1)

(a)Why does our Mishnah require a distance of fifty Amos between carcasses and graves and the town? What is the third item on the list?

(b)And why does the Tana Kama forbid opening a tannery anywhere other than on the east side of the town?

(c)What does Rebbi Akiva say about this?

(d)We have already discussed the Machlokes between the Chachamim and Rebbi Yossi. The Chachamim require Reuven to leave a distance between his soaking-house and Shimon's vegetable-garden, his cress and Shimon's onions and his mustard-seeds and Shimon's bees. What does Rebbi Yossi say about Reuven's mustard-seeds?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah requires a distance of fifty Amos between carcasses and graves and the town - because of the stench. The third item on the list is tanneries/

(b)The Tana Kama forbids setting up a tannery anywhere other than on the east side of the town - because (in contrast to the other winds) the east-wind is generally warm and gentle, and will not carry the smell into the town.

(c)Rebbi Akiva - permits setting up a tannery on any side of the town other than on the west.

(d)We have already discussed the Machlokes between the Chachamim and Rebbi Yossi. The Chachamim require Reuven to leave a distance between his soaking-house and Shimon's vegetable-garden, his cress and Shimon's onions and his mustard-seeds and Shimon's bees. Rebbi Yossi - permits Reuven to plant his mustard-seeds close to Shimon's bees.

2)

(a)Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah concludes with the words 'u'Marchik Chamishim Amah', by which he may mean that one may open one's tannery right up to the boundary of the town on any side except for the west, where he must keep a distance of fifty Amos. How might we alternatively explain Rebbi Akiva?

(b)We resolve this She'eilah from a Beraisa, where Rebbi Akiva specifically explains his opinion. What does he say there?

(c)Rebbi Akiva in the Beraisa concludes 'Mipnei she'hi Tedira'. Why, according to Rava, can this not mean that the west wind is the most common of the winds? Which of the winds is the most common?

(d)So what does Rebbi Akiva mean?

2)

(a)Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah concludes with the words 'u'Marchik Chamishim Amah', by which he may mean that one may set up one's tannery right up to the boundary of the town on any side except for the west, where he must keep a distance of fifty Amos. Alternatively, he means that - on any other side, one may set up one's tannery provided he keeps it at a distance of fifty Amos, except for the west side, where it is forbidden under any circumstances.

(b)We resolve this She'eilah from a Beraisa, where - Rebbi Akiva specifically conforms to the alternative explanation.

(c)Rebbi Akiva in the Beraisa concludes 'Mipnei she'hi Tedira'. According to Rava, this cannot mean that the west wind is the most common of the winds - because as we learned in the name of Rav, that is a privilege enjoyed by the north wind, which blows together with all the other winds ('otherwise, the world could not possibly exist').

(d)What Rebbi Akiva must therefore mean is that the west wind is 'Tedira bi'Shechinah', meaning that it is the one that is commonly found with the Shechinah, which is in the west.

3)

(a)What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi say, based on the Pasuk in Nechemyah "u'Tzeva ha'Shamayim L'cha Mishtachavim"? What does 'Tz'va ha'Shamayim' refer to?

(b)What objection does Rav Acha bar Ya'akov raise to this explanation? What else might the Pasuk mean?

(c)According to Rav Chanan bar Aba (or bar Rava) Amar Rav, the south wind is the strongest of the four winds. What stops it from destroying the world?

(d)Rebbi Oshaya disagrees. Based on the Pasuk in Iyov "ha'Sishlach Berakim va'Yeilchu va'Yomru L'cha Hinenu" (and not " ... va'Yeilchu va'Yavo'u va'Yomru ... "), how does he interpret Hash-m's uniqueness expressed in the above Pasuk in Nechemyah, which begins "Atah Hu Hash-m Levadecha"?

3)

(a)Based on the Pasuk "u'Tzeva ha'Shamayim L'cha Mishtachavim" - with reference to the sun and the moon), Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi states that - as they travel from east to west, they prostrate themselves before Hash-m, a proof that the Shechinah is in the west.

(b)Rav Acha bar Ya'akov objects to this proof however on the grounds that - the Pasuk may well be referring to their taking leave from Hash-m, and their prostration actually reflects their exit, which would then prove that the Shechinah is in the east.

