[6a - 43 lines; 6b - 23 lines]
1)[line 5]שדריה ר''מ לאתויי חמרא מבי כותאיSHADREI REBBI MEIR L'ASUYEI CHAMRA MI'BEI KUSA'EI- Rebbi Meir sent him to buy (lit. bring) wine from the Kusim
2)[line 6]אשכחיה ההוא סבאASHKECHEI HA'HU SABA- an old man found him (according to TOSFOS DH Ashkechei, this is Eliyahu ha'Navi)
3)[line 7]"ושמת סכין בלועך, אם בעל נפש אתה""V'SAMTA SAKIN B'LO'ECHA, IM BA'AL NEFESH ATAH."- "And place a knife in your cheek, if you are a master over your soul." (Mishlei 23:2) - With this verse, the old man was telling him to desist from buying wine from the Kusim.
4)[line 11]הר גריזיםHAR GERIZIM- a settlement of the Kusim where the Chachamim found the Kusim who were there (who were only a minority) worshipping an image of a dove
5)[line 11]ור''מ לטעמיה, דחייש למיעוטאV'REBBI MEIR L'TA'AMEI, D'CHAYISH L'MI'UTA - Rebbi Meir follows his opinion elsewhere, where he is concerned for the minority
Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that we do not follow the majority if there is a Safek (a doubt), but rather we consider the matter to be still in doubt. (According to one opinion in TOSFOS, Rebbi Meir only considers it a Safek mid'Rabanan, for according to the Torah we can rely on a Rov - Tosfos to Chulin 12a DH Pesach, and to 86b DH Semoch; see Background to Yevamos 119:6.)
6)[line 15]"כי תשב ללחום את מושל בין תבין את אשר לפניך ושמת סכין בלועך, אם בעל נפש אתה,""KI SESHEV LI'LCHOM ES MOSHEL BIN TAVIN ES ASHER LEFANECHA. V'SAMTA SAKIN B'LO'ECHA, IM BA'AL NEFESH ATAH."- "When you sit before a Talmid Chacham to learn Torah from him, [there are two possibilities: if you know that he will be able to answer your questions, ask and] you will understand. [But if you know that he will not be able to answer your questions,] realize just who is before you and keep quiet, as if a knife were at your throat, if you are a master over your soul." (Mishlei 23:1-2)
7)[line 17]להחזיר לו טעםL'HACHZIR LO TA'AM- to answer with answers of significant import
8)[line 18]פרוש הימנוPEROSH HEIMENU- leave him
9)[line 24]לבטל רשות וליתן רשותL'VATEL RESHUS V'LITEN RESHUS - to give (i.e. transfer) one's domain (before Shabbos) and to nullify one's domain (on Shabbos) (ERUV CHATZEIROS: BITUL RESHUS)
(a)THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) that has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(b)ERUV CHATZEIROS AND SHITUFEI MAVO'OS - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a "mixing of the courtyard" - Rambam Hilchos Eruvin 1:6; or a "fraternization of the courtyard" - Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mavo'os. This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again. (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)
(c)BITUL RESHUYOS - In the event that the inhabitants of a courtyard did not set an Eruv Chatzeiros before Shabbos, or the Eruv became invalidated in some way, carrying may still be permitted if Bitul Reshuyos is done. This is accomplished as follows: If none of the people in the courtyard made an Eruv, all of the inhabitants of the courtyard may nullify their domains in favor of one of the inhabitants. All of the houses/courtyards in the area are considered the private domain of the person chosen. If some of those in the courtyard made an Eruv together, those who did not may nullify their domains in favor of the collective domain of those who made an Eruv. A person who publicly desecrates Shabbos has the status of a Mumar such that he cannot be Mevatel his Reshus without making a legally binding transfer of property or rental.
