BECHOROS 51 (4 Sivan) - Dedicated in memory of the family members of Mr. David Kornfeld (Rabbi Kornfeld's father) who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers in the Holocaust, Hashem Yikom Damam: His mother (Mirel bas Yakov Mordechai), his brothers (Shraga Feivel, Aryeh Leib and Yisachar Dov, sons of Mordechai), his grandfather (Reb Yakov Mordechai ben Reb David Shpira) and his aunt (Charne bas Yakov Mordechai Shpira, wife of Reb Moshe Aryeh Cohen z'l).

[51a - 47 lines; 51b - 35 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 51a [line 22]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6

[2] Rashi 51a DH Mishum Ones ד"ה משום אונס:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #14

[3] Rashi DH Hacha ד"ה הכא:

The words "Kol Makom she'Ne'emar" כל מקום שנאמר are unnecessary

[4] Rashi 51b DH Erech Erech ד"ה ערך ערך:

The words "b'Maseches Erchin" במסכת ערכין should be omitted since it is only found in the Toras Kohanim but not in Maseches Erchin (RASHASH)

[5] ibid:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #9


1)[line 1]זוזא מאכאZUZA MA'ACHA- a battered Zuz

2)[line 1]לא נפיקLO NAFIK- it cannot be spent

3)[line 9]הראיוןHA'RE'AYON (OLAS RE'IYAH)

Every Jewish male is required to appear before HaSh-m in the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash and to bring a Korban Re'iyah on Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos (Devarim 16:16). The Korban Re'iyah is a Korban Olah. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days. On Shavuos it may be brought on Shavuos or on the six days following the festival. Beis Hillel rules that the minimum amount that one must spend for a Korban Re'iyah is one Me'ah (Chagigah 2a).

4)[line 10](דרבונות) [דרכונות](DARBONOS) [DARKONOS]- Darkemons, a golden Median coin mentioned in Ezra 2:69, which had the value of two Sela'im (RAMBAM Shekalim 1:3) or one and one half Sela'im (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:12). Its Greek name was a Daric (TIFERES YISRAEL), related to the Darics, a Persian gold (and silver) coin. The Gemara quotes the Mishnah in Shekalim (2:1) that teaches that they exchanged the half-Shekalim with Darkonos in order to facilitate transporting them to Yerushalayim. They exchanged the half-Shekalim with coins and not with gems or diamonds, even though it would have been easier for them to carry gems which are smaller and more valuable than coins, because of the concern that gems might decrease in value.

5)[line 12]סיגהSIGA- base metal that has not been minted; non-purified metal

6a)[line 21]ריבויי ומיעוטיRIBUYEI UMI'UTEI - inclusions (qualifications that enlarge the scope of the law) and exclusions (KLALEI U'PRATEI / RIBUYEI U'MI'UTEI)

(a)In order to extract the Halachah from the verses of the Torah, many Tana'im interpret the verses on the basis of Klalim (generalizations) and Pratim (specifications). Others interpret the verses on the basis of Ribuyim (inclusions, i.e. qualifications that enlarge the scope of the law) and Mi'utim (exclusions).

(b)According to the approach that learns Klalei u'Pratei, when a Klal is followed by a Prat, which is followed in turn by another Klal, everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Prat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Prat is not included. According to the approach that learns Ribuyei u'Mi'utei, the outcome mentioned previously (for Klal u'Prat u'Chlal) is already achieved when a Ribuy is followed only by a Mi'ut. When a Ribuy is followed by a Mi'ut and the Mi'ut is followed in turn by another Ribuy, then everything is included except for one item that is totally dissimilar to the limiting Mi'ut. (This means that the verse will include more instances than the first opinion assumed.)

b)[line 25]כלל ופרטKLAL U'PRAT- see previous entry

7)[line 29]גופו ממוןGUFO MAMON- it has intrinsic value

8)[line 35]מרצעMARTZE'A - an awl (EVED IVRI - the Jewish slave)

(a)There are two ways that a Jewish man can be bought as a slave by another Jew. Either he may sell himself because he is destitute, or he may be sold by Beis Din to pay back a theft. During his term as a slave, his master must support his family (Kidushin 22b). The master may not make his Eved Ivri do disgraceful work for him, nor may he treat him as one normally treats a slave. For example, if the master has only one pillow, he must give it to his Eved Ivri rather than keep it for himself (Kidushin 20a).

(b)If the slave was married before he was sold, the master has the right to give him a Nochri maidservant to bear him children who will become the slaves of the master (Shemos 21:4). (One who is not an Eved Ivri is forbidden to have relations with a maidservant.)

(c)An Eved Ivri is obligated to work for his master for only six years (Shemos 21:2) or until the Yovel year (see Background to Bava Basra 112:6), whichever comes first (Kidushin 14b, 16a). At any time during his term, he may go free if he or someone else pays his master the money remaining from the sum that the master paid for him, prorated to the amount of time that he worked. If at the termination of six years he expresses his desire to continue life as a slave, the master takes the slave to Beis Din, and stands the slave near a doorpost and pierces his right ear and the door with an awl. This is known as Retzi'ah, and an Eved Ivri upon whom this is performed is called a "Nirtza." A Nirtza slave must continue to serve his master until the Yovel year (ibid. 21:6) or until his master dies. Whenever an Eved Ivri goes free, under most circumstances his master must give him monetary gifts valued at 15, 30 or 50 Sela'im, according to the various opinions (Kidushin 17a). This is known as Ha'anakah (Devarim 15:14).

9a)[line 36]סולSOL- (O.F. broche) a splinter of wood

b)[line 36]סיראSIRAH- a thorn

c)[line 37]מקדחMAKDE'ACH- an auger (a hand drill)

d)[line 37]מכתבMECHATEV- a metal stylus

10)[line 46]כ''מ שאתה מוצא שתי כללות הסמוכים זה לזהKOL MAKOM SHE'ATAH MOTZEI SHTEI KELALOS HA'SEMUCHIM ZEH LA'ZEH...- wherever you find two Klalim (general terms) written together followed by a Prat (a specific term), we interpret the verse in the same way as a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal (see above, entry #6b), i.e. as if the Prat is written in between the two Klalim.


11)[line 7]סתימתאSETIMTA- an unnamed authority; i.e. the Mishnah adopts his opinion without quoting his name

12a)[line 18]לא גמרת ויהיבתLO GAMARTA V'YAHIVAS- you did not resolve to give it

b)[line 19]מידעםבישM IDA'AM BISH [AVDAS]- you did a bad thing

13)[line 26]קרא לקרא?KRA L'KRA?- do we need one verse to support another verse (i.e., the one cited in the Mishnah)?

14)[line 32]אף כאן יורשין חייביןAF KAN YORSHIN CHAYAVIN- here, too, the heirs are obligated; that is, just as the children have to pay the Pidyon after the father's death since it was already incumbent on the father, so, too, the father must pay the Pidyon even after his son dies, since it was already incumbent upon him to pay it.