[24a - 34 lines; 24b - 41 lines]

1)[line 1]בשביל של כרמיםB'SHEVIL SHEL KERAMIM- [a case in which the two dovecotes are located] upon a path in a vineyard [along which a squab will wander even beyond fifty Amos from its nest]

2)[line 2]לא מצי אתיLO MATZI ASI- it could not have come [from anywhere else]

3)[line 2]והדר חזי ליה לקיניהHADAR CHAZI LEI L'KINEI- it can still see its nest

4)[line 4]דם שנמצא בפרוזדורDAM SHE'NIMTZA BA'PEROZDOR (NIDAH - A Menstruating Woman)

(a)By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days beginning with the onset of her period - whether she saw blood only once or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (Our current practice is to consider every Nidah to be Zavah Gedolah; see Background to Bava Kama 24:2.)

(b)One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted many far-ranging additional ways in which one must maintain this distance from his wife when she is Teme'ah (impure).

(c)Chazal offer a parable when discussing the female reproductive system. It involves a Cheder (room), a Perozdor (entranceway), and an Aliyah (second story). The "room" refers to the womb, which is otherwise known as the "Makor" (source). The "entranceway" refers to the cervical canal (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos and Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 5), and according to RASHI, the vagina as well. RASHI and most Rishonim explain that the "second story" refers to a duct that runs along the top of the uterus and Perozdor and opens into the Perozdor. It is difficult to determine to what part of the female anatomy this refers. The Rambam appears to understand that the Aliyah refers to the fallopian tubes (see Insights to Nidah 17:2). Although most blood comes from the Makor, some comes from the Aliyah as well. Blood that originates in the Makor is Tamei, while that that comes from the Aliyah is Tahor (Nidah 17b).

(d)The Beraisa cited by our Gemara refers to a case in which blood was found on the top of the Perozdor behind the opening ("Lul") into the Aliyah. The Aliyah is much closer to this blood (Karov), but the majority of blood in the area comes from the Makor (Rov).

5)[line 5]שחזקתו מן המקורCHEZKASO MIN HA'MAKOR- it is presumed to have come from the uterus

6)[line 6]עלייהALIYAH- (a) a duct along the top of the uterus and cervix (RASHI); (b) the fallopian tubes (RAMBAM) (see Insights to Nidah 17:2)

7)[line 6]רוב ומצוי קא אמרת?ROV U'MATZUY KA AMRAT?- you are attempting to bring a proof from a case of that which is both the majority and occurs with more frequency?

8)[line 7]ליכא למאן דאמרLEIKA L'MAN D'AMAR- there is no opinion [that does not maintain that it is preferable to Karov alone]

9)[line 8]דתני רבי חייאD'TANI REBBI CHIYA- (a) This Beraisa is offered as support that Abaye was correct in bringing a proof to Rebbi Chanina from the Mishnah in Nidah. One might have thought that such blood is not necessarily Nidah blood, but rather that one must treat is as such out of doubt. The rulings of this Beraisa prove that the blood is definitively Dam Nidah (first explanation of TOSFOS DH d'Tani); (b) This Beraisa supports the contention of Rava, who argued that this case is not that of Rebbi Chanina. If it was, what did Rebbi Chanina - an Amora - teach that was not already taught by the Beraisa? This question could not have been asked from the Mishnah, since it was possible to have explained that the Mishnah ruled as it did out of doubt (MAHARAM cited by the gloss in TOSFOS DH d'Tani; see inside for further explanation).

10)[line 8]חייבין עליו על ביאת מקדשCHAYAVIN ALAV AL BI'AS MIKDASH (TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV - The Prohibition Against Entering the Beis ha'Mikdash or Consuming Korbanos when Tamei)

(a)One who has become Tamei, even if only due to contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah (source of Tum'ah) may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash (Bamidbar 5:2).

(b)One may not consume Kodshim (that which has been offered to HaSh-m in the Beis ha'Mikdash) in a state of Tum'ah, even if he is outside of the Mikdash (derived from Vayikra 12:4; Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b).

