hebrew
1)

Why did Ya'akov initially refer to Yehudah as a lion cub and then, as a lion?

1.

Rashi (citing Targum Onkelos): Because, since he was speaking about David, 1 he referred to him first at the beginning of is leadership (still in the days of Sha'ul), 2 and then, to the period after he was crowned king, when he would establish a firm grip on the throne and (like a lion and lioness in their lair), he would be invincible.

2.

Targum Yonasan: First, he referred to the two sinful episodes 3 that had already passed for which Yehudah himself had already attained atonement, then to his leadership as a king.

3.

Rashbam: He compared him to a lion cub, because it is both swifter and stronger than an old lion; and when he then compared him to a lion and a lioness, he was referring to after he was established and sitting safely on the throne, when the enemy no longer dared challenge him.

4.

Seforno: He referred to Yehudah as a lion cub, since, although he did not yet have a kingdom, he ruled over his brothers, and was destined for sovereignty. He did not order Yosef's death 4 because he was like a lion crouching peacefully, as lions who caught their prey tend to do, and who do not arise to flee before any other wild animals that appear.


1

See Ba'al ha'Turim.

3

Refer to 49:9:2:1.

4

"Bni" actually refers to Yosef; he was telling him that he had escaped becoming Yehudah's prey (Seforno).

2)

From which prey did Yehudah remove himself?

1.

Rashi: From the killing of Yosef - of which Ya'akov had initially suspected him; 1 and from the killing of Tamar, when he admitted and declared "Tzadkah Mimeni!" (38:26).

2.

Rashbam: He was referring to after David had captured the nations and settled down in Yerushalayim. 2

3.

Hadar Zekenim: Hashem saved David from a lion and a bear. Due to this, he fought Galyus and rose.

4.

Riva: It was [only] from killing Tamar.


1

Refer to 37:33:1:2. He acquitted himself when he suggested throwing him into the pit - because there was nothing to be gained by killing him (See Vayeishev, Bereishis 37:26, and Rashbam's objection to this explanation.)

2

Refer to 49:9:1:3.

3)

What is the connection between the first half of the Pasuk and the second half?

1.

Rashi #1: Refer to 49:9:1:1.

2.

Targum Yonasan: Refer to 49:9:1:2.

3.

Rashi 2: It was because Yehudah displayed that great strength of character (refer to 49:9:2:1) that he earned the merit for his grandson Sh'lomoh to dwell peacefully in Eretz Yisrael, 1 like a lion and lioness in their lair. 2


1

"Each man under his vine ... " (See Melachim 1, 5:5). 2

See also Ba'al ha'Turim.

4)

רש"י: ממה שחשדתיך וכו': למה יעקב חשד דוקא ביהודה?

1.

גור אריה: יהודה היה מלך ולכן היה לו להתיירא ממלכות יוסף.

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