(c)According to Rav Chanan bar Aba (or bar Rava) Amar Rav, the strongest of the four winds is - the south wind. What stops it from destroying the world is - an angel called ben Netz (because he was created in the shape of a hawk), who keeps the wind in check with his wings.

(d)Rebbi Oshaya disagrees. Based on the Pasuk in Iyov "ha'Sishlach Berakim va'Yeilchu va'Yomru Lecha Hinenu" (and not " ... va'Yeilchu va'Yavo'u va'Yomru ... "), he interprets Hash-m's uniqueness expressed in the above Pasuk "Atah Hu Hash-m Levadecha" as being the fact that - Hash-m's Shechinah is everywhere. Consequently, when his Sheluchim leave His presence, they do not need to return to Him to report on their Sh'lichus, but can do so wherever they are.

4)

(a)And what does Tana de'bei Rebbi Yishmael extrapolate from the Pasuk in Zecharyah "ve'Hinei ha'Mal'ach ha'Dover bi Yotzei, u'Mal'ach Yotzei Likraso" (rather than "Yotzei Acharav")?

(b)What does this prove?

(c)Rav Sheishes (who was blind) also prescribes to this opinion. What did he instruct his servant to do when the time came to Daven the Amidah?

(d)Why did he decline to face the east? Is it because he held that the Shechinah is not in the east?

4)

(a)And Tana de'bei Rebbi Yishmael extrapolates from the Pasuk in Zecharyah "ve'Hinei ha'Mal'ach ha'Dover bi Yotzei, u'Mal'ach Yotzei Likraso" (rather than "Yotzei Acharav") that - the second angel sent to negate the Sh'lichus of the first, did not follow him to give him the message, but came (from the presence of Hash-m) to meet him ...

(b)... a support for the opinion of Rebbi Oshaya.

(c)Rav Sheishes (who was blind) also prescribes to this opinion. Which explains why he instructed his servant - to place him facing in any direction except for eastwards, whenever the time came to Daven the Amidah,...

(d)... because that is the direction which the disciples of Yeshu turned when they prayed.

5)

(a)Rebbi Avahu on the other hand, is of the opinion that the Shechinah is in the west. Assuming that Uri'ah means west in Persian, how does he describe the word in acronym form?

(b)What else might 'Uri'ah' and 'Avir Kah' mean in this context?

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav establishes the Pasuk in Ha'azinu "Ya'arof ka'Matar Likchi ... " in connection with the four winds. Considering that the Pasuk is really talking about the Torah, why does he do that? What is the connection between the Torah and the four winds?

(d)"Ya'arof ka'Matar Likchi" refers to the west because it comes from 'Ma'arafo shel Olam'. This might mean 'the strength of the world', a reference to the west, because that is where the Shechinah is. What else might it mean?

5)

(a)Rebbi Avahu on the other hand, is of the opinion that the Shechinah is in the west. Assuming that Uri'ah means west in Persian, he describes the word in acronym form - as 'Avir Kah' (the area of Hash-m).

(b)Alternatively, Uri'ah might mean - 'east', in which case 'Avir Kah' refers, not to the area of the Shechinah, but to the area facing the Shechinah.

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav establishes the Pasuk in Ha'azinu "Ya'arof ka'Matar Likchi ... " in connection with the four winds. The Pasuk is really talking about the Torah - and the connection lies in the fact that Torah is indispensable, just like the four winds.

(d)"Ya'arof ka'Matar Likchi" refers to the west because it comes from 'Ma'arafo shel Olam'. This might mean 'the strength of the world', a reference to the west, because that is where the Shechinah is situated. Alternatively it refers to - the back of the world (since that is where the sun sets), and is a derivative of 'Oref' (the back of the neck).

6)

(a)In what way does the Pasuk in Ha'azinu ...

1. ... "Tizal ka'Tal Imrasi" refer to the north wind?

2. ... "ki'Se'irim alei Deshe" to the east wind? What does 'Sa'ir' mean in this context?

3. ... "ve'chi'Revivim alei Eisev" to the south wind?

6)

(a)The Pasuk (in Ha'azinu) . . .

1. ... "Tizal ka'Tal Imrassi" refers to the north wind - inasmuch as it causes gold to become cheap (from the word 'Zol' cheap). This it does by creating heat-waves, followed by hunger, at which the price of gold drops.

2. ... "ki'Se'irim alei Deshe" refers to the east wind - because it stirs up the world (with storm-winds) like a demon.