(c)If one transgresses either of these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally), then he must offer a Korban Oleh v'Yored. The constitution of a Korban Oleh v'Yored depends upon the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, then he must offer a female sheep or goat as a Chatas; this is referred to as a Korban Ashir. If he cannot afford a sheep, then he offers a pair (a "Ken") of turtledoves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas; this is referred to as a Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus. If he cannot afford even a pair of birds, then he may offer one-tenth of an Eifah (equivalent to approximately 2.16, 2.48, or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas; this is referred to as a Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus. (Vayikra 5:6-13). One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Mezid (willingly) is liable to receive Kares (see Background to Gitin 55:42) and Malkus (lashes) (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20).

(d)A woman who found Dam in her Perozdor, close to the Aliyah, may not enter even the Machaneh Leviyah. This is the entire area between the Azarah (the inner courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash) and the wall surrounding the Temple Mount, including the Ezras Nashim (the outer courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). (This corresponds to the area in which the Leviyim camped around the Mishkan during the sojourn in the desert.) If she enters unintentionally into the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, then she must offer the appropriate Korban. This ruling proves that we consider this blood as definitively Tamei, since one may not offer a Korban out of doubt. (If one is not truly obligated to offer the Korban, it would be considered a non-consecrated animal slaughtered in the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash - Chulin la'Azarah; see Background to Chulin 9:34.)

11)[line 9]שורפין עליו את התרומהSORFIN ALAV ES HA'TERUMAH (TERUMAH GEDOLAH - The Portion of a Grain Crop Given to a Kohen)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Terumah is one of the twenty-four Matnos Kehunah (gifts given to Kohanim). Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fortieth, one fiftieth, or one sixtieth of the total crop, depending on the generosity of the landowner. Until Terumah and Ma'asros (tithes) have been properly separated, produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten.

(b)Terumah must be eaten by Kohanim or their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves, when they are Tehorim. If the wife of a Kohen is not herself the daughter of a Kohen, she may eat Terumah only as long as her husband or at least one of their joint descendants is alive (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11; see Nidah 44a).

(c)A Kohen may eat Terumah only as long as it remains Tahor. The only options a Kohen has for Terumah that has become Tamei are to feed it to his animals or to burn it as fuel (Shabbos 25a; see Background to Shabbos 23:44).

(d)If a woman who found Dam in her Perozdor, close to the Aliyah, comes into contact with Terumah, it must be burned. This ruling proves that the blood is definitively Tamei, since one may not burn Terumah that is not Tamei. If such blood was only possibly Tamei, then the Halachah would be "Tolin" (lit. hung) - the Terumah would be neither eaten nor burned, rather left to decompose naturally.

12)[line 11]תלתTELAS- three (things)

13)[line 13]אע"פ שדלתות מדינה נעולותAF AL PI SHE'DALSOS MEDINAH NE'ULOS- [that which one may presume meat found in the street to be kosher when most butcher shops in the city sell kosher meat (see Background to 38a) is true] even when the doors of the city are locked. Rebbi Zeira disagrees with those who maintain that two distinct majorities are necessary in order to consider the meat kosher - that of the butcher shops, and that of the passersby when most inhabitants of the state in which the city is located are Jewish. This second Rov is applicable only when the doors to the city are left open.

14)[line 14]דכי דלתות מדינה נעולות דמיאKI DALSOS MEDINAH NE'ULOS DAMYA- is similar to a case in which the doors of the city are locked [since blood in the Perozdor must have come either from the Makor or the Aliyah, resulting in a single Rov]

15)[line 16]והא רבא הוא דקאמר רוב ומצוי ליכא למ"ד!V'HA RAVA HU DEKA'AMAR ROV U'MATZUY LEIKA L'MAN D'AMAR!- but Rava was the one who said that there is no opinion [that does not agree that] that which is both the majority and occurs with more frequency [is preferable to Karov alone]!

