ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
CHAGIGAH 4 (23 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. Avy Reichman of Queens, NY, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Dovid ben Avraham, for the day of his Yahrzeit.
(a) Following Rav Papa's disclosure of the Beraisa 'Eizehu Shoteh, Zeh ha'Me'abed Kol Mah she'Nosnim Lo' - he comments that, had Rav Huna known of this Beraisa, he would have retracted from what he said (that one is not classified as a Shoteh for tearing his clothes alone).
(b) Even if Rav Huna had known about the Beraisa however - it is not certain that he would also have retracted from the other two cases. Perhaps he would have stuck to his opinion, that someone who goes for walks at night or who sleeps in a cemetery overnight only, is not yet classified as a Shoteh.
(a) The Beraisa precludes women from Re'iyah from "Yera'eh Kol Zechurcha". The Tana Darshens from ...
1. ... "Zechur*cha*" - that a Tumtum and an Androginus too, are precluded from Re'iyah.
2. ... "Kol Zechurcha" - that Ketanim are included.
(b) We need a Pasuk to preclude women from Re'iyah, despite the fact that it is a time-bound Mitzvah (from which women are generally exempt anyway) - because otherwise we would obligate them from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Re'iyah" "Re'iyah" from Hakhel.
(a) We just learned that the Beraisa precludes a Tumtum and an Androginus from Re'iyah from "Zechur*cha*". This is problematic as regards a Tumtum - because seeing as he may well be a woman, why would we even think to obligate him (since, if he is, he will be bringing Chulin to the Azarah - Tosfos DH 'Ela').
(b) This is not a problem as far as Androginus is concerned - because he is certainly at least a partial man (see Tosfos, ibid.)
(c) In order to solve the problem - Abaye establishes Tumtum by one whose 'Beitzim' protrude (giving him the same status as an Androginus).
(d) The Derashah "Kol Zechurcha" which includes a Katan in Re'iyah, refers to a Katan who has already reached the age of Chinuch (about which Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel in our Mishnah argue) - whereas our Mishnah, which precludes a Katan from Re'iyah, refers to one who has not.
(e) Chinuch is indeed only mid'Rabanan - and the Pasuk ("Kol") is only an Asmachta.
(a) In fact, "Kol Zechurcha" comes, not to include, but to exclude - 'Mekametz' (someone who collects dogs' manure by hand), 'Metzaref Nechoshes' (someone who purifies copper in the location of the mines) and 'Bursi' (a tanner), like Acheirim (Rebbi Meir). These are all Patur, because they emit a foul smell, and are not fit to go up to Yerushalayim together with all the males.
(b) We know that a slave is Patur from Re'iyah - because (through the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Lah" "Lah") the Torah compares him to a woman. Consequently, he is Patur from whatever a woman is Patur from.
(c) And when Rav Huna precludes from "el Pnei ha'Adon Hash-m", someone who has another master, says Ravina - he is referring to someone who is half-slave, half free.
(d) We support this explanation from the Lashon of our Mishnah 'Nashim va'Avadim she'Einan Meshuchrarin ... ' - implying half-slave, half free. Otherwise, the Tana ought to have just said 'Avadim'.
(a) The Beraisa initially Darshens "Shalosh Regalim", to preclude someone with a wooden stub in place of his foot. Besides someone who is lame or who cannot go on foot - the Tana then precludes a sick or a blind person.
(b) The Tana retracts from his initial explanation however - because he precludes someone with a wooden stub in place of his foot - from the Pasuk "Pe'amim" (as we learned above).
(c) By 'someone who cannot go on foot' - the Tana means someone who is so finicky, that he cannot walk without shoes (in which case, he is forbidden to enter the Azarah).
(d) The Pasuk in Devarim describes someone who enters the Azarah wearing shoes - as "Remos Chatzerai" (someone who tramples My courtyards).
(a) The Beraisa exempts an Arel and someone who is Tamei from Re'iyah. Despite the fact that a Tamei is forbidden to enter the Azarah, we need a Pasuk to exempt him from Re'iyah - because he could otherwise send it through a Shali'ach.
(b) The author of the Beraisa which exempts an Arel from Re'iyah is Rebbi Akiva - who learns that the double expression in the Pasuk "Ish Ish ... " (forbidding a Tamei Kohen to eat Terumah) comes to include an Arel in the prohibition.
(c) An Arel in this context - refers to someone whose brothers died because of the Bris Milah (and who is therefore forbidden to be circumcised).
(d) Rebbi Yochanan ben Dahavai Amar Rebbi Yehudah, in the same Beraisa, exempts someone who is blind in one eye from Re'iyah. He learns this - from the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Yera'eh" "Yir'eh" (that Hash-m wants to be seen in the same way as He sees us - as we explained at the beginning of the Masechta).
(a) Rav Huna wept when he arrived at the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Yir'eh, Yera'eh" (in Mishpatim - demonstrating how much Hash-m loves Klal Yisrael and wants to see them) - because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Mi Bikesh Zos mi'Yedchem Remos Chatzerai" (One minute he loves us so dearly, the next minute he rejects us totally!)
2. ... in Ki Savo "v'Zavachta Shelamim v'Achalta Sham" - (demonstrating how much Hash-m wants to eat at our table) - because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Lamah Li Rov Zivcheicham, Yomar Hash-m". (One minute Hash-m wants to eat at our table, the next, He distances Himself from us!)
(b) And Rebbi Elazar wept when he arrived at the Pasuk ...
1. ... "v'Lo Yochlu Echav La'anos Oso, Ki Nivhalu Mipanav" - because if the reproof of a human being (who only said 'Ani Yosef'!) can cause so much embarrassment, imagine how embarrassed we will be, when Hash-m rebukes us (in time to come, and says 'Ani Hashem'!)
2. ... "Va'yomer Shmuel el Shaul Lamah Hirgaztani La'alos Osi" - because if Shmuel ha'Tzadik, thinking that he was being called to the Heavenly Tribunal, was so afraid that he brought with him Moshe Rabeinu (which is what the witch saw), to testify that he had kept the entire Torah, how much more so ought we ordinary people be tremble before the great Day of Judgement.
(c) And Rebbi Ami wept when he reached the Pasuk in Eichah "Yiten b'Afar Pihu, Ulai Yesh Tikvah" - because 'Kuli Hai v'Ulai' (After all the suffering mentioned in the Pasuk, it remains only 'perhaps there is hope).
(a) Rav Yosef wept when he arrived at the Pasuk in Mishlei "v'Yesh Nispeh b'Lo Mishpat". It is possible to die prematurely - as we see from the strange story related by Rav Bibi bar Abaye, in which the Mal'ach ha'Maves' emissary made a mistake, and brought the Neshamah of Miriam the kindergarten teacher before the Mal'ach ha'Maves, instead of Miriam the ladies' hairdresser (better-known as the mother of Yeshu - see Tosfos DH 'Havah').
(b) He managed to take Miriam the kindergarten teacher's Neshamah, in spite of the fact that she was not yet destined to die - because she first burned her foot badly by placing a blazing faggot on it, and, once a person's Mazal is down, it becomes possible to take his Neshamah even before his time.
(c) To reconcile this with the Pasuk in Koheles "Dor Holech v'Dor Ba" (implying that everybody has his fixed time), the Mal'ach ha'Maves explained that when this happens, he withholds the deceased's body from Duma, until his or her official time arrives. In the interim, the body floats around the world.
(d) Duma - is the angel who looks after the dead.
(a) In a case such as the above, the spare years that are left over from the person who died prematurely - are given to a Talmid-Chacham who overlooks the offensive behavior of others.