1)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the sale of a dove-cot. What is a 'B'reichah' (in this connection)?

(b)What is the birth-rate of doves?

(c)What does our Mishnah say about someone who sells one year's fruit of his dove-cot'?

(d)Why is that?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the sale of a dove-cot, in connection with which a 'Bereichah' is a brood, consisting of two doves (a male and a female).

(b)The birth-rate of doves is one brood per month per annum, except for the month of Adar when they do not give birth at all.

(c)Our Mishnah states that someone who sells one year's fruit of his dove-cot' must leave the first brood for the seller ...

(d)... as company for the mother, to discourage it from flying away. And even if it does, continuity of the nest is assured, inasmuch as he will still have the two off-spring.

2)

(a)What is a 'Nechil shel Devorim'?

(b)What does our Mishnah say about someone who sells one year's fruit of his bee-hive'?

(c)How often does a swarm of bees appear in the course of a year?

(d)From then on, the purchaser may perform Sirus. What is 'Sirus'?

(e)Why does one do it?

2)

(a)A 'Nechil shel Devorim' is a swarm of bees, that generally perches on the branch of a tree (from where they are transferred to a bee-hive).

(b)Someone who sells one year's fruit of his bee-hive takes the first three swarms of young bees, leaving the rest for the seller.

(c)The swarms appear every nine or ten days (and produce a progressively inferior quality bee) three times or more annually (in Greece, there might be as many as seven or eight swarms).

(d)From then on, the purchaser may perform Sirus inducing the bees to stop reproducing (as will be explained in the Sugya) ...

(e)... thereby encouraging them to produce honey, because as long as they are busy reproducing, they will not produce honey.

3)

(a)What are 'Chalos D'vash'? What do they consist of?

(b)How many Chalos is one likely to find in a bee-hive?

(c)What is the purpose of the two honey-combs that the purchaser leaves the owner, if he purchased one year's fruit of the bee-hive?

(d)What does our Mishnah obligate Shimon to leave for Reuven, should he purchase the branches of his olive-tree?

3)

(a)'Chalos Dvash' are honey-combs, consisting of honey and bees-wax.

(b)One is likely to find in a bee-hive anything between ten and twenty honey-combs.

(c)The purpose of the two honey-combs that the purchaser leaves the seller, if he purchased one year's fruit of the bee-hive is to feed the hive during the winter.

(d)Should Shimon purchase the branches of Reuven's olive-tree, our Mishnah obligates him to leave two branches for the owner.

4)

(a)We query our Mishnah, which requires the purchaser of the fruit of a dove-cot to leave one brood of doves for the owner, from a Beraisa. What does the Beraisa say?

(b)How does Rav Kahana interpret 'B'reichah Sheni'ah' of the Beraisa to resolve the discrepancy? Why does the Tana refer to it as B'reichah Sheni'ah (and not Rishonah)?

(c)Why is it necessary to leave over another brood as company for the first one? Why will the company of their mother not suffice (like their mother requires only them)?

(d)And why will its sibling not suffice as company? Why does it need its off-spring?

4)

(a)We query our Mishnah, which requires the purchaser of the fruit of a dove-cot to leave one brood of doves for the owner, from a Beraisa which requires him to leave two.

(b)To resolve the discrepancy, Rav Kahana interprets 'Bereichah Sheniyah' of the Beraisa to mean a subsequent brood born to the first brood to keep its parents company (and the Tana refers to it as 'Bereichah Sheniyah' because it is from the second generation).

(c)It is necessary to leave over another brood as company for the first one (and not to make-do with the company of their mother [like their mother requires only them]) is because the attachment of a mother to a child is stronger than that of a child to its mother.

(d)Neither will its sibling alone suffice as company because every dove requires two birds (one of them, it's off-spring) as company. Consequently, the mother requires its mate and its off-spring, and its off-spring, its sibling and its off-spring.

5)

(a)How does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel explain Mesarsan' (stopping the bees from reproducing)? What does the owner do to achieve this?

(b)Do the mustard-seeds really stop the bees from reproducing? How do they quote Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina who explains it?

(c)Rabeinu Chananel explains Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina differently. How does he explain his words?

(d)Why is that?