16)[line 17]הדר ביה רבא מההיאHADAR BEI RAVA MEHA'HI- (the Gemara answers) Rava retracted that [argument]

17)[line 17]חבית שצפה בנהרCHAVIS SHE'TZAFAH B'NAHAR- [if] a barrel [of wine] is [found] floating in the [Euphrates] river

18)[line 19]מותרת... אסורהMUTERES... ASURA (STAM YEINAM - Wine Belonging to a Nochri)

(a)One may not derive any benefit from wine poured as a libation to an idol. This is derived from the verse (Devarim 32:38) which equates such wine to an animal sacrificed to an idol. Wine poured as a libation to Avodah Zarah is termed Yayin Nesech.

(b)The Chachamim prohibited one from drinking wine belonging to a Nochri even when it had not been poured as a libation (Stam Yeinam) out of concern that Jews and Nochrim drinking wine together would lead to intermarriage. In order to avoid confusion between Yayin Nesech and Stam Yeinam, the Chachamim additionally instituted that one may not derive any benefit from Stam Yeinam. Although this prohibition is only mid'Rabanan in nature, it is very severe (see Chochmas Adam 75:1).

19)[line 21]אימור (מהאי דקרא) [מאיהי דקירא] אתאיEIMOR ME'(HAI DIKRA) [IHI DAKIRA] ASA'I- I could say (i.e., it is possible) that it came from Ihi d'Kira, a Nochri city also known as Is, which was located upstream on the western bank of the Euphrates River

20)[line 22]מר אית ליה דרבי חנינאMAR IS LEI D'REBBI CHANINA- [Shmuel] agrees with Rebbi Chanina [and therefore assumes that the wine came from the majority of Nochrim in the surrounding area rather than the Jewish city which is closest]

21a)[line 26]עקוליIKULEI- (a) eddies formed by rocks that extend into the river (RASHI); (b) inlets along the river's edge (ARUCH)

b)[line 26]ופשוריPESHUREI- (a) areas on the side of the river that hold melting snow (RASHI); (b) elevations and depressions in the river (ARUCH)

22)[line 26]הוה מטבעי להHAVAH MATBE'I LAH- would have caused it to sink

23)[line 27]חריפא דנהרא נקט ואתאיCHARIFA D'NAHARA NAKAT VA'ASA'I- it made its way into (lit. seized) the strong [unimpeded] current [in the middle] of the river and came [this far downstream]

24)[line 27]חצבא דחמראCHATZBA D'CHAMRA- an earthenware container of wine

25)[line 28]דאישתכחISHTAKACH- was found [in such a way that it had obviously been stashed there by a thief]

26)[line 28]בפרדיסאPARDEISA- a vineyard

27)[line 28]דערלהORLAH - The Status of Fruit During the First Three Years of a Tree's Life

(a)One may not derive any benefit from fruit produced by a fruit tree in the first three years following its planting. These fruits are termed "Orlah" (Vayikra 19:23). This status applies not only to the fruit but also to the peel of the fruit (Kelipei Orlah).

(b)One who consumes a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit receives Malkus. According to most Rishonim, one who derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah) is punished with Malkus as well (TOSFOS to Chulin 120a DH Ela). There are those, however, who maintain that for such a transgression one receives only Makas Mardus (Malkus instituted by the Rabanan; RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 - see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8).

28)[line 28]שריאSHARYA- permitted it

29)[line 29]לימא משום דסבר לה [להא] דרבי חנינאLEIMA MISHUM D'SAVAR LAH [L'HA] D'REBBI CHANINA- let us suggest that [Ravina permitted the wine since most vineyards in that area did not have the status of Orlah, even though the one that it was closest to did have the status of Orlah], since he agrees with that [ruling] of Rebbi Chanina

30)[line 31]אצנועי בגויה לא מצנעיATZNU'EI B'GAVEI LO MATZNE'EI- [the thief] would not have hidden [the wine] in [the vineyard] from which he had stolen it

