12th Cycle dedication

CHULIN 90 (25 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Yechiel Avraham Avigdor ben Eliyahu Glaser z'l, by his brother Yisrael and family. May Avigdor's young children merit to grow in Torah and Yiras Shamayim, and become sources of pride and Nachas to their father in Gan Eden.

[90a - 40 lines; 90b - 45 lines]

**************GIRSA SECTION*************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Gemara 90a [line 19]:

"Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak Amar l'Ha'aloso P'ligi" רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר להעלותו פליגי

Rashi's Girsa is: "Le'Chaltzo P'ligi" לחלצו פליגי (see DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #10, 20)

[2] Gemara 90b [line 33]:

the words "Shiv'im u'Shnayim Nirim"שבעים ושנים נירים

should be "Shiv'im u'Shnayim Nimin" שבעים ושנים נימין (MAHARSHA; see below, entry #26a)

[3] Rashi 90b DH Marei Deichi מרי דיכי:

The words "Havin Devarecha"הבין דבריך

should be pronounced "Havein Devarecha"

[4] Rashi 90b DH Shelamim שלמים:

The word "v'Lishkoseihem" ולשכותיהם

should read "b'Lishkoseihem" בלשכותיהם


1)[line 3]איסורו נוהג בבני נחISURO NOHEG B'VEN NOACH- according to Rebbi Yehudah, Benei Noach are prohibited to eat the Gid ha'Nasheh (Daf 100b)

2)[line 7]אימר דשמעת ליה לרבי יהודה בטמאה דאיסור לאוEIMAR D'SHAM'AS LEI L'REBBI YEHUDAH B'TEME'AH D'ISUR LAV- perhaps Rebbi Yehudah only rules that the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is added onto a non-Kosher animal ("Isur Chal Al Isur" — see Background to Chulin 89:39), which is only prohibited by a negative commandment for which the punishment is lashes (and not onto Kodshim, for which the punishment is Kares)

3)[line 10]במבכרת עסקינן דברחם קדושB'MEVAKERES ASKINAN DEB'RECHEM KADOSH- we are dealing with an animal that is giving birth for the first time, and her fetus is a male. As such, the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh applies at the same time that the animal become Hekdesh with the Kedushah of Bechor (see Background to Chulin 41:29)

4)[line 11]ולדות קדשים בהווייתן הן קדושיםVELADOS KODASHIM B'HAVAYASAN HEN KEDOSHIM

See Background to Chulin 89:41

5)[line 19]לחלצוL'CHALTZO- to extract it, i.e. to remove all of the Gid ha'Nasheh

6a)[line 21]עצמותATZAMOS- the bones

b)[line 21]גידיןGIDIN- and the veins, sinews, nerves

c)[line 22]קרניםKARNAYIM- and the horns

d)[line 22]טלפיםTELAFIM- and the hoofs

7)[line 22]פרשוPERSHU- they became separated from the animal

8)[line 26]אפילו בראשו של מזבח, ירדוAFILU B'ROSHO SHEL MIZBE'ACH, YERDU- even if they are on top of the Mizbe'ach, they shall be taken off (lit. down)

9)[line 32]בפוקעיןB'POK'IN- (O.F. esclater) in the portions that spring [out of the fire and] off the Mizbe'ach

10)[line 32]עיכולי בשרIKULEI BASAR- half-burned pieces of flesh


11)[line 2]ממשקה ישראל מן המותר לישראלMI'MASHKEI YISRAEL, MIN HA'MUTAR L'YISRAEL

(a)The verse states "v'Seh Achas Min ha'Tzon Min ha'Masayim mi'Mashkei Yisrael l'Minchah ul'Olah veli'Shelamim l'Chaper Aleihem" - "And one lamb out of the flock, out of two hundred, out of the well watered pastures of Yisrael, for a Korban Minchah and for a Korban Olah and for Korbenos Shelamim, to atone for them" (Yechezkel 45:15). The Gemara uses the term "Mashkeh Yisrael" in a different context, translating it as "the drink of Yisrael," i.e. that which is permitted to the Jews.

