Bava Basra 10 - This Daf has been dedicated in honor of Mrs. Betty J. Levine, by her sons from Roanoke Virginia.

1)

(a)What answer would Rebbi Meir have given to the person who asked him why, if Hash-m loves the poor, He does not sustain them?

(b)When Rebbi Akiva gave Turnusrufus the Rasha the same answer, which Mashal (parable) did the latter give in response?

(c)What Mashal did Rebbi Akiva tell to counter it.

1)

(a)Had someone asked Rebbi Meir why, if Hash-m loves the poor, He does not sustain them, he would have replied - that giving Tzedakah is necessary for the rich man, since it saves him from Gehinom.

(b)When Rebbi Akiva gave Turnusrufus the Rasha the same answer, the latter responded with a Mashal of a king who became angry with his slave, locked him up and gave orders not to feed him, and along came someone and fed him.

(c)Rebbi Akiva responded with the parallel Mashal - of the king who became angry with his son ... '.

2)

(a)How did Turnusrufus try to resolve the Pasuk in B'har "Ki Li B'nei Yisrael Avadim, Avadai heim ... " with the Pasuk in Re'ei "Banim Atem la'Hashem Elokeichem"?

(b)What did he conclude from there?

(c)How did Rebbi Akiva counter Turnusrufus argument, based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ha'Lo P'ros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha, va'Aniyim Merudim Tavi Bayis""?

(d)What did he conclude from there?

2)

(a)Turnusrufus tried to resolve the Pasuk "Ki Li B'nei Yisrael Avadim, Avadai heim ... " with the Pasuk "Banim Atem la'Hashem Elokeichem" - by establishing the former Pasuk to a time when Yisrael were not doing the Will of Hash-m, and the latter one when they were.

(b)He concluded that since, at that time, the B'nei Yisrael were not doing the will of Hash-m, giving Tzedakah to a poor Jew ought to be prohibitted.

(c)To counter this argument, Rebbi Akiva cited the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ha'Lo P'ros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha, va'Aniyim Merudim Tavi Bayis". Seeing as the second half of the Pasuk applies even to that time (since he interpreted it as pertaining to Jews, not Nochrim, as we learned above), so does the first half.

(d)This demonstrates that even when the B'nei Yisrael are not doing the will of Hash-m, one is obligated to give Tzedakah to a poor Jew.

3)

(a)What does Rebbi Yehudah b'Rebbi Shalom say about Hash-m's judgment on Rosh Hashanah with regard to gains and losses?

(b)In this connection, he goes on to Darshen the Pasuk "ha'Lo P'ros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha, va'Aniyim Merudim Tavi Bayis", which is manifest in the story of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai and his nephews. What did Raban Yochanan ben Zakai dream about his nephews one Motza'ei Rosh Hashanah?

(c)Throughout the year, he persuaded them to keep giving Tzedakah (so as to fulfill the dream in the finest possible manner). What happened the following Erev Yom-Kipur, to the seventeen Zuzim that they were still short?

(d)When Raban Yochanan ben Zakai reassured them that they were not destined to lose any more, and told them about his dream, they asked him why he did not inform them about the dream earlier, in which case they would have given all the money of their own free will. What was his reply?

3)

(a)Rebbi Yehudah b'Rebbi Shalom says - that Hash-m's judgment on Rosh Hashanah decides losses as well as gains.

(b)In this connection, he goes on to Darshen the Pasuk "ha'Lo P'ros la'Ra'ev Lachmecha, va'Aniyim Merudim Tavi Bayis", which is manifest in the story of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai, who dreamt one Motza'ei Rosh Hashanah - that his nephews would lose seven hundred Zuz during the coming year.

(c)Throughout the year, he pursuaded them to keep giving Tzedakah (so as to fulfill the dream in the finest possible way). When, on the following Erev Yom-Kipur, they were still seventeen Zuzim short - the king's tax men came and claimed from them seventeen Zuz.

(d)When Raban Yochanan ben Zakai reassured them that they were not destined to lose any more, and told them about his dream, they asked him why he did not inform them about the dream earlier, in which case they would have given all the money of their own free will. He replied - that he wanted them to give the money purely for the sake of the Mitzvah, and not for any ulterior motive.