3. ... "ve'chi'Revivim alei Eisev" to the south wind - because it brings rain-drops and causes the grass to grow.

7)

(a)What does Rebbi Eliezer mean when he says that the world is compared to a sun-porch?

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua disagrees. In what respect does he compare the world to a box?

(c)Rebbi Yehoshua bases his statement on the Pasuk in Koheles "Holech el Darom ve'Sovev el Tzafon ... ". In this context, what does ...

1. ... 'Holech' refer to?

2. ... 'Sovev' refer to?

(d)And what does the Pasuk refer to when it writes "Sovev Sovev, Holech ha'Ru'ach ... "?

7)

(a)When Rebbi Eliezer says that the world is compared to a sun-porch - he is referring to the revolutions of the sun, which traverses three sides of the world, but when it gets to the north-western corner, it rises and disappears over the roof of the sky (to reappear over the earth in the north eastern corner the next morning).

(b)Rebbi Yehoshua disagrees. He compares the world to a box - inasmuch as the sun traverses all four sides, only when it arrives at the north-western corner, it enters a window and travels along the northern border behind the world.

(c)Rebbi Yehoshua bases his statement on the Pasuk in Koheles "Holech el Darom ve'Sovev el Tzafon ... ". In this context ...

1. ... 'Holech' refers to the path that the sun takes during the day.

2. ... 'Sovev' refers to the path it takes during the night.

(d)And when the Pasuk writes "Sovev Sovev, Holech ha'Ru'ach ... ", it refers to the east and the west, which the sun traverses in the long summer days, but not in the short winter ones.

25b----------------------------------------25b

8)

(a)The Beraisa, commenting on the Pasuk in Iyov, explains that "min ha'Cheder Tavo Sufah" refers to the stormy south-wind. How does it explain "u'mi'Mezarim Karah"? Who will then be the author of this Beraisa?

(b)And which wind is Iyov referring to when he says ...

1. ... "mi'Nishmas Keil Yiten Kerach"?

2. ... "ve'Rochav Mayim be'Mutzak"?

(c)How do we reconcile this with what we learned earlier that it is the south-wind that brings rain and causes plants to grow?

8)

(a)The Beraisa, commenting on the Pasuk in Iyov, explains that "min ha'Cheder Tavo Sufah" refers to the stormy south-wind, and "u'mi'Mezarim Karah" to the cold wind from the north, which is breached (like the fourth side of a sun-porch, as Rebbi Eliezer learned earlier).

(b)And when Iyov says ...

1. ... "mi'Nishmas Keil Yiten Kerach", he is referring - to the west-wind.

2. ... "ve'Rochav Mayim be'Mutzak" - to the east-wind.

(c)Although we learned earlier that it is the south-wind that brings rain and causes plants to grow - that is because it blows gently, whereas the east wind brings heavy showers.

9)

(a)What does Rav Chisda infer from the Pasuk in ...

1. ... Yeshayah "va'Yigzor al Yamin ve'Ra'ev va'Yochal al S'mol ve'Lo Save'u"?

2. ... Tehilim "Tzafon ve'Yamin Atah Berasam"?

(b)And what does Rafram bar Papa extrapolate from the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Yiftach Hash-m es Otzaro ha'Tov"?

(c)When Rebbi Yitzchak gives a Si'man 'Shulchan be'Tzafon, u'Menorah be'Darom', what is he talking about?

9)

(a)Rav Chisda infers from the Pasuk in ...

1. ... Yeshayah "va'Yigzor al Yamin ve'Ra'ev va'Yochal al S'mol ve'Lo Save'u" that - from the day that the Beis Hamikdash was destroyed, (even) the south-wind no longer brings good rains.

2. ... Tehilim "Tzafon ve'Yamin Atah Berasam" that - when the Pasuk speaks about 'Yamin' (the right side) in this context, it is referring to the south-wind.

(b)Rafram bar Papa extrapolates from the Pasuk "Yiftach Hash-m es Otzaro ha'Tov" that - ever since the destruction of the Beis-Hamikdash (when Yisrael are not fulfilling the will of Hash-m), the rain no longer comes from Hash-m's good storehouse.

(c)When Rebbi Yitzchak gives a Si'man 'Shulchan be'Tzafon, u'Menorah be'Darom', he is talking about - Davenning towards the south for wisdom and towards the north for wealth.