(b)The Beraisa (Pesachim 48a) expounds this verse and teaches various Halachos about the Korbanos, one of them that they must come from food that is permitted to Jews.

12)[line 5]חולצו לתפוחCHOLTZO LA'TAPU'ACH- it is removed to the Tapu'ach, the rounded mound of ash from the Korbanos that was in the center of the Mizbe'ach

13)[line 6]מרי דיכי!MAREI DICHI!- (lit. the master of this [teaching]) Master of this teaching! (an exclamation)

14)[line 10]מכבדו לאמהMECHABDO LA'AMAH- he (a Kohen) sweeps it into the Amah, the channel of water that ran through the Azarah, that was one Amah wide

15a)[line 13]"[וכי תגישון עור לזבח אין רע וכי תגישו פסח וחלה אין רע] הקריבהו נא לפחתך [הירצך או הישא פניך אמר ה' צבקות.]"... HAKRIVEHU NA L'FECHASECHA, HA'YIRTZECHA O HA'YISA FANECHA? ..."- "[And if you offer a blind animal as a sacrifice, has no sin been commited? And if you offer a lame or a sick animal, has no sin been commited?] Should you offer such to your [human] governor; would he be pleased with you, or would he find favor in you?" (Malachi 1:8).

b)[line 13]הקריבהו נא לפחתך הירצך או הישאHAKRIVEHU NA L'FECHASECHA HA'YIRTZECHA O HA'YISA FANECHA

Any object that is vile or not as faultless as is possible, such that one would not present it to mortal rulers or officials, is unfit to offer as a sacrifice to HaSh-m. The Navi challenges Benei Yisrael that they would never bring to mortal rulers the disgusting animals that they used as Korbanos (Malachi 1:8).

16)[line 16]כשלש מאות כורKI'SHLOSH ME'OS KOR - like three hundred Kor (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, according to the various opinions. Therefore 300 Kor = 64,800, 74,670 or 129,600 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

17)[line 17]גוזמאGUZMA- an overstatement; a figure of speech that need not be taken literally

18)[line 19]לשון הואיLESHON HAVAI- exaggeration

19)[line 22]"... ערים גדלת ובצורות בשמים ...""... ARIM GEDOLOS U'VETZUROS BA'SHAMAYIM ..."- "... large, fortified cities in the sky ..." (Devarim 1:28)

20)[line 23]"[ויעלו כל העם אחריו והעם מחללים בחללים ושמחים שמחה גדולה] ותבקע הארץ בקולם.""[VA'YA'ALU CHOL HA'AM ACHARAV, VEHA'AM MECHALELIN BA'CHALILIM U'SEMEICHIM SIMCHAH GEDOLAH], VA'TIBAKA HA'HARETZ [B'KOLAM]" - "[And the people went up after him (Tzadok ha'Kohen), and the people were playing on their flutes and rejoicing with great joy,] and the ground [practically] split (O.F. estorner) from their noise" (Melachim I 1:40) (The Overwhelming Sounds)

(a)David ha'Melech was old and bedridden. His son Adoniyahu, who was born immediately after Avshalom (David's oldest son, who was no longer alive), took advantage of the situation. Encouraged by Yo'av, David's erstwhile commander of the army, and by Evyasar, the deposed Kohen Gadol, Adoniyahu invited all of the king's sons (with the obvious exception of Shlomo) and the men of Yehudah, and he had himself announced king. He did not invite Nasan ha'Navi, Benayahu (the head of Beis Din), the strong men, and other notables who were close to the king.

(b)When Nasan ha'Navi heard about this, he immediately informed Bas Sheva (the mother of Shlomo, whom David had promised would replace him on the throne), who promptly brought news of the rebellion to her husband, the king, and reminded him of his promise to her. Nasan joined her and added weight to her words. Realizing the urgency of the situation, he ordered them to ride Shlomo on his personal mule, since only another king is permitted to ride on the king's mule. As final proof that he had appointed Shlomo as his successor, they were to seat Shlomo on the throne.