(d)Bitul Reshuyos may be done as long as the following conditions are met: 1. The nullification is done in favor of a single person or a collective party that made an Eruv together; 2. Those who nullified their domains do not transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard or vice versa. Bitul Reshuyos only permits carrying in the courtyard and from the courtyard to the house of the person (or people) chosen. (If only one person was chosen, only he is permitted to carry from his house to the courtyard. If a number of people who made an Eruv together are chosen, then all residents of the courtyard may carry from the houses of those who were chosen to the courtyard - Eruvin 69b.) According to some Tana'im, the ones in whose favor the Bitul was done may carry from the house/s of the Mevatel to the courtyard as well (Eruvin 26b). If one of the homeowners who nullified his domain transfers from his house to the courtyard or vice versa, not only has he transgressed a prohibition, but he has repealed his nullification. It becomes once again prohibited to carry in the courtyard. (Eruvin 26a and RASHI ibid. DH Anshei Chatzer)
10a)[line 25]ישראל מומרYISRAEL MUMAR- a Jewish apostate
b)[line 25]משמר שבתו בשוקMESHAMER SHABATO BA'SHUK- who keeps Shabbos in public (lit. in the marketplace)
11)[line 27]כיצד?KEITZAD?- How [is this nullification done]? (This refers to a Jew who keeps Shabbos in public)
12)[line 28]קנהKANAH- he (the one in whose favor the Bitul was done) has "acquired" the domain [by the mere statement]
13)[line 28]ואינו צריך לזכותV'EINO TZARICH LIZKOS- and he does not need to make a Kinyan, a formally binding act of acquisition
14)[line 29]איקלעו לפונדקא דיאיIKLA'U L'FUNDEKA D'YA'EI- they chanced upon, happened to come to the inn of the town called "Ya'ei"
15)[line 29]אייתו לקמייהו ביצים המצומקות בייןAISU L'KAMAIHU BEITZIM HA'METZUMAKOS B'YAYIN- they brought before them shrunken roasted eggs, chopped up and mixed with wine (RASHI)
16)[line 30]לתערובת דמאיL'TA'AROVES DEMAI (TA'AROVES DEMAI)
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
(f)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "What is this?").
(g)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
(h)Our Gemara brings a Beraisa that states specifically that a person who buys food from an Am ha'Aretz into which produce of Demai has been mixed ("Ta'aroves Demai"), does not have to separate Terumos and Ma'asros.
17)[line 30]לאו אדעתאיLAV A'DA'ATA'I- I did not pay attention [to the fact there might be any problem with this dish]
18)[line 31]ומסתייעא מילתא דרב אסי למיכל איסוראU'MISTAIYA MILSA D'RAV ASI L'MEICHAL ISURA- and it should chance to happen that Rav Asi would eat prohibited food? (RASHI)
19)[line 33]נפק רבי זירא דק ואשכחNAFAK REBBI ZEIRA, DAK V'ASHKACH- (lit. Rebbi Zeira went out, checked and found) Rebbi Zeira checked into the sources and found the following Beraisa
20)[line 34]המורייסHA'MORIYAS- fish brine
21)[line 34]האלונתיתHA'ALONTIS- (O.F. poison - a drink, potion) vintage wine mixed with clear, cold water and balsam oil
22)[line 34]כרשיניןKARSHININ- the beans of a species of vine, probably the horse-bean (which is rarely used as human food)
23)[line 34]טחיניןTECHININ- a food made from beans mixed with spices
24)[line 34]עדשיםADASHIM- lentils
25)[line 35]רסיסיןRESISIN- a food made from lentils
26a)[line 35]חייב משום דמאיCHAYAV MISHUM DEMAI- that is, one must separate the appropriate Terumos and Ma'asros as with all Demai, if he buys the ingredients from an Am ha'Aretz
b)[line 35]ואין צריך לומר משום ודאיV'EIN TZARICH LOMAR MISHUM VADAI- and it goes without saying that he must separate Terumos and Ma'asros from the produce if the seller says that he did not separate them at all
27)[line 35]והן עצמן מותריןV'HEN ATZMAN MUTARIN- and they themselves (the foods that contain mixtures of Demai) are exempt from separating Terumos and Ma'asros
28)[line 37]לשאורL'SE'OR- sourdough, a very heavily fermented dough that is mixed with fresh dough to cause it to rise
29)[line 37]ותבליןV'TAVLIN- and spices
(a)SEFICHIN - Sefichin are plants that grow by themselves in the Shemitah year. The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. They must be considered ownerless. Anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. 3. The Torah also requires that they be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.