10)

(a)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagrees with Rebbi Yitzchak. Based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Orech Yamim bi'Yeminah u'vi'Semolah Osher ve'Chavod", how does he advocate that one Davens for these things?

(b)How do we reconcile this with Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's own statement earlier 'Shechinah be'Ma'arav'?

(c)Why did Rebbi Chanina instruct Rav Ashi (or Rebbi Yoshiyah) to Daven towards the south?

(d)Bearing in mind that there were no atlases in those days, from where did he know that Bavel was north of Eretz Yisrael?

10)

(a)Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagrees with Rebbi Yitzchak. Based on the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Orech Yamim bi'Yeminah u'vi'Semolah Osher ve'Chavod", he advocates that - either way, one Davens towards the south, because wealth follows in the wake of wisdom.

(b)We reconcile this with Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi own statement earlier 'Shechinah be'Ma'arav' by explaining that, in fact - someone who is Davenning for wisdom or riches should Daven facing the south-west.

(c)Rebbi Chanina instructed Rav Ashi (or Rebbi Yoshiyah) to Daven towards the south - because Bavel is north of Eretz Yisrael, and he holds that when Davenning, one should face the Beis-Hamikash.

(d)Despite the fact that there were no atlases in those days, he knew that Bavel was north of Eretz Yisrael - from the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "mi'Tzafon Tipasach ha'Ra'ah" (referring to Nevuchadnetzar, King of Bavel, who would attack Eretz Yisrael from the north).

11)

(a)Earlier in the Perek, we already discussed our Mishnah 'Marchikin es ha'Ilan min ha'Bor Esrim-ve'Chamesh Amah'. Will it make any difference whether they are both on the same level, or, assuming that they are both on a hill, whether the tree is higher up on the slope or lower down?

(b)The Tana Kama differentiates between whether the pit was there first or the tree. What does Rebbi Yossi say?

(c)Why, according to the Tana Kama, is Reuven obligated to distance his tree from Shimon's pit if it is ...

1. ... higher up on the slope than Shimon's pit?

2. ... lower down than it?

11)

(a)Earlier in the Perek, we already discussed our Mishnah 'Marchikin es ha'Ilan min ha'Bor Esrim-ve'Chamesh Amah' - irrespective of whether they are both on the same level, or, assuming that they are both on a hill, whether the tree is higher up on the slope or lower down.

(b)The Tana Kama differentiates between whether the pit was there first or the tree. Rebbi Yossi maintains that - either way, Reuven is not obligated to move his tree away from Shimon's pit (as we have already learned a number of times).

(c)According to the Tana Kama, Reuven is obligated to distance his tree from Shimon's pit if it is ...

1. ... higher up on the slope than Shimon's pit is - because then the roots will damage Shimon's pit directly.

2. ... lower down than it - because then, they weaken the earth underneath the pit, creating a likelihood that it will cave in.

12)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yossi in our Mishnah. Under which circumstances will Rebbi Yossi concede that it is up to the Mazik to move away from the Nizak?

(b)What did Papi Yuchna'ah do after he struck it rich?

(c)Why did he take those sesame-seed oil-makers to a Din-Torah?

(d)Rav Ashi quoted Rav Kahana, in that Rebbi Yossi conceded that the Mazik had to move by 'Giri Dileih'. What did they insruct Papi Yuchna'ah to do to determine whether or not, it was a case of 'Giri Dileih' or not?

12)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yossi in our Mishnah. Rebbi Yossi concedes however that it is up to the Mazik to move away from the Nizak - there where it is Giri ileih (where Reuven performs an action that actually causes Shimon direct damage at the time [e.g. if, when he washes his hands, the water pours on to Shimon or on to his property through a crack in his floor], as we learned in 'ha'Bayis ve'ha'Aliyah'),.

(b)After Papi Yuchna'ah struck it rich - he built himself a mansion.

(c)He took those sesame-seed oil-makers to a Din-Torah because when they ground their seeds, it caused his mansion to shake.

(d)Rav Ashi quoted Rav Kahana, in that Rebbi Yossi conceded that the Mazik had to move by 'Giri Dileih'. To determine whether or not, it was indeed a case of 'Girei Dilei' or not, they instructed Papi Yuchna'ah - to place a jar on a wall with its lid on, and then check whether the lid shook when they ground their sesame-seeds.

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