4)

(a)What is the significance of someone nowadays, falling off a ladder to his death?

(b)How does this explain why Rav Papa felt faint when his foot slipped as he was climbing a ladder, and he almost fell to his death?

(c)Rav Chiya bar Rav consoled him however, by citing a Beraisa by Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah. What did he extrapolate from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Hishamer l'cha Pen Yih'yeh Davar Im Levavcha Beliya'al", and "Yatz'u Anashim B'nei Beliya'al" (both in Re'ei)?

4)

(a)The significance of someone nowadays, falling off a ladder to his death, is - an indication that he is Chayav Sekilah.

(b)This explains why Rav Papa felt faint when his foot slipped as he was climbing a ladder, and he almost fell to his death - because he could not understand why he was getting the same treatment as someone who is Chayav Sekilah.

(c)Rav Chiya bar Rav consoled him however, by citing a Beraisa by Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah. He extrapolated from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Hishamer l'cha Pen Yih'yeh Davar Im Levavcha Beliya'al", and "Yatz'u Anashim B'nei Beliya'al" (both in Re'ei) - that someone who withholds money from the poor, is considered as if he had served idolatry (and that is presumably, what Rav Papa once did).

5)

(a)According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi, based on a Pasuk in Yirmiyah, what is it that brings peace and causes the angels to speak in defense of Yisrael?

(b)And what does Rebbi Yehudah learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Shimru Mishpat va'Asu Tzedakah, ki Kerovah Yeshu'asi Lavo ve'Tzidkasi Lehigalos"?

5)

(a)Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi learns from a Pasuk in Yirmiyah, that peace and the angels speaking in defense of Yisrael are the result of - Tzedakah and Chesed.

(b)And Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk "Shimru Mishpat va'Asu Tzedakah, ki Kerovah Yeshu'asi La'vo ve'Tzidkasi Le'higalos" - that Tzedakah brings the Ge'ulah closer.

6)

(a)Rebbi Yehudah lists ten things that are progressively 'strong'. What can smash a mountain?

(b)If fire melts iron and water quenshes fire, what contains water?

(c)Wind disperses clouds and the body contains wind. What breaks the body?

(d)Wine softens fear and sleep dispels wine. What is more powerful than ...

1. ... sleep and than all of the above?

2. ... death?

6)

(a)Rebbi Yehudah lists ten things that are progressively 'strong'. He explains - that iron smash a mountain.

(b)Fire melts iron, water quenshes fire - and clouds contain water.

(c)Wind disperses clouds, the body contains wind - and fear breaks the body.

(d)Wine softens fear and sleep dispels wine.

1. Death is more powerful than sleep, and ...

2. ... Tzedakah saves from death.

7)

(a)Rebbi Dusta'i b'Rebbi Yanai explains how, based on a Pasuk in Tehilim, giving a P'rutah to a poor man demonstrates the difference between the Midah of Hash-m and that of a human king. What does he in fact, learn from the Pasuk "Ani be'Tzedek Echzeh Panecha"?

(b)What did Rebbi Elazar used to do before Davenning, based on the same Pasuk?

(c)How does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak interpret the continuation of the Pasuk "Esbe'ah be'Hakitz Temunasecha"?

(d)What observation did Rebbi Yochanan make regarding the Pasuk in Mishlei "Malveh Hash-m Chonen Dal"?

7)

(a)Rebbi Dusta'i b'Rebbi Yanai explains how, based on a Pasuk in Tehilim, giving a P'rutah to a poor man demonstrates the difference between the Midah of Hash-m and that of a human king. In fact, he learns from the Pasuk "Ani be'Tzedek Echzeh Panecha" - that as opposed to a human king, who might not accept the gift that one sends him, and even if he does, gaining an audience with him remains doubtful, Hash-m accepts the P'rutah that one gives to a poor man (as if it was a personal gift), and the donor is assured of an audience.

(b)Based on the same Pasuk - Rebbi Elazar used to give Tzedakah before Davenning.