(c)Tzadok, Nasan, and Benayahu, and the Kereisi and Peleisi (the archers and the sling-shooters, or the Urim v'Tumim), followed David's instructions to the letter. Finally, Nasan took the horn with the anointing oil and anointed Shlomo. They blew the Shofar, and all of the people proclaimed, "Long live the king!" The people began to play the flutes and an atmosphere of rejoicing filled the streets. They seated Shlomo on David's throne.

(d)Adoniyahu and his guests heard the overwhelming sound but did not know what it was. Under the assumption that Yonasan, the son of Evyasar the Kohen, who had just arrived, was a harbinger of good news, Adoniyahu asked Yonasan about the noise. Yonasan told them exactly what had happened, and they realized that their uprising had been defeated. The rebellion was over, and all those who were connected with it dispersed.

21)[line 28]על פתחו של היכלAL PISCHO SHEL HEICHAL- at the door of the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash

22)[line 28]ומודלה על גבי כלונסותU'MUDLEH AL GABEI KELUNSOS- and hung from thin beams, poles (O.F. treille - a trellis)

23a)[line 29]גרגירGARGIR- berry, grape

b)[line 30]אשכולESHKOL- cluster

24)[line 32]רבי שמעון הסגןREBBI SHIMON HA'SEGAN- Rebbi Shimon, the deputy Kohen Gadol

25)[line 32]פרוכתPAROCHES- the curtain for the entrances of the (a) Ulam (RASHI, 1st explanation); or (b) Kodesh ha'Kodashim (the opening in the Amah Teraksin) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

26a)[line 33]ניריםNIRIM- (O.F. lices) threads hanging from a loom with a ring (or two knots) in their center, through each of which passes one thread of the warp (See above, Girsa Section #2)

b)[line 33]נימהNIMA- thick thread, string, cord (a twist of the warp)

c)[line 33]חוטיןCHUTIN- the thin threads that make up the Nimin

27)[line 35]ושלש מאות כהנים מטבילין אותהV'SHELOSH ME'OS KOHANIM MATBILIN OSAH- three hundred Kohanim are needed to immerse it into a Mikvah. (According to the Vilna Ga'on, this figure is literal; three hundred Kohanim were needed to immerse it. One or more of the other details of the Paroches is exaggerated.)

28)[line 39]דעת נוטהDA'AS NOTEH- (O.F. sospecier) the logical inclination

29)[line 39]נותרNOSAR

(a)If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it is termed "Nosar" and it must be burned. With regard to the Korban Pesach, the verse states, "Do not leave any of it (i.e. the Korban Pesach) over until the morning. Anything that is left over until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). The repetition of the phrase "until the morning" signals that the verse is referring to the mornings of two different days, and can be understood as follows: "Do not leave any of the Korban Pesach over until the morning (which is Yom Tov). If anything is left over, on the following morning (which is Chol ha'Moed), it must be burned."

(b)The Torah warns us four times not to allow the meat of a Korban to remain past the time during which it may be eaten, each of which is counted as an individual Mitzvah. The first three apply to specific Korbanos (Korban Pesach, in Shemos 12:10 and SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #8; Korban Pesach Sheni, in Bamidbar 9:12 and Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #382; the Chagigah that is brought with the Pesach, in Devarim 16:4 and Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #486). The fourth time this prohibition is written is with regard to the Korban Todah (Vayikra 7:15 and 22:30), which serves as the source for the prohibition of leaving over meat from any Korban after the allotted time (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #142). (The Minchas Chinuch 8:5 suggests that the latter Lav applies even to the three Korbanos for which the Isur of Nosar is written explicitly; however the Acharonim reject his suggestion based on the Gemara in Zevachim 36a.)

30)[line 39]ישרפו לששה עשרYISARFU L'SHISHAH ASAR- shall be burned on the sixteenth [of Nisan]

31)[line 39]והוינן בהV'HAVINAN BAH- and we ask about it