POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Rabbi Yisrael Shaw of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
CHAGIGAH 4 (23 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. Avy Reichman of Queens, NY, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Dovid ben Avraham, for the day of his Yahrzeit.
1) THE TYPE OF "SHOTEH" WHO IS EXEMPT FROM RE'IYAH (cont.)
(a) (R. Papa): Had R. Huna heard the other Beraisa that says
that a Shoteh is one who loses everything that is given
to him, he would have agreed to R. Yochanan, that it
suffices to do one act of insanity to be considered a
1. (Teiku): It is not clear, though, whether R. Papa
meant that R. Huna would have agreed only in the
case of one who tears his clothing (which is a
similar form of insanity to one who loses
everything), or he would have agreed in all three
cases as well.
2) THE SOURCE THAT ONLY A MALE IS OBLIGATED IN "RE'IYAH"
(a) (Beraisa): "Zachor" ("males;" Shemos 23:17) excludes
(b) "Zechurcha" ("your males") excludes Tumtum and
1. The verse teaches that an Androginus is a new type
of creature and is not a male, even though he has
male gender signs.
(c) "Kol Zechurcha" ("all of your males") includes children.
2. No verse is necessary to exclude a Tumtum, because
he is a Safek.
3. The verse is necessary to exclude a Tumtum whose
male genitals are on the outside (but his limb is
hidden), and thus is not a Safek but a male, and we
might have thought that he is obligated.
1. Question: The Mishnah (2a) says that children are
2. Answer: The Mishnah is referring to children who
have not reached the age of Chinuch, while the
Beraisa is referring to children who have.
3. Question: But even children who have reached the age
of Chinuch are only obligated mid'Rabanan and not
4. Answer: The verse is only an Asmachta (a scriptural
support for the rabbinical enactment).
5. Question: What, then, does the verse teach
6. Answer: "Kol Zechurcha" exempts men who smell bad as
a result of their professions, who are unable to
ascend with all other males because of their smell.
3) THE SOURCE THAT AN "EVED" IS EXEMPT FROM "RE'IYAH"
(a) A full slave is exempt because a woman is exempt, and a
slave keeps only the Mitzvos that a woman must keep, as
is learned from a Gezeirah Shavah.
(b) (R. Huna and Ravina): A partial slave (half slave, half
free) is exempt because of the verse, "[all of your males
shall appear] before the Master, Hash-m" (Shemos 23:17).
1. Only a person who has one Master (Hash-m) is
obligated, but not a slave who has another master.
2. The Mishnah (2a) exempts partial slaves when it
refers to slaves as, "Slaves who are not free," and
not simply as "slaves."
4) THE SOURCES FOR THE OTHER EXEMPTIONS IN THE MISHNAH
(a) (Beraisa): "Regalim" ("festivals," but also means "feet;"
Shemos 23:14) excludes a stump-legged person (who does
not have two feet).
(b) Alternatively, "Regalim" excludes a person who is lame
(Chiger), ill (Choleh), blind (Suma), or elderly (Zaken),
as well as one who cannot walk on his feet up to Har
1. "One who cannot walk" refers to a feeble person who
cannot walk without shoes.
2. Since it is forbidden to enter Har ha'Bayis while
wearing shoes, such a person is exempt.
5) OTHERS WHO ARE EXEMPT FROM "RE'IYAH"
(a) (Beraisa): An Arel (uncircumsized) is exempt, as R. Akiva
derives from a verse (Vayikra 22:4).
(b) A Tamei is exempt, since he is unable to enter the
Mikdash, and only one who is able to enter is obligated
to do so (Devarim 12:5-6).
(c) (R. Yochanan ben Dehavai): One who is blind in one eye is
exempt, as derived from the verse (Shemos 23:17).
1. The verse reads "Yera'eh" ("he shall be seen") and
is written "Yir'eh" ("he shall see").
2. This teaches that just like Hash-m comes to see you
with His two eyes, as it were, so too he comes to be
seen by your two eyes.
6) VERSES THAT MADE THE "AMORA'IM" CRY
(a) R. Huna cried at the contrast between Hashem's original
desire for us to come see Him on the festivals (Shemos
23:17), and His present rejection of us (Yeshayah 1:12).
(b) R. Huna cried at the contrast between Hashem's original
desire for us to eat at His table (Devarim 27:7), and his
present rejection of us (Yeshayah 1:11).
(c) R. Elazar cried at the comparison between Yosef's rebuke
of Yosef's brothers (Bereishis 45:3), and Hashem's
impending rebuke of us.
(d) R. Elazar cried at the comparison between the fear that
Shmuel ha'Navi had of his final judgment (Shmuel I 28:15)
and the fear that we must have.
(e) R. Ami cried at the verse, "Let one put his mouth in the
dirt, perhaps there will be hope (Eichah 3:29)" -- so
much, and only "perhaps!"
(f) R. Ami cried at the verse, "Seek righteousness, seek
humility, perhaps you will be covered on the day of
Hashem's wrath" (Tzefanyah 2:3) -- so much, and only
(g) R. Asi cried at the verse, "Hate evil, love good, and
establish justice... perhaps Hash-m will grant favor"
(Amos 5:15) -- so much, and only "perhaps!"
(h) R. Yosef cried at the verse, "There are those taken away
without justice" (Mishlei 13:23).
1. Indeed it happened that a woman was mistakenly taken
by the angel of death.
2. Her remaining years were given to a young Talmid
Chacham who endured insult.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Chagigah