(c)According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, the continuation of the Pasuk "Esbe'ah be'Hakitz Temunasecha" refers to - Talmidei-Chachamim, who shake sleep from their eyes in this world (in order to study Torah). Hash-m on His part, will satisfy them with the glory of His Shechinah in the World to Come.

(d)Rebbi Yochanan observed that, based on the Pasuk "Malveh Hash-m Chonen Dal" - Hash-m (Kevayachol) becomes the debtor of those who lend money to the poor, something which he would not dared to have said if Shlomoh Hamelech had not done so.

8)

(a)The Pasuk "u'Tzedakah Tatzil mi'Ma'ves" occurs twice in Mishlei, once after "Lo Yo'il Hon be'Yom Evrah", and once after that of "Lo Yo'ilu Otzros Rasha". How does Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan interpret this? Which two calamities does Tzedakah save from?

(b)To which of the two calamities does "Yom Evrah" refer?

(c)How must one give Tzedakah in order to be spared a horrific death?

(d)How does one achieve this?

(e)Mar Ukva used to give Tzedakah in a way that although the poor man did not know from he was receiving, he knew to whom he was giving; whereas Rebbi Aba used to give in a way that although he did not know to whom he was giving, the poor man knew from whom he was receiving. How did ...

1. ... Mar Ukva used to distribute Tzedakah?

2. ... Rebbi Aba used to distribute it?

8)

(a)The Pasuk "u'Tzedakah Tatzil mi'Maves" occurs twice in Mishlei, once after "Lo Yo'il Hon be'Yom Evrah", and once after that of "Lo Yo'ilu Otzros Rasha". Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan explains - that Tzedakah saves from a horrible death and from the Din of Gehinom.

(b)"Yom Evrah" refers to the Din of Gehinom.

(c)In order to be spared a horrific death, one must give Tzedakah - in a way - that neither does the donor know the identity of the recipient, nor does the recipient know the identity of the donor.

(d)One achieves this - by placing the money in the purse of the Gabai Tzedakah.

(e)Mar Ukva used to give Tzedakah in a way that, although the poor man did not know from he was receiving, he knew to whom he was giving; whereas Rebbi Aba used to give in a way that although he did not know to whom he was giving, the poor man knew from whom he was receiving.

1. Mar Ukva - would throw the Tzedakah each morning into the poor man's door-pivot.

2. Rebbi Aba - would wrap the money in his Sudar (head-cloth) and throw it behind him to where the poor man was waiting.

10b----------------------------------------10b

9)

(a)In order to father male sons, Rebbi Elazar in a Beraisa suggests that one 'scatters one's money' for Tzedakah. What does Rebbi Yehoshua prescribe?

(b)In the same Beraisa, Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov forbids one to put Tzedakah in the purse of the Gabai unless he is of the caliber of Rebbi Chananya ben Teradyon. How do we reconcile this with our previous statement, encouraging one to give Tzedakah in a way that neither the donor nor the recipient know each other's identity?

(c)According to Rebbi Avahu, what did Hash-m reply when Moshe asked Him how to boost Yisrael's prestige (by counting them)?

(d)What did Shlomoh Hamelech (who lived long before Yeshayah) mean when he stated the Pasuk (quoted later by Yeshayah) "ve'Neged Zekeinav Kavod"?

9)

(a)In order to father male sons, Rebbi Elazar in a Beraisa suggests that one 'scatters one's money' for Tzedakah. Rebbi Yehoshua prescribes - making one's wife happy before Tashmish (because Chazal have said 'Ishah Mazra'as Techilah, Yoledes Zachar').

(b)In the same Beraisa, Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov forbids one to put Tzedakah in the purse of the Gabai unless he is of the caliber of Rebbi Chananya ben Teradyon. Our previous statement too, encouraging one to give Tzedakah in a way that neither the donor nor the recipient know each other's identity - speaks specifically in such a case.

(c)According to Rebbi Avahu, when Moshe asked Hash-m how to boost Yisrael's prestige (by counting them), Hash-m replied - 'With Ki Sisa' (a reference to Tzedakah, meaing that he should take from them money for Tzedakah [e.g. a half-Shekel per head]).

