[56a - 24 lines; 56b - 26 lines]

1)[line 1]ברשות אחת / בשתי רשויותBI'RESHUS ACHAS / BI'SHTEI RESHUYUS (HOTZA'AH)

(a)See Background to Bava Basra 55:29-30.

(b)Rebbi Yosi qualifies the statement of the Gemara on the previous Daf to limit the Chiyuv for Hotza'ah to the case where the person takes out both Chatzi Grogeros to the same Reshus ha'Rabim. If he took one out to one Reshus ha'Rabim and the other one out to another Reshus ha'Rabim that was separated from the first one, the person is Patur. (The Gemara proceeds to discuss the various opinions as to what constitutes a separation.)

2)[line 2]והוא שיש חיוב חטאת ביניהםV'HU SHE'YESH CHIYUV CHATAS BEINEIHEM- as long as there is a [separate Reshus between them, that would cause someone who transfers objects from either Reshus ha'Rabim to that Reshus, to incur a] Chiyuv Chatas between them (i.e., a Reshus ha'Yachid separates them, see next entry)

3)[line 3]כרמליתKARMELIS (FOUR RESHUYOS)

There are four Reshuyos (domains) with regard to the Halachos of Shabbos: Reshus ha'Rabim, Reshus ha'Yachid, Karmelis, Makom Petur.

(a)RESHUS HA'RABIM (the public domain) includes 16-Amah-wide thoroughfares or streets that are open at both ends, and open plazas that can hold many people at the same time. (According to some Rishonim, 600,000 people must use the area for it to be considered Reshus ha'Rabim, see Insights to Shabbos 6b.)

(b)RESHUS HA'YACHID (the private domain) is comprised of spaces that have an area of at least four by four Tefachim and are enclosed by a ten-Tefach-high partition on at least three sides, such as enclosed yards, or ditches with these dimensions (since the vertical wall of the ditch acts as a partition). A ten-Tefach-high mound that is 4 by 4 Tefachim wide at its top is also a Reshus ha'Yachid. Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid are Reshuyos that are recognized by the Torah. Transferring objects from one to the other is prohibited mid'Oraisa.

(c)KARMELIS is the term that the Rabanan gave to certain places and objects that bear similarities to both Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid, even though they do not meet all the requirements for either of them. The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis is to be given the properties of both Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent in any given situation, in order to prevent a person from doing a Melachah mid'Oraisa. Some examples of Karmelis are the sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is four by four Tefachim but with a height not greater than ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced-in area.

(d)MAKOM PETUR, in general, refers to any place or object that does not fulfill any of the above requirements. Transferring from a Makom Petur to one of the other three Reshuyos is permitted (as long as one does not transfer from Reshus ha'Yachid to a Makom Petur, and then from there to a Reshus ha'Rabim, or vice versa). Some examples of Makom Petur are a doorstep with an area less than four by four Tefachim, a pole in Reshus ha'Rabim with an area less than four by four Tefachim and a height not greater than ten Tefachim, and the airspace above Reshus ha'Rabim (above a height of ten Tefachim). See Shabbos, Charts #1-2.

4)[line 4]פיסלאPISLA- a plank (which lies across Reshus ha'Rabim, separating it into two domains)

5)[line 4]ואזדא רבא לטעמיהAZDA RAVA L'TA'AMEI- and he (Rava) follows his own reasoning elsewhere (Daf 55b)

6)[line 5]רשות שבת כרשות גיטין דמיRESHUS SHABBOS KI'RESHUS GITIN DAMI- things that constitute a separation of domains with regard to the Halachos of Hotza'ah of Shabbos, follow the guidelines of domains with regard to the Halachos of Gitin (such as in a case where a person lent his wife a place in his courtyard that she could use to make a Kinyan Chatzer for her Get. He lends her only one place; a Pisla or the like are considered a separate place and she is not divorced if the Get lands there)

7)[line 6]אין שם לא מצר ולא חצב, מאי?EIN SHAM LO METZAR V'LO CHATZAV, MAI?- When the fields of the convert who dies without relatives are not separated by a boundary-mound or Chatzav grass, what is the Halachah [according to Rebbi Yochanan, Daf 55a]?

8)[line 8]בי גרגותא דפלניאBEI GARGUSA DI'PELANYA- the [field that is watered by a certain] well of so-and-so

9)[line 11]חצובאCHATZUVA- Chatzav, a shrub that has deep and straight roots, planted in hedges to mark boundaries; prob. Cistus

10)[line 12]שבו תיחם יהושע לישראל את הארץSHE'BO TICHEM YEHOSHUA L'YISRAEL ES HA'ARETZ- which Yehoshua used (or commanded the people to use) to demarcate boundaries of the tribes and of the individual landowners, for the People of Yisrael when they entered and settled in the land of Yisrael

11)[line 14]לא מנה יהושע אלא עיירות העומדות על הגבוליןLO MANAH YEHOSHUA ELA AYAROS HA'OMDOS AL HA'GEVULIN- Yehoshua only listed [in the Book of Yehoshua] towns that stood at the border

12)[line 17]במעשרMA'ASER

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth, and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim receives Malkos (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5).

