[84a - 53 lines; 84b - 46 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Tosfos 84a DH Mah Chaya Sh'einah Kodesh :

The words "v'Yeish Lomar d'Einah Kodesh Bifnim ka'Amar"

should read "v'Yeish Lomar d'Anan a'Kodesh Bifnim ka'Amrinan" (Ritva; see Maharam)

[2] Tosfos 84b DH Kisuy :

The words "b'Chofer Guma"

should read "d'Chofer Guma"

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1)[line 1]V'LIFREKINHU (PIDYON HEKDESH)

(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash in its present state, the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," "redeeming from Hekdesh."

(b)If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is," it becomes Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf. An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish) (See next entry).

2)[line 1] HA'AMADAH V'HA'ARACHAH

(a)The verses referring to a Korban that became unfit due to a Mum (blemish) state, "v'He'emid Es ha'Behemah Lifnei ha'Kohen, v'He'erich ha'Kohen Osah" - "He shall make the animal stand before the Kohen and the Kohen shall appraise it" (Vayikra 27:11-12). From here we learn that in order for an animal with a Mum to be appraised and redeemed, it must be alive.

(b)For the opinions of the Rabanan and Rebbi Shimon with regard to Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah, see Charts to Temurah 32b, #8.

3)[line 3] SHECHITAH SHE'EINAH RE'UYAH

See Background to Chulin 81:6.

4)[line 7] V'NASIV LAH ALIBA D'TANA'EI- he quoted it according to the opinions of [two] Tana'im

5)[line 21] YAKOV MINA'AH- Yakov, the heretic

6)[line 22]L'SIMANIN- that it must have the signs of being Kosher (completely split hoofs, chews its cud)

7)[line 26] YATBILU BO- [it should be permitted] to immerse in it [people and objects that need to be immersed]

8)[line 26]" ...""ACH MA'YAN U'VOR MIKVEH MAYIM YIHEYEH TAHOR"- "But a spring or a well wherein is an accumulation of water shall be Tahor..." (Vayikra 11:36).

9)[line 27] , HANEI IN, MIDI ACHRINA LO - these are fit for immersing; other things (such as blood) are not (TAHARAS TEVILAH)

(a)The Torah that rainwater is Metaher (purifies) only when it is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the rainwater is flowing (e.g. down a slope, known as Chardelis or Katafras), it cannot be Metaher. (RABEINU HAI GA'ON is Gores Hardelis, which is made up of "Har" - a mountain, and "Dalis" - "[the water] that it suspends.")

(b)There must be at least forty Se'ah of rainwater in a Mikvah in order for it to be Metaher, which is approximately equal to 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)Spring water is Metaher both while it is flowing (Zochelin) as in a river, and when it is collected in a cavity.

10)[line 30] MA'AYAN MAYIM U'VOR MAYIM- that is, the word "Mayim" from the same verse (see above, entry #8) applies equally to Ma'ayan and to Bor, to exclude other liquids that are not compared to water and blood, that is compared to water

11a)[line 32]ZOCHELIN- flowing liquids

b)[line 32]MECHUNASIN- collected liquids (as in a well)

12a)[line 35]AVAZIN- domesticated geese

b)[line 36]TARNEGOLIM- domesticated chickens

13)[line 37] LO YOCHAL ADAM BASAR ELA B'HAZMANAH ZOS- one should only eat meat with this approach (i.e. as if it were infrequently hunted, so that one does not become poor buying meat)

14)[line 38]" ' [ , , ' ,' ; ]""KI YARCHIV HASH-M EL-KECHA ES GEVULCHA [KA'ASHER DIBER LACH, V'AMARTA 'OCHELAH VASAR,' KI SE'AVEH NAFSHECHA LE'ECHOL BASAR; B'CHOL AVAS NAFSHECHA TOCHAL BASAR]"- "When HaSh-m your G-d will expand your boundary [as He has spoken to you, and you say, 'I want to eat meat,' because your soul craves to eat meat; then you may eat meat according to the craving of your soul]" (Devarim 12:20).