(d)When Shlomoh Hamelech (who lived long before Yeshayah) stated the Pasuk (quoted later by Yeshayah) "ve'Neged Zekeinav Kavod", he meant - that anyone who is honored in this world for their Torah-learning is a ben Olam ha'Ba.

10)

(a)What did Rav Yosef b'rei de'Rav Yehoshua ...

1. ... mean when he said that he saw a topsy-turvy world?

2. ... reply when his father asked him how the Rabbanan looked there?

(b)Who is described there as 'Ashrei' (praiseworthy)?

(c)In whose vicinity was he told, nobody can stand?

(d)This could hardly refer to the martyrs of the caliber of Rebbi Akiva, in whose vicinity nobody can stand anyway, but to the Harugei Lud, Lulianus and Papus. Who were Lulianus and Papus?

(e)What happened to them?

10)

(a)When Rav Yosef b'rei de'Rav Yehoshua ...

1. ... said that he saw a topsy-turvy world, he meant - that those who were honored in this world, are looked down upon there, whereas those who are looked down upon here, are honored there, and ...

2. ... when his father asked him how the Rabbanan looked there, he replied - that they looked the same there as they look here (i.e. they are honored there too).

(b)Those that arrive there with there Torah-learning in their hand (meaning that they put what they learned into practice) - are described as 'praiseworthy'.

(c)Nobody, he was told, can stand - in the vicinity of the martyrs.

(d)This could hardly refer to the martyrs of the caliber of Rebbi Akiva, in whose vicinity nobody can stand anyway. It therefore pertains to the Harugei Lud, Lulianus and Papus - two brothers from Ludki, who claimed that they had killed the local princess, to remove the blame from the Jews, who were currently suspect.

(e)Consequently - Turianus put them to death.

11)

(a)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai asked his Talmidim to explain the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tzedakah Teromem Goy, ve'Chesed Le'umim Chatas"? How did Rebbi Eliezer, Rebbi Yehoshua and Raban Gamliel all establish "Tzedakah Teromem Goy"?

(b)Rebbi Eliezer explained "ve'Chesed Le'umim Chatas" as pertaining to the kings of the nations of the world, who perform Tzedakah and Chesed because they aspire to greatness. What does the Beraisa say about someone who gives Tzedakah so that his sons should live or in order to earn a portion in Olam ha'Ba?

(c)Then why does the Pasuk describe the same charitable act of a Nochri king as sinful?

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua and Raban Gamliel differ slightly from Rebbi Eliezer. Rebbi Yehoshua explains that the Tzedakah and Chesed performed by the kings are done in order to prolong their reigns (as we find in connection with Nevuchadnetzar). How does Raban Gamliel explain it?

(e)What does the Pasuk in Mishlei say about someone who is vain?

11)

(a)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai asked his Talmidim to explain the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tzedakah Teromem Goy, ve'Chesed Le'umim Chatas". Rebbi Eliezer, Rebbi Yehoshua and Raban Gamliel all established "Tzedakah Teromem Goy" - in connection with Yisrael, who the Navi Shmuel refers to as "Goy Echad ba'Aretz".

(b)Rebbi Eliezer explains "ve'Chesed Le'umim Chatas" as pertaining to the kings of the nations of the world, who perform Tzedakah and Chesed because they aspire to greatness. The Beraisa rules that someone who gives Tzedakah so that his sons should live or in order to earn a portion in Olam ha'Ba - is a complete Tzadik.

(c)Nevertheless, the Pasuk describes the same charitable act of a Nochri king as sinful - because the Tana is speaking exclusively about a Jew, who in any case performs the Mitzvah for the sake of Hash-m, but not about a Nochri, who relents at having performed the good deed, should his condition not be met.

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua and Raban Gamliel differ slightly with Rebbi Eliezer. Rebbi Yehoshua explains that the Tzedakah and Chesed performed by the kings are done in order to prolong their reigns (as we find in connection with Nevuchadnetzar). Raban Gamliel explains - that it is to give them something to boast about.

(e)We learn from a Pasuk in Mishlei - that someone who is vain will topple into Gehinom.