31)[line 32]עינבי מצנעיINVEI MATZNE'EI- [stolen] grapes he might have hidden [in the vineyard that he stole them from, since he may have needed to stash them quickly to avoid being caught red-handed on his way out (RABEINU YONAH)]

32)[line 32]זיקיZIKEI- wineskins

33)[line 33]בי קופאיBEI KUFA'EI- (a) among the vines in a vineyard [belonging to a Jew] (RASHI); (b) in a place called Bei Kufa'ei (first explanation of ARUCH, cited by TOSFOS DH Bei); (c) according to the Girsa BEI KIPEI (with a "Kaf"; see our Girsa in Sotah 46b and Berachos 31a) - on a bridge (ARUCH, second explanation)

34)[line 33]שרנהו רבאSHARINHU RAVA- Rava permitted them [and ruled that there was no need to consider them possible Stam Yeinam (see above, entry #18)]

35)[line 33]לימא לֹא סבר לה לדרבי חנינאLEIMA LO SAVAR LAH LED'REBBI CHANINA- let us suggest that [Rava permitted the wine since the vineyard in which it was found belonged to a Jew, even though most passersby through the area were Nochrim] since he disagrees with that [ruling] of Rebbi Chanina

24b----------------------------------------24b

36)[line 1]שפוכאיSHEFUCHA'EI- [merchants] who pour [wine into skins in this area]

37a)[line 1]ברברביRAVREVEI- large [wineskins, which are not generally transported from one place to another]

b)[line 2]זוטריZUTREI- small [wineskins, which may very well have been brought to this area by a traveler]

38)[line 3]באברורי הוה מנחיB'AVRUREI HAVAH MANCHEI- (a) [the small wineskins] were placed atop the saddlebags [on one side of a donkey belonging to a local Jew, in order to counterbalance the heavier saddlebags on its other side, and they are therefore permitted] (RASHI); (b) [the small wineskins] were placed over the back of the saddle between the saddlebags [on either side of a donkey belonging to a traveler who was transporting large wineskins, and they are therefore forbidden] (RABEINU GERSHOM)

39a)[line 5]ובחרובCHARUV- a carob tree

b)[line 5]ובשקמהSHIKMAH- a sycamore tree (alt. Egyptian fig tree)

40)[line 6]אילן סרקILAN SERAK- trees that do not bear fruit

41)[line 7]קוצץKOTZETZ- he must cut it down

42)[line 8]ואינו נותן דמיםEINO NOSEN DAMIM- [the owner of the city] need not pay for it

43)[line 10]נויי העירNOYEI HA'IR- the beautification of the city [which has a more pleasant appearance when it has an open area left around it]

44)[line 11]אין עושין שדה מגרש ולא מגרש שדהEIN OSIN SADEH MIGRASH V'LO MIGRASH SADEH - The Designated Areas Surrounding Cities in Eretz Yisrael

(a)Two types of areas must be left surrounding the walls of the cities allocated to the Leviyim. The first area is termed "Migrash," and it encompasses a square around the city such that there are one thousand Amos from the edge of the city to the side of the Migrash in each direction of the compass. The second area is termed "Sadeh." RASHI explains that the Sadeh extends outward in each direction from the Migrash for an additional one thousand Amos. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shemitah v'Yovel 13:2) and YAD RAMAH (#95) maintain that it extends an additional two thousand Amos beyond the Migrash. The RAMBAN (to Bamidbar 35:2) explains that the Migrash is a circular area, and that it surrounds the city at a radius of five hundred Amos. The Sadeh fills the corners of the square that circumscribes the circle of the Migrash. According to all opinions, the city limits end at the outer limits of the Sadeh (Bamidbar 35:4-5).

(b)The Migrash is an open space that may not be built upon or planted in; rather, it is used as pasture for the animals of the city. The Sadeh is designated for the fields and vineyards of the city. One may not plant the Migrash thus transforming it into a Sadeh, nor may one clear the Sadeh to transform it into Migrash.