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

13)[line 17]לאפוקי קיני קניזי וקדמוניL'AFUKEI KEINI KENIZI V'KADMONI- [Rav Yehuda's statement in the name of Shmuel] was meant to exclude the lands of the Keini, Kenizi, and Kadmoni [from the obligation of Ma'asros - either in the future, or if they were conquered by Bnei Yisrael who entered the Land of Yisrael (two explanations in RASHBAM). These three lands were promised to Avraham Avinu along with seven others (Bereishis 15:18-21), but Chazal taught that these three will be given only to his descendants in the future.]

14a)[line 18]נפתוחאNAFTUCHA- Naftuchim, descendents of Mitzrayim (Bereishis 10:13) (MUSAF HE'ARUCH)

b)[line 19]ערבאהARAVA'AH- Arabia

c)[line 19]ושלמאהSHALMA'AH- the Targum of Keini

15a)[line 21]ערדיסקיסARDISKIS- probably the area surrounding Damascus

b)[line 21]אסיאASYA- (a) Tosfos to Yevamos 115a DH Amar brings our Gemara that identifies Asya with Keini mentioned in Bereishis 15:19. It seems that the Keini people lived near Moav, to the west of the Dead Sea. They lived in Ir ha'Temarim (Palm City), which may be Chatzatzon Tamar, to the west of the Dead Sea. The Targum translates Keini as Shalamite, an Arabic tribe (RABBI ARYEH KAPLAN); (b) possibly Callirhoe and its surroundings, on the east side of the Jordan River, near the Dead Sea; (c) Asia Minor, or rather the Roman province embracing the Western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bequeathed by King Attalus to the Roman republic; (d) a town called Essa, east of Lake Kineres

c)[line 21]ואספמיאASPAMYA- a land that is one year's walk from Eretz Yisrael (this word is usually translated as Spain)

16)[line 23]ונמצאו זוממיםNIMTZE'U ZOMEMIM (EDIM ZOMEMIM)

(a)If two witnesses testify to a crime or an event and a later set of witnesses contradict their testimony by saying that the crime or event did not take place exactly as the first set of witnesses testified, all of the witnesses are termed Edim Mukchashim (contradictory witnesses), and Beis Din cannot use either testimony.

(b)If, however, two witnesses testify to a crime or an event and a later set of witnesses disqualify their testimony by saying that the first set of witnesses were with them in a different place at the time that the first set of witnesses claim that the act took place, the first witnesses are termed Edim Zomimin (conspiring witnesses). The Torah commands that the second set of witnesses be believed, rather than the first. In general, Edim Zomemim are punished with the punishment they tried to cause (Devarim 19:16-21, see MISHNAH Makos 5a).

56b----------------------------------------56b

17)[line 1]משלשין ביניהםMESHALSHIN BEINEIHEM- they divide the fine among them

18a)[line 1]שלשה אחים, ואחד מצטרף עמהםSHELOSHAH ACHIM, V'ECHAD MITZTAREF IMAHEM- three brothers, and one other person who combines with [each of] them, [one brother and the non-relative for each year of the Chezkas Shalosh Shanim]

b)[line 2]הרי אלו שלש עדיותHAREI ELU SHALOSH EDUYOS - these are considered three separate testimonies and are not disqualified because the brothers are related to each other (EDUS: PESUL KURVAH)

The Gemara (see Rosh Hashanah 22a) lists the people who are Pesulei Edus, those people who are disqualified to judge or to give testimony. Among them are relatives, who may not join together in one set of witnesses or one court.

19)[line 4]אבא חלפתאABA CHALAFTA- Rebbi Yosi referred to his father Chalafta by the title "Aba," father

20)[line 10]"דָּבָר" ולא חצי דבר"DAVAR" V'LO CHATZI DAVAR- when the Torah says, "According to the word of two witnesses shall a case be established (Yakum Davar)," it means that the witnesses must see, and testify about, the entire act for which the person is being held accountable. If they see only half of the act (in our case according to Rebbi Akiva, the separate years of a Chezkas Shalosh Shanim), their testimony cannot be used to create the Chezkas Shalosh Shanim (see Background to Bava Basra 41:1).

21a)[line 13]אחת בגבהACHAS B'GABAH- (a) one hair on her back (RASHBAM); (b) one hair on her knuckles (lit. backside, referring to the backside of her fingers, where they meet the hands) (RASHI to Bava Kama 70b); (c) one hair below her private area (Rashi to Nidah 52b)

b)[line 13]אחת בכריסהACHAS BI'KEREISAH - one hair on her abdomen (SIMANIM)

A girl is a Ketanah (minor) until she has two pubic hairs after she enters her twelfth year. During the following six months she is a Na'arah (maidenhood). When six months elapse she becomes a Bogeres (adult).

22)[line 23]מאי איכא למימר? בין חיטי לשערי לאו אדעתייהו דאינשיMAI IKA L'MEIMAR? BEIN CHITEI L'SA'AREI LAV A'DA'ATAIHU D'INSHEI- What is the basis of my ruling? People do not distinguish between wheat and barley (and the witnesses are actually testifying about the same years)

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