(b)The word "Sefichim" means "aftergrowth," i.e. that they grew by themselves and were not planted for harvesting this year. According to the Torah, Sefichim may be eaten. The Rabanan decreed that Sefichin of vegetables and grains not be eaten, since the people might plant their fields and claim that the produce grew by itself.
See above, entry #16.
32)[line 41]וטעמא לא בטילV'TAIMA LO VATIL - the taste is not nullified (MIN B'MINO)
(a)When a forbidden object is mixed with a permitted object, the mixture may be prohibited to be eaten mid'Oraisa, prohibited to be eaten mid'Rabanan, or permitted to be eaten, as follows:
1.If most of the mixture is Isur, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa.
2.If most of the mixture is Heter, but the Isur is more than one sixtieth of the Heter, i.e. the Isur is "Nosen Ta'am" (lends taste) to the Heter, it is prohibited mid'Rabanan (since "Ta'am k'Ikar," the "taste" is like the essence is a Din d'Rabanan - there are those who prohibit this mixture mid'Oraisa, when the two mixed substances are unidentical ("Min beshe'Eino Mino"), asserting that "Ta'am k'Ikar" is mid'Oraisa).
3.If the amount of Isur is less than one sixtieth of the Heter, and is not Nosen Ta'am to the Heter, the mixture is permitted.
(b)The above applies when unidentical substances are mixed (e.g. they were cooked together and the Isur is Nosen Ta'am to the Heter). However, when a liquid mixes with an identical liquid, the Tana'im argue as to the status of the mixture. According to Rabanan, since identical substances are not Nosen Ta'am to each other at all, the Isur can be nullified by a majority of Heter (and sixty parts of Heter are not required). According to Rebbi Yehudah, the opposite is true. Even a miniscule amount of Isur prohibits the mixture, since mid'Oraisa the Isur is not nullified at all. (When two identical dry substances become mixed together, all agree that the majority in the mixture determines the mixture's Halachic status - TOSFOS to Yevamos 82a, DH Rebbi Yehudah. See, however, RASHI cited by Tosfos 81b DH Rebbi Yehudah.)
33)[line 41]ולחלופי לא חיישינן?UL'CHALUFEI LO CHAISHINAN?- (lit. And do we not suspect a substitution?) And do we not suspect that the wife of an Am ha'Aretz will substitute her own ingredients for the ingredients that the Chaver gave to her? Why does the Beraisa rule that in this case, the Chaver does not have to worry about the food that his neighbor cooked or baked for him?
34)[line 41]לחמותוL'CHAMOSO- his mother-in-law (who was the wife of an Am ha'Aretz)
35)[line 41]מעשר את שהוא נותן להME'ASER ES SHE'HU NOSEN LAH- he must separate Terumos and Ma'asros from the ingredients that he gives her (the normal Halachah of Terumos and Ma'asros, lest she exchange his produce for hers, and she eat untithed food)
36)[line 42]שחשודה מחלפת המתקלקלCHASHUDAH MACHLEFES HA'MISKALKEL- she is suspected of exchanging the spoiled [bread that she baked for her own fresh bread]
37)[last line]ובושה מחתנהU'BOSHAH ME'CHASANAH- she is embarrassed because of her son-in-law
38)[line 1]לפונדקיתPUNDAKIS- a woman innkeeper (who is the wife of an Am ha'Aretz)
39)[line 4]מוריא ואמרהMORYA V'AMRAH- she rules [to herself] and says [that it is permitted to exchange the cold bread that she baked for him with his ingredients for her own hot bread] (RASHI, TOSFOS)
40)[line 4]בר בי רב ליכול חמימא ואנא איכול קריראBAR BEI RAV LEICHOL CHAMIMA V'ANA EICHOL KERIRA- (a) the Chaver shall eat the hot bread and I shall eat the cold bread (RASHI); (b) Shall that Chaver eat hot bread and I eat cold bread [when I have made such an effort for him]? (TOSFOS)
41)[line 6]אשת חברESHES CHAVER - the wife of a Chaver
(a)A Chaver is a Talmid Chacham who is meticulous in his observance of the Halachah. A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta to Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara (Bechoros 30b) explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.