15)[line 40] LO YOCHAL ADAM BASAR ELA L'TEI'AVON- one should only eat meat when he has a craving for it (every so often, irregularly)

16)[line 44][][L']LIFSO- [for] his stew-pot

17)[line 48]" , . ; , ""KEVASIM LI'LVUSHECHA, U'MECHIR SADEH ATUDIM. V'DEI CHALEV IZIM; L'LACHMECHA L'LECHEM BEISECHA, V'CHAYIM L'NA'AROSECHA"- "[Wear] wool (lit. sheep) for your clothes, and [buy] goats for the selling price of a field. A person should suffice with the milk of the kid goats and lambs of his house; [the needs for] your food should preempt [the needs for] the food of your household (since they depend upon you first and foremost), and you should teach them the paths of life (to make do without excesses)" (Mishlei 27:26-27).

18)[line 48]GEZ- shearings, fleece

19)[line 49]ATUDIM- male goats

84b----------------------------------------84b

20)[line 3] ...V'AMAR REBBI YOCHANAN, KASA D'CHARASHIN...- Rebbi Yochanan's advice about not drinking warm water is included in the Gemara here merely because the Gemara quotes Rebbi Yochanan's other statements about meat and money (RABEINU GERSHOM). Even though Rebbi Yochanan made many statements, this statement is more pertinent to the subject here because it involves Rebbi Yochanan's health-related advice.

21)[line 4] KASA D'CHARSHIN- a cup of witchcraft, sorcery

22)[line 4]FOSHRIN- of tepid water

23a)[line 5] KLEI MATACHOS- metal utensils

b)[line 5] KLEI CHERES- earthenware utensils

24)[line 7]TZIVYA- spice-wood, roots etc.

25)[line 9]TZAYITZ- boiled

26)[line 13] KISNA ROMISA- Roman (fine and expensive) linen

27)[line 14] ZUGISA CHIVARTA- white glass (crystal)

28)[line 15]TOREI- (a) bulls (for plowing) (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa TAVAREI - bull-drivers (who plow without inserting the point of the plow deep enough into the soil) (TOSFOS DH b'Torei, citing RABEINU CHANANEL)

29)[line 15] NAFISH PESEIDAIHU- where the loss is great

30)[line 18]" , ""TOV ISH CHONEN U'MALVEH, YECHALKEL DEVARAV B'MISHPAT"- "Good is the man who is gracious and lends [to the poor], economizing when it comes to his own needs" (Tehilim 112:5).

31)[line 25] ESHTOMAH KA'AMAR- (a) he has stated a questionable, untrustworthy ruling (O.F. estordison - dazing [of the mind]) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) according to the Girsa IY D'SHEMA KA'AMAR - if he has stated this ruling personally (not quoting any authority) (lit. if it is of his own name) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

32)[line 25] LISHMETUHA LA'AMOREI MINEI- (a) they should take out his tongue (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) they should take away his Amora (the Meturgeman, the scholar who expounds in a loud voice what the Chacham says in a low voice) in order to embarrass him (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

33)[line 28] VADA'AH DOCHAH SHABBOS - its "certainty" is Docheh ("pushes aside") Shabbos (BRIS MILAH)

(a)A Jewish father has a Mitzvas Aseh to see that a Bris Milah is performed on his son, as the verse states, "va'Yamal Avraham Es Yitzchak Beno..." (Bereishis 21:4). If he does not fulfill his obligation, Beis Din is required to have him circumcised (ibid. 17:10). If Beis Din is likewise lax or unable to fulfill this Mitzvah, when the boy grows up, he must have Milah performed upon himself (ibid. 17:14). The punishment for a man who is not circumcised and refuses to fulfill the Mitzvah of Milah is Kares (ibid., see RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Milah 1:1-2).

(b)The Mitzvah of performing the Milah on the eighth day after the child's birth overrides Shabbos. Thus, even though the procedure of the Milah constitutes a Melachah, it is permitted (and obligatory) on Shabbos. This is derived (in Shabbos 132a) from the verse, "uva'Yom ha'Shemini, Yimol Besar Orlaso" - "And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised" (Vayikra 12:3). However, Milah only overrides Shabbos when the obligation to perform it on Shabbos is certain, and not doubtful.

34)[line 31] TEKI'AS SHOFAR BI'GEVULIN

By Torah law, the Shofar is blown in every community, even when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos. The Chachamim were afraid that someone would carry the Shofar through Reshus ha'Rabim in order to learn how to blow it. They therefore decreed that the Shofar should not be blown on Shabbos except in the Beis ha'Mikdash.

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