5)

(a)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel the owner achieves u'Mesarsan' (stopping the bees from reproducing) by feeding them mustard.

(b)Not because mustard-seeds really stop the bees from reproducing, they quoted Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina as saying but because, due to the sharp taste of the mustard, the bees eat the honey in the combs, and, reaching a state of satiation, they stop reproducing.

(c)According to Rabeinu Chananel, what Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina means is that inducing the bees to eat the honey results in a larger swarm of bees next year (which is what 'Mesarsan' means [similar to Rebbi Yochanan's interpretation of the word]).

(d)The reason for this is because bees reproduce according to the number of empty holes there are in the honey-combs. Consequently, getting them to eat the honey in the holes, causes them to mate there, and to fill the holes with more bees.

6)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan interprets 'Mesarsan' quite differently. What does it mean according to him?

(b)Rebbi Yochanan however, appears to have ignored the 'Vav' of 'u'Mesarsan' in our Mishnah. The Halachah therefore, is like the Beraisa, which takes it into account. What does the Beraisa say?

6)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan interprets 'Mesarsan' quite differently. According to him it means that the purchaser alternates the swarms that he receives, to take the first, the third and the fifth swarm, whereas the owner takes the rest (thereby achieving a fairer distribution of quality honey).

(b)Rebbi Yochanan however, appears to have ignored the 'Vav' of 'u'Mesarsan' in our Mishnah. The Halachah therefore, is like the Beraisa, which, taking the 'Vav' into account, explains that the purchaser first takes the first three swarms, and that any ensuing swarms, he alternates with the owner.

7)

(a)Rav Kahana rules that honey in the beehive does not lose its status as food. What are the ramifications of this ruling?

(b)Rav Kahana might mean that even in the beehive, when there are times that the bees eat the honey (as we just learned), the honey retains its status as a food (until otherwise stated). On the other hand, he might be referring specifically to honey in the hive. In that case, what is he saying? What status will the honey have once it flows from the beehive?

(c)How will the Din of honey differ once it becomes a beverage?

(d)This appears to contradict a Beraisa, which says to the contrary. What does the Beraisa say about honey in a beehive?

7)

(a)Rav Kahana rules that honey in the beehive does not lose its status as food which means that it renders whatever touches it Tamei only if there is a ke'Beitzah of it (though it itself is subject to Tum'ah even when there is less).

(b)Rav Kahana might mean that even in the beehive, when there are times that the bees eat the honey (as we just learned), the honey retains its status as a food (until otherwise stated). On the other hand, he might be referring specifically to honey in the hive, in which case, what he is saying is as long as the honey is in the beehive, it is considered a food, but once it flows from there, it is considered a beverage.

(c)Once honey becomes a beverage its Shiur Tum'ah is (no longer a 'k'Beitzah, but) a Revi'is (ha'Lug).

(d)This appears to contradict a Beraisa, which states that honey in a beehive is neither a food nor a beverage.

80b----------------------------------------80b

8)

(a)Abaye resolves the problem by establishing the Beraisa by those two honey-combs (that the purchaser leaves the owner). How does this answer the Kashya?

(b)Rava disagrees with Abaye's interpretation of D'vash. He establishes the author of the Beraisa as Rebbi Eliezer. What does Rebbi Eliezer say in the Mishnah in Shevi'is, about a beehive and its contents which will explain why the honey inside it is not considered food?

(c)What does Rav Kahana say to that?

(d)Rebbi Elazar cites Rebbi Eliezer's source as the Pasuk in Shmuel (in connection with Yonasan ben Shaul) "va'Yitbol Osah be'Ya'aros ha'Devash". What does Rebbi Eliezer learn from there?

8)

(a)Abaye resolves the problem by establishing the Beraisa by the two honey-combs (that the purchaser leaves the owner as food for his bees for the winter) that are neither a food nor a beverage.

(b)Rava disagrees with Abaye's interpretation of Dvash. He establishes the author of the Beraisa as Rebbi Eliezer, who says in the Mishnah in Shevi'is that a beehive and its contents have a Din of Karka (which explains why the honey is not considered food).

(c)... whereas Rav Kahana follows the opinion of the Chachamim.