(b)The wife of a Chaver, his daughters, slaves and the members of his household have the same status as the Chaver, even after his death, as long as there is no evidence to prove that they are not acting appropriately (Avodah Zarah 39a).
42)[line 6]טוחנתTOCHENES- she helps turn the grinding mill while the wife of the Am ha'Aretz is grinding her husband's wheat (RASHI)
43)[line 12]תורא מדישיה קאכילTORA MI'DISHEI KA'ACHIL- an ox may eat from what it threshes (likewise, the wife of the Am ha'Aretz reasons that her friend is entitled to eat from the food that she is helping to prepare)
44)[line 14]עלה של ירקALEH SHEL YARAK- a leaf of a leafy vegetable
45)[line 14]בבית שאןBEIS SHE'AN- a city in the portion of Menasheh south of Lake Kineret, that lies in a fertile valley. The verse states (Shoftim 1:27) that after Benei Yisrael entered the land, the men of Menasheh did not chase out the Kena'anim that lived in Beis She'an, rather, they levied taxes upon them. Similarly, when Ezra returned to Eretz Yisrael after the exile to Bavel, he did not sanctify Beis She'an to be considered a true part of Eretz Yisrael. Our Gemara and the Mefarshim (see YOSEF DA'AS) discuss the exact status of Beis She'an.
46)[line 15]והתיר רבי את בית שאן כולהV'HITIR REBBI ES BEIS SHE'AN KULAH (TERUMOS U'MA'ASROS BI'ZEMAN HA'ZEH)
See Insights and YOSEF DA'AS.
47)[line 18]"וכתת נחש הנחשת אשר עשה משה כי עד הימים ההמה היו בני ישראל מקטרים לו, ויקרא לו נחושתן.""V'CHITAS NECHASH HA'NECHOSHES ASHER ASAH MOSHE KI AD HA'YAMIM HA'HEMAH HAYU VENEI YISRAEL MEKATRIM LO, VA'YIKRA LO NECHUSHTAN." - "... and he chopped down the copper snake that Moshe made, since until those days Benei Yisrael burned incense to it, and they called it Nechushtan (alt. "... and he (Chizkiyah) called it Nechushtan, i.e., a worthless piece of copper)." (Melachim II 18:4) (Chizkiyah Destroys the Copper Snake)
(a)This verse is the Navi's introduction to one of the greatest and most righteous kings of Yehudah. He ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five and reigned for twenty-five years. To quote the ensuing verses, "he did what was right in the eyes of HaSh-m, just as his 'father' David had done. He trusted HaSh-m implicitly, and there was not a king before him or after him who could compare with him. He cleaved to HaSh-m... and fulfilled everything that HaSh-m had commanded Moshe. And HaSh-m granted him success in all his undertakings." The first of his numerous achievements was that he broke away from the heavy yoke of Sancheriv, king of Ashur, and he defeated the Pelishtim.
