ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) ) The Mishnah incorporates 'everybody' (with a few exceptions, in the Mitzvah of Re'iyah' - which comprises appearing in the Azarah before Hash-m on Yom-Tov together with an Olas Re'iyah.
(b) Among the many exceptions are 'Cheresh, Shoteh ve'Katan'. 'Cheresh' in this case refers to - someone who cannot hear, even if he is able to speak (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(c) ... and it applies even if he is able to hear with one ear.
(a) The Torah writes in Vayeilech (in connection with the Mitzvah of Hakheil) 'be'Vo Kol Yisrael Lir'os es P'nei Hash-m ... ". We learn from the words there ...
1. ... "Lema'an Yishme'u" - that someone who cannot hear properly (even with just one ear) is Patur from Re'iyah, and from ...
2. ... "u'Lema'an Yilm'du" - that someone who is dumb (even though he is able to hear) is Patur, too.
(b) A Cheresh and a Katan are Patur from Re'iyah - because, since they have no Da'as (i.e. lack in intelligence), they are Patur from all Mitzvos.
(c) A Katan's father becomes Chayav to take him to the Beis-ha'Mikdash to fulfill the Mitzvah because of Chinuch - as soon as he is able to take his father's hand and walk with him up to the Beis-ha'Mikdash (as we shall learn later).
(a) The three categories that the Torah precludes from the Mitzvah when it writes "Zechurcha" are - Tumtum, Androginus and women.
(b) Aside from the fact that Avadim are only Chayav the Mitzvos that women are Chayav, we can also learn that they are Patur from the Pasuk in Vayeilech - "be'Vo Kol Yisrael Lera'os" (and an Eved Cana'ani does not fall into the category of 'Yisrael'.
(c) And besides a person who is lame or sick) - we exempt an old person and one who is unable to walk on foot, based on the words "Shalosh Regalim".
(d) 'Someone who is unable to walk on foot' - means that he is too finnicky to do so.
(e) He must be unable to walk - from Yerushalayim to the Azarah (See Tos.uyom-Tov) in order to be Patur.
(a) The Mishnah learns from the Pasuk in Vayeilech "be'Vo Kol Yisrael Le'ra'os ... " that a blind person is also included in the list of those who are Patur from Re'iyah - by Darshening 'Lir'os "Lera'os" (just as one comes to be seen by Hash-m, who sees Kevayachol, so too, should one come to see the location of the Shechinah.
(b)And he is Patur even if he is blind only in one eye - just as Hash-m sees with both eyes.
(c) When the Tana writes that 'Everybody is Chayav Re'iyah', he comes to - a Chatzi Eved ve'Chatzi ben Chorin ...
(d) ... though this is not the Halachah - since a Chatzi Eved ve'Chatzi ben Chorin is Patur - due to the half of him that is an Eved (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The principle that governs the ruling exempting a Katan who cannot walk with his father from the Mitzvah of Re'iyah, based on the Pasuk "Shalosh Regalim" is - wherever a Gadol is Patur min ha'Torah, Katan is not subject to Chinuch.
(b) This is the opinion of Beis Hillel. According to Beis Shamai, at a father is obligated to take his child to perform the Mitzvah - as soon as the latter is able to ride on his father's shoulders from Yerushalayim to the har ha'Bayis (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) We learn the obligation to bring an 'Olas Re'iyah'Pasuk in Mishpatim - "ve'Lo Yera'u Panai Reikam".
(b) According to Beis Shamai, the Olas Re'iyah must cost at least two Ma'ah (of purified silver) - which are equivalent in weight to thirty-two barley-grains.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in ...
1. ... Bo "Vechagosem oso Chag la'Hashem" - that together with the Olas Re'iyah one brings a Shalmei Chagigah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... Re'ei "Ish ke'Matnas Yado" - that the las Re'iyah and the Shalmei Chagigah have no Shi'ur min ha'Torah.
(a) According to Beis Shamai, the minimum value of a Chagigah is one silver Ma'ah. Beis Hillel reverse the minimum value of the Olas Re'iyah (one silver Ma'ah) and the Shalmei Chagigah (two silver Ma'ah).
(b) They require the Shalmei Chagigah to cost more than the Olas Re'iyah - since unlike the Olas Re'eiyah, which is given entirely to Hash-m, part of it is also eaten by the owner.
(c) The source of both Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel regarding the Shi'ur of the Olas Re'iyah and the Shalmei Chagigah is - mi'de'Rabbanan.
(a) (d) The third Korban that one is obligated to bring on Yom-Tov, based on the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Vezavachta Shelamim Ve'achalta Sham, Vesamachta" (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is the Shalmei Simchah (that one is obligated to eat each day of the Chag).
(b) And from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Vesamachta Atah u'Veisecha" we learn - that women are included in the Chiyuv (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) When the Mishnah (which is missing a few words) says 'Olos be'Mo'ed Ba'os min ha'Chulin', is really issuing two rulings. The Tana is ruling that Olos ...
1. ... Nedarim and Nedavos can only be brought on Chol ha'Mo'ed (but not on Yom-Tov) and that ...
2. ... Re'iyah can even be brought on Yom-Tov, and that they must be purchased with Chulin money (and not with money of Ma'aser Sheini).