12)

(a)However, Raban Gamliel concluded, we still need the opinion of Rebbi Elazar ha'Mudai. Why was he called by that name?

(b)What did the latter learn from Nevuzradan's words, which he cited (and which are quoted in Yirmiyah) even as he performed a Chesed (see Tosfos DH 'va'Yavo')?

(c)What did Nevuzradan say?

(d)Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah interprets "Chesed" differently than the previous Tana'im. How does he explain the Pasuk?

(e)What did Raban Yochanan ben Zakai say about Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah's explanation? (See Agados Maharsha)

12)

(a)However, Raban Gamliel concluded, we still need the opinion of Rebbi Elazar ha'Mudai, who was called by that name - because he came from a place called Har ha'Mudai.

(b)The latter learned from Nevuzradan's words, which he cited (and which are quoted in Yirmiyah) even as he performed a Chesed (see Tosfos DH 'va'Yavo') - that the kings only perform Tzedakah and Chesed in order to insult Yisrael.

(c)Nevuzradan - riled Yisrael, attributing their troubles to their having forsaken their G-d.

(d)Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah interprets "Chesed" differently than the previous Tana'im. He reads the Pasuk like this - "Tzedakah Teromem Goy ve'Chesed, (u')Le'umim Chatas"

(e)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai said - that Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah's explanation is more acceptable that his own and than all of those of the previous Tana'im. (See Agados Maharsha).

13)

(a)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai's own interpretation of the Pasuk is even more radical than that of Rebbi Nechunyah ben Hakanah. How did he explain it?

(b)When Ifra Hurmiz, the mother of Shavur Malka (King of Persia) sent money to Rebbi Ami to distribute to Tzedakah, he refused to accept it. What did Rava subsequently do that aroused Rebbi Ami's ire?

(c)Rebbi Ami's refusal was based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "bi'Yevosh Ketzirah Tishavarnah, Nashim Ba'os Meiros Osah". What do we learn from there?

13)

(a)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai's interpretation of the Pasuk is even more radical. According to him - the entire Pasuk is referring to Nochrim, and what Shlomoh is saying is that Tzedakah and Chesed atone for Nochrim like a sin-offering for Yisrael.

(b)When Ifra Hurmiz, the mother of Shavur Malka (King of Persia) sent money to Rebbi Ami to distribute to Tzedakah, he refused to accept it - Rava subsequently accepted it, arousing Rebbi Ami's ire.

(c)Rebbi Ami's refusal was based on the Pasuk "bi'Yevosh Ketzirah Tishavarnah, Nashim Ba'os Meiros Osah", from which we learn - that when all their merits come to an end, and all the Tzedakah that they performed dries up, the Nochri nations will be broken.

14)

(a)Why did Rava accept the money from Ifra Hurmiz? Did he not agree with Rebbi Ami's interpretation of the Pasuk in Yeshayah?

(b)Then why was Rebbi Ami angry with him? Did he not hold of Shalom Malchus?

(c)What then, was the basis of their misunderstanding?

(d)If Rava could distribute the Tzedakah that Ifra Hurmiz sent to Nochrim, why could Rav Yosef not do the same, when she sent him money in order to perform a 'Mitzvah Rabah' (earlier in the Perek)?

14)

(a)Rava accepted the money from Ifra Hurmiz (not because he did not agree with Rebbi Ami's interpretation of the Pasuk in Yeshayah, but) - because of Shalom Malchus (peace of the realm).

(b)Despite the fact that Rava's decision was based on Shalom Malchus, Rebbi Ami was angry with Rava - because, he figured that Rava ought to have used the money to distribute to poor Nochrim.

(c)The basis of their misunderstanding lay - in the fact that Rava did give the money to Nochrim, but this information was not passed on to Rebbi Ami.

(d)Even though Rava distributed the Tzedakah that Ifra Hurmiz sent to Nochrim, Rav Yosef could not do the same, when (earlier in the Perek), she sent him money in order to perform a 'Mitzvah Rabah' - because then it would not have been a Mitzvah Rabah, and it is forbidden to fool people, even Nochrim.

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