(b)The Navi relates that Chizkiyah "removed the Bamos, broke the Matzevos, and chopped up the copper snake that Moshe made." While in the desert, Benei Yisrael spoke out against HaSh-m and Moshe, "Why did you take us out of Egypt to die in the desert? There is no bread and no water! We are getting disgusted with this insubstantial food (the Man)." As a punishment, HaSh-m sent poisonous snakes to attack the people, causing a number of Benei Yisrael to die. The people came to Moshe and confessed their sin and asked him to pray for them. Moshe was instructed to make a copper venomous snake and put it on a pole. When people looked up at the snake, they would raise their eyes heavenward, repent and be cured (Bamidbar 21:4-9). Many years after entering Eretz Yisrael, Benei Yisrael began to worship the copper snake, calling it "Nechushtan." Chizkiyahu ha'Melech destroyed it to prevent this from continuing (Melachim II 18:4). This follows the Targum of Yonasan ben Uziel. According to RASHI and the RADAK (first explanation) to Melachim ibid., Chizkiyah called it "Nechushtan" as a term of ridicule to mean "a small worthless piece of copper," as if to say that it was nothing more than a copper snake and was not worthy of the significance the people were ascribing to it.
(c)The Gemara asks how it is possible that the two righteous kings Asa and Yehoshafat (who had made a point of destroying all other forms of Avodah Zarah that existed in Eretz Yisrael) had not destroyed the copper snake before Chizkiyah. The Gemara answers that Min Shamayim it was left for Chizkiyahu to do.
48a)[line 21]אסאASA- son of Aviyah; king of Yehudah, fifth in the line of David ha'Melech. He did what was right in the Creator's eye, like David his ancestor.
b)[line 22]יהושפטYEHOSHAFAT- son of Asa; king of Yehudah, sixth in the line of David ha'Melech. He following completely in the ways of his father, Asa
c)[line 21]אסא ... יהושפטASA / YEHOSHAFAT (KINGS OF YISRAEL: JUDEAN KINGS FROM DAVID UNTIL TZIDKIYAHU)
All of the following are son after son except where noted.
1.2882 Institution of Monarchy - Shaul chosen as king
2.2883 David anointed king by Shmuel
3.2884 Shaul's death; David rules over Yehudah (seven years and six months - Shmuel II 5:5)
4.2892 David rules in Yerushalayim over all of Yisrael (thirty-three years)
5.2924 Shlomo (forty years)
6.2928 Construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash
7.2964 Rechavam (seventeen years)
8.2981 Aviyam (Aviyah) (three incomplete years)
9.2983 Asa (forty-one years) [He did what was right in the eyes of his Creator, like David his ancestor]
10.3024 Yeshoshafat (twenty-five years) [He following completely in the ways of his father, Asa]
11.3047 Yehoram (eight years, two of which were during his father's lifetime)
12.3055 Achazyahu (one year)
13.3056 Asalya (daughter of Achav and mother of Achazyahu; six years)
14.3061 Yoash (forty years)
15.3100 Amatzya (twenty-nine years, one of which was during his father's lifetime)
16.3115 Uziyahu (fifty-two years, fifteen of which were during his father's lifetime)
17.3167 Yosam (sixteen years)
18.3183 Achaz (sixteen years)
19.Chizkiyahu (twenty-nine years) [There was none like him among all the kings of Yehudah]
20.3228 Menashe (fifty-five years)
21.3283 Amon (two years)
22.3285 Yoshiyahu (thity-one years)
23.3316 Yeho'achaz ben Yoshiyahu (three months)
24.3316 Yehoyakim (Elyakim) ben Yoshiyahu (eleven years)
25.3320 The first exile of Yehudah; Nevuchadnetzar took part of the vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash and youths of the Royal Family and brought them to Bavel
26.3327 Nevuchadnetzar returned and banished Yehoyakim to Bavel, but he died during the journey
27.3327 Yehoyachin (Yechonyah) ben Yehoyakim (three months)
28.3327 The second exile of Yehudah; after 3 months Nevuchadnetzar exiled Yehoyachin to Bavel. There were ten thousand men with him, among them the Charash and the Masger (Galus Yechonyah)
29.3327 Tzidkiyahu (Matanyah) ben Yoshiyahu (eleven years)
30.3338 Churban of the First Beis ha'Mikdash and the third exile of Yehudah (Galus Tzidkiyahu)
(copied from AM OLAM by RAV SHLOMO ROTENBERG a"h (with additions))