(b) Why would we otherwise have thought that one cannot bring the latter on Yom-Tov - seeing one has another seven days (the 'Shiv'as Yemei Tashlumin') on which to bring them).
(c) It is nevertheless permitted - because the Ikar Mitzvah is to bring it on the first day of Yom-Tov.
(d) When the Mishnah permits Shelamim to be brought (and Yom-Tov and) from Ma'aser Sheini money it is referring to - Shalmei Simchah.
(a) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over whether one brings the Shalmei Chagigah of the first day of Pesach from Chulin (Beis Shamai) or even from Ma'aser (Beis Hillel).In fact - the same applies to the first days of Shavu'os and Succos ...
(b) ... and the reason that they mention specifically the first day of Pesach is - to preclude the Chagigah that is sometimes brought on Erev Pesach and eaten together with the Korban Pesach ...
(c) ... if the group is too large to eat the Korban Pesach 'al ha'Sova'.
(d) And it differs from the Chagigah that is brought on Yom-Tov itself - inasmuch as it can be purchased with Ma'aser-Sheini money (See Tos. Yom-Tov), even according to Beis Shamai.
(a) The problem with Beis Hillel's opinion is - why he permits a Shalmei Chagigah, which is obligatory, to be brought from Ma'aser money?
(b) And we answer 'be'Tofel', which means - that it is speaking where there are a lot of participants in the Korban Pesach, and that one Chagigah will suffice for them all. So one brings the Chachigah with Chulin money and additional Chagigos from Ma'aser Sheini money (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) Which is permitted, because Beis Hillel holds - that, having fulfilled his basic obligation with the first Chagigah, he is permitted to bring the additional ones from Ma'aser.
(a) The Mishnah rules - that a Yisrael can fulfill his obligation of Shalmei Simchah with Nedarim and Nedavos (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?
(b) With regard to Kohanim fulfilling the same Mitzvah, the Tana lists - Chata'os, Ashamos and B'chor.
(c) He also includes ...
1. ... 'Chazeh ve'Shok' in the list, but precludes ...
2. ... birds (Chatas ha'Of) and ...
3. ... Menachos (See also Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah learn the above concessions from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Vesamachta be'Chagecha" - which incorporates whatever gives a person pleasure ...
(b) ... as long as it is via eating Basar, based on the principle -'Ein Simchah Ela be'Basar'.
(c) Basar Of is not included, since the Pasuk used the word "be'Chagecha", which implies meat that is eligible for a Chagigah.
(a) The Mishnah rules that someone who has a large family and is not wealthy) - brings many Shalmei Chagigah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) and few Olos Re'iyah, whereas a wealthy person who has a small family, on the other - does the reverse.
(b) We learned earlier about 'a silver Ma'ah and two silver Ma'ah' - about a poor person who has a small family.
(c) And finally, the Torah writes (in Re'ei) about someone who has a large family and a lot ot property "Ish ke'Matnas Yado ke'Virkas Hash-m Elokecha asher Nasan lach".
(a) When the Tana refers to 'Someone who did not celebrate (Mi she'Lo Chag) on the first day of Yom'Tov' is speaking about - a person who did not bring the Olos Re'iyah and Shalmei Chagigah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) on the first day of Yom-Tov ...
(b) ... who must then bring them any time during Yom-Tov (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) When he adds 've'Yom-Tov ha'Acharon shel Chag', he means - that on Succos, he still has Shemini Atzeres on which to bring them (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The source of the Halachah that Shavu'os too, has 'Seven days of compensation (Shiv'as Yemei Tashlumin) is - the Pasuk (in Re'ei) "be'Chag ha'Matzos, be'Chag ha'Shavu'os u've'Chag ha"Succos, which compares all the Yamim-Tovim to one another (See Meleches Sh'lomoh).
(e) The Pasuk in Koheles says "Me'uvas Lo Yachol Liskon ve'Chesaron Lo Yuchal Lehimanos" - refers to someone who failed to bring his Korbanos before the allotted time period ran out.
(a) Rebbi Shimon ben Menasyah applies "Me'uvas Lo Yachol Liskon" (See Tos. Yom-Tov) to someone who commits adultery or incest and who subsequently fathers a Mamzer. "Me'uvas she'Eino Yachol Liskon" ...
1. ... pertains to him - since the Mamzer that he has brought into the world is a stain that cannot be removed (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... does not pertain to someone steals and robs - since he is able to return what he stole (or its value).
(b) Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai comments that the word "Me'uvas" - refrs to someone who was initially straight and who became crooked afterwards ...
(c) and which must therefore be speaking about a Talmid-Chacham who left the path of Torah.
(a) When the Mishnah says ...
1. ... 'Heter Nedarim Porchin ba'Avir' it means - that there is very little in the Torah that teaches us the concept of Hataras Nedarim (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
2. ... 've'Ein lahem al Mah she'Yismochu' - and that one cannot really rely on that to have them rescinded.
(b) Ins real source is - Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai.
(c) The Tana then compares Hilchos Shabbos, Chagigos and Me'ilos - to mountains that hang on a hair ...
(d) ... because there are few Pesukim (See Tos. Yom-Tov) but many Halachos.
(a) However he continues, Dinin, Avodos, Taharos and Tum'os - and Arayos have a strong basis in the Torah itself.
(b) And when he concludes 'Hein Hein Gufei Torah!', he is referring - to all of the above, even the first category.