and Targum Yonasan: "Anshei ha'Shem" means 'men of desolation (from the word 'Shemamah').

3.

Ramban: The 'Bnei ha'Elohim' were super-human-beings - with reference to Adam, Sheis and Enosh, who were all created in the image of Hashem. Starting from Keinan (Enosh's son) they began to practice idolatry and subsequently became weaker, though they were still stronger than everybody else (Kayin's children). They, using strong-arm tactics, were the ones who were guilty of sinning in the way described by the Pasuk. And the Pasuk says about them that, people who saw mighty men after the flood would point out that there had been men far mightier and more awesome than them.

4.

Ramban (citing Pirkei de'R. Eliezer and the Gemara in Yoma): They were angels who fell from heaven. 1


1

Refer to 6:4:1:4.

4)

רש"י: שנפלו והפילו: מנין לדרוש שנפלו הם והפילו אחרים?

1.

גור אריה: 'נֵפֶל' משמעו שהוא עצמו נפל, וממה שכתוב "נפילים" ולא 'נפלים' דרשו שהפילו אחרים. וכל זאת ע"י שחטאו הם והחטיאו אחרים.

5)

רש"י: בימי דור אנוש ובני קין: מה ארע בימי אנוש וקין?

1.

גור אריה: על זרע קין בא מבול ככתוב (ד,טו) "שבעתיים יוקם" וכן בימי אנוש ככתוב (ד,כו) "אז הוחל לקרוא בשם השם". 1


1

ועי' רש"י לעיל, (ד,כד) ובגור אריה שם.

6)

רש"י: יולדות ענקים כמותם: מנין שילדו כמותם?

1.

גור אריה: מילת 'אשר' באה לתת טעם לאמור למעלה- "הנפילים היו בארץ", ולכן פירש רש"י ש"הנפילים היו בארץ" משום שבאו על בנות האדם והיו יולדות ענקים כמותם.

7)

רש"י: אותן שנקבו בשמות: אולי הכוונה שהיו אנשים חשובים?

1.

גור אריה: אנשים רשעים אינם 'אנשי שם' אלא הכוונה לאותם שנקבו בשמותם לעיל, והם מכונים "אנשים השם" ללמדך ששמם מורה על העתיד לבא עליהם. ונראה שבעל מעלה נקרא 'בעל שם' כי יש לו מעלה עצמית [מעלתו אינה חיצונית אלא חלק מעצמותו], וכן אנשים אלו נקראו 'אנשי שם' כי היו ראויים בעצמותם לאבדון.

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