(d)Rebbi Elazar cites Rebbi Eliezer's source as the Pasuk in Shmuel (in connection with Yonasan ben Shaul) "va'Yitbol Osah be'Ya'aros ha'Devash" from which he learns that just as someone is Chayav to bring a Chatas for picking fruit from a tree on Shabbos, so too, is he Chayav for extracting honey from a beehive (a proof that the Torah considers both a beehive and the honey inside it, joined to the ground in this regard (only).

9)

(a)The Beraisa states that once honey has flowed from a beehive, it is neither a food nor a beverage. Why is this ...

1. ... not a Kashya on Abaye (in Rav Kahana)?

2. ... a Kashya on Rava (in Rav Kahana)?Why can Rava not simply establish the author as Rebbi Eliezer?

(b)To answer the Kashya on Rava, Rav Z'vid establishes the Beraisa where the honey flowed straight on to a dirty vessel (and the author must be Rebbi Eliezer). Why is that? With which point will the Rabbanan disagree?

(c)Rav Acha bar Ya'akov establishes the Beraisa where the honey flowed on to little splinters of wood. What will he hold in a case where it flowed on to dirty vessels?

9)

(a)The Beraisa states that once honey flows from a beehive, it is neither a food nor a beverage. This is ...

1. ... not a Kashya on Abaye (in Rav Kahana) because he will establish this Beraisa too, by those two honey-combs.

2. ... a Kashya on Rava (in Rav Kahana), who cannot simply establish the author as Rebbi Eliezer because the Tana specifically speaks about honey that has flowed from the hive (and that is no longer Karka, even according to him).

(b)To answer the Kashya on Rava, Rav Zvid establishes the Beraisa when the honey flowed straight on to a dirty vessel (and the author must be Rebbi Eliezer) because according to the Rabanan, who maintain that the honey is already a food inside the hive, it will not lose its status, until it reaches a stage where it is no longer fit for canine consumption.

(c)Rav Acha bar Ya'akov establishes the Beraisa where the honey flowed on to little splinters of wood. In a case where it flowed on to dirty vessels, he maintains it will still be considered a food.

10)

(a)Another Beraisa considers honey in the beehive neither a food nor a beverage unless one has specifically in mind either the one or the other. How will Abaye establish the Beraisa?

(b)How does this Beraisa pose a Kashya on Rava?

(c)We answer by establishing the Beraisa like Rebbi Eliezer. How do we amend the Beraisa (see Tosfos)?

(d)We finally cite a Beraisa in support of Rav Kahana. What does the Beraisa say about honey in a beehive?

10)

(a)Another Beraisa considers honey in the beehive neither a food nor a beverage unless one has specifically in mind either the one or the other. According to Abaye, this Tana too, is speaking about the same two honey-combs (which have been designated as bee-food, and have therefore lost their status as human food.

(b)This Beraisa poses a Kashya on Rava however because, in his opinion, designation is not necessary to render honey a food.

(c)We answer this by establishing the Beraisa like Rebbi Eliezer, and what the Tana is saying is that honey in the beehive is not considered a food (even after designation [see Tosfos DH 'T'ritz']).

(d)We finally cite a Beraisa in support of Rav Kahana which states that honey in a beehive is Metamei Tum'as Ochlin even without designation.

11)

(a)The Beraisa now discusses the sale of a tree. If someone purchases a tree to cut down and take away, for it to re-grow, he must leave one Tefach of the trunk standing, with some exceptions. How much is he obligated to leave of a ...

1. ... a Besulas ha'Shikmah (a sycamore-tree that is being cut down for the first time)?

2. ... a Sadan ha'Shikmah (a sycamore-tree that has been cut down before and has re-grown)?

3. ... bamboo-trees and vines?

(b)Why may date-palms and cedars-trees be taken out together with the roots?

(c)On what grounds does the Beraisa forbid cutting down a 'Besulas ha'Shikmah in the Sh'mitah-year?

(d)Rebbi Yehudah forbids cutting it down in the normal way, only above ten Tefachim or down to the ground. Why is that?

11)

(a)The Beraisa now discusses the sale of a tree. If someone purchases a tree to cut down and take away, for it to re-grow, he must leave one Tefach of the trunk standing, with some exceptions. For ...

