1) DISTANCING OVENS (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 4a)

משנה לא יעמיד אדם תנור בתוך הבית אלא אם כן יש על גביו גובה ארבע אמות

(a) (Mishnah): One may not set up an oven in his house unless there is a four Amah space above it.

היה מעמידו בעלייה עד שיהא תחתיו מעזיבה שלשה טפחים

(b) One may not set up an oven in an attic unless there are three tefachim of space below it;

ובכירה טפח

1. For a Kirah (a stove, which does not get as hot as an oven), one tefach (is enough).

ואם הזיק משלם מה שהזיק

(c) If the oven caused damage, he must pay for it.

רבי שמעון אומר לא נאמרו כל השיעורין האילו אלא שאם הזיק יהא פטור מלשלם

(d) R. Shimon: These distances were said in order to teach that if he damaged despite keeping the correct distance, he is exempt.

גמרא [היה עשוי כשובך מהו

(e) Question: (The beginning of the Mishnah discusses the airspace that is required above an oven.) What is the required airspace for an oven that has its opening on the side rather than on its top? (Note: This entry and the next one are repositioned from before the Mishnah. See note in the previous daf.)

נישמעינ' מהדא רבי יהודה אומר עד שתהא תחתיו מעזיבה שלשה טפחים ובכירה טפח. וכירה לא כמין שובך היא עשויה ותימר בין מלמעלן בין מלמטן טפח. וכא בין מלמעלן בין מלמטן שלשה טפחים]

(f) Answer (from the Mishnah): "R. Yehudah says (who the Gemara now says is the anonymous Tana there; one may not set up an oven in an attic) unless there are three tefachim of space. (Since the opening is on the top, the required airspace above is more than below.) For a kirah (stove), one tefach (is enough)." A kirah also has its opening on the side and the Mishnah teaches that a one tefach airspace above and below is sufficient. So too here, although an oven is hotter than a stove, thereby requiring three tefachim airspace rather than one tefach, since the opening is on the side, the airspace above can be the same as below, namely three tefachim.

תני ולא שלא נפחין.

(g) (Gemara) - Beraisa: Even a blacksmith (who uses his oven for his livelihood) must also distance his oven.

תנא רב קרנא אין הוה כגון קיני או כנפח מתחילה מותר.

(h) Rav Karna: If a smelter or blacksmith had his oven in the courtyard before the neighbor moved in, he may continue to leave it in its original place (even if the new neighbor objects).

כנגד דירתו מהו

(i) Question: When the Mishnah taught that he must pay for damage done by the oven, does this apply only if the oven damaged the attic, or is he always liable, even when it damaged the house itself?

אמר ר' אחא כל שכן כנגד דירתו.

(j) Answer (R. Acha): He would certainly be liable for damage done to the rest of the house.

א"ר יונתן המזיק אין לו חזקה.

(k) R. Yonasan: Even if the victim did not make the claim for many years, the offender cannot say that since the victim was silent for so long, he had clearly forgiven the damage.

ר' יהושע אומר ממחיי רבנין בעשן תדיר

(l) R. Yehoshua: When a person consistently burns things in the courtyard, he has no claim that since until this point nobody objected, he may continue.

כהדא חדא איתא הוות מדלק' חולין תחות ר' אילפיי איבעה ממחייא בידה

(m) Support: A certain woman would occasionally burn coals under the house of R. Ilfai. R. Ilfai wanted to protest this.

אתא עובדא קומי רבי נסה אמר לא אמרו אלא בעשן תדיר:

1. The case came before R. Nasa, who said, "The Chachamim only allowed a neighbor to protest against smoke because it is a constant offence, but since in this case it is only done occasionally, you may not protest."