1. ... a Besulas ha'Shikmah (a sycamore-tree that is being cut down for the first time) he is obligated to leave three Tefachim, and for ...

2. ... a Sadan ha'Shikmah (one that has been cut down before and has re-grown) two Tefachim.

3. ... bamboo-trees and vines he must leave from above the first knot in the tree.

(b)Date-palms and cedar-trees may be taken out by the roots because once they are cut (irrespective at which point) they will not re-grow anyway.

(c)The Beraisa forbids cutting down a 'Besulas ha'Shikmah in the Shemitah-year because it improves the tree, and the Torah writes in Behar "ve'Charm'cha Lo Sizmor".

(d)Rebbi Yehudah forbids cutting it down in the normal way, only above ten Tefachim or down to the ground neither of which enhance the growth of the tree.

12)

(a)What can we extrapolate from Rebbi Yehudah that creates an apparent discrepancy between this Beraisa and the previous one?

(b)How does Abaye differentiate between cutting a Besulas ha'Shikmah down to the ground and from there up to three Tefachim, to resolve the discrepancy?

(c)How does that answer the Kashya? What is the difference between Shevi'is and a purchaser in this regard?

12)

(a)We can extrapolate from Rebbi Yehudah that cutting down a Besulas ha'Shikmah is beneficial for the tree, as long as one leaves something above ground level (even less than three Tefachim whilst in the previous Beraisa we learned that one must leave specifically three Tefachim (implying that less than that is harmful to the tree).

(b)To resolve the discrepancy, Abaye differentiates between cutting a Besulas ha'Shikmah down to the ground which is positively harmful to the tree, and from there up to three Tefachim which is neither harmful nor beneficial.

(c)Consequently, with regard to Shemitah the Tana requires an act that harms the tree, whereas regarding a purchaser he requires one that is beneficial to it (in order for it to be forbidden).

13)

(a)Rebbi Chiya bar Luli'ani Darshens the Pasuk' 'in Tehilim "Tzadik ka'Tamar Yifrach, ke'Erez ba'Levanon Yisgeh". Having written ...

1. ... 'Tamar', why does the Pasuk find it necessary to write 'Erez'?

2. ... 'Erez', why does the Pasuk need to write 'Tamar'?

(b)How do we reconcile this with the above Beraisa, that a purchaser is permitted to pull palms and cedars out by the roots - because they will not re-grow anyway?

(c)What do an oak-tree, a pine-tree, a myrtle-tree, a box-wood-tree and a balsam-tree have in common?

(d)How many more trees, besides the cedar itself, belonging to the same family ...

1. ... does the Pasuk in Tehilim list?

2. ... do the Chachamim add to the list, according to the testimony of Rav Dimi?

13)

(a)Rebbi Chiya bar Luli'ani Darshens the Pasuk' 'in Tehilim "Tzadik ka'Tamar Yifrach, ke'Erez ba'Levanon Yisgeh". Having written ...

1. ... 'Erez', the Pasuk nevertheless finds it necessary to write 'Tamar' because whereas the former does not bear fruit, the latter does (symbolical of reward for his good deeds in the World to Come [or reward even for the indirect results of his good deeds]).

2. ... 'Tamar', the Pasuk nevertheless needs to write 'Erez' because whereas the former will not re-grow once it is cut down, the latter will (symbolical of his leaving behind children who are like him after his death [or of his ability to re-establish himself after having fallen]).

(b)We reconcile this with the above Beraisa, that a purchaser is permitted to pull palms and cedars out by the roots because they will not re-grow anyway by establishing the Beraisa by one of the many types of trees that belong to the family of the cedar, as we are about to see (whereas Rebbi Chiya bar Luli'ani is speaking about the cedar itself).

(c)An oak-tree, a pine-tree, a myrtle-tree, a box-wood-tree and a balsam-tree all belong to the family of the cedar.

(d)Besides the cedar itself ...

1. ... the Pasuk in Tehilim lists another one (the Shurvina-tree).

2. ... the Chachamim add another three an Alon and an Almon-tree (two kinds of oaks) and coral (others replace these with a laurel-tree and a Dulbi and K'sisa'i-tree (two kinds of chestnut-trees), according to the testimony of Rav Dimi.

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