(c)The Chachamim rule that these Halachos apply to all cities in Eretz Yisrael. Rebbi Eliezer maintains that they apply only to the cities of the Leviyim (Mishnah, Erchin 33b).

45)[line 15]ה"מ זרעיםHANEI MILEI ZERA'IM- that [which one may not plant the Migrash applies only to the planting of] grain and/or vegetables (See, however, RASHI to Sotah 27b DH Migrash and RASHASH ibid.)

46)[line 17]מנא תימרא...?MINA TEIMRA...?- how do we know to say...?

47)[line 18]קרפף יותר מבית סאתים שהוקף לדירהKARPAF YOSER MI'BEIS SE'ASAYIM SHE'HUKAF L'DIRAH (HOTZA'AH - The Transferal of Objects from one Domain to Another on Shabbos)

(a)One may not transfer objects from one domain to another (Hotza'ah) on Shabbos; this is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of acts of creative labor) of Shabbos. There are four designations of domains for the purposes of Hotza'ah:

1.RESHUS HA'RABIM (a public domain) is defined as a thoroughfare that is sixteen Amos wide and open at both ends, or an open plaza that can hold many people. According to some Rishonim, 600,000 people must pass through daily for the area to be considered a Reshus ha'Rabim (see Insights to Shabbos 6b).

2.RESHUS HA'YACHID (a private domain) is an area at least four Tefachim square that is enclosed by a partition ten Tefachim high on at least three sides. A raised area ten Tefachim tall and four Tefachim square has the status of a Reshus ha'Yachid as well. Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid are the only Reshuyos recognized by the Torah.

3.KARMELIS is the Rabbinic term given to certain areas that share characteristics with both a Reshus ha'Yachid and a Reshus ha'Rabim. Examples include the sea, a desert, and a four Tefach square area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is not ten Tefachim tall.

4.MEKOM PETUR refers to areas that do not fall into any of the above categories. Examples include a doorstep smaller than four Tefachim square, an area in Reshus ha'Rabim less than four square Tefachim that is not ten Tefachim tall, and the airspace above ten Tefachim in a Reshus ha'Rabim (See Shabbos, Charts #1-2).

(b)According to Torah law, Hotza'ah involves one of the following:

1.HOTZA'AH - the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim;

2.HACHNASAH - the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;

3.MA'AVIR ARBA AMOS BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM - carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;

4.MOSHIT - transferring an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (see Mishnah, Shabbos 96a).

(c)The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis be treated stringently as both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid since one may confuse it with either of these two domains. Transferring from a Mekom Petur to one of the other three Reshuyos is permitted (as the name implies), provided that one does not intend to use the Mekom Petur as a way-station to transfer objects from Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim through it (or vice versa).

(d)Any area that is enclosed has the status of a Reshus ha'Yachid mid'Oraisa, and one may therefore carry throughout its entire area no matter its size. Chazal decreed that if an enclosure had not built for residential purposes ("Lo Hukaf l'Dira"), then one may carry within the Reshus only if it is less than the area of a Beis Se'asayim. A Beis Se'asayim is a parcel of land in which two Se'ah (a measure of volume; see Background to 23:14a) of grain may be planted. This area is equal to that of the Azarah of the Mishkan; namely, 50 by 100 Amos, which is approximately 1,040 square meters (11,200 square feet), 1,152 square meters (12,400 square feet), or 1,659 square meters (17,856 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(e)A Karpaf is an enclosed area located outside of a settlement, usually used for storage and other such purposes. If it was enclosed for residential purposes, then one may carry within it even if it is larger than a Beis Se'asayim.

48a)[line 19]נזרעNIZRA- sown with grain or vegetables

b)[line 20]ניטעNITA- planted with trees

49)[line 22]קוצץ ונותן דמיםKOTZETZ V'NOSEN DAMIM- [if one planted a tree in his own domain within twenty-five Amos of a pit dug in his neighbor's domain, then] he must cut it down and [the owner of the pit] must pay [its value]

50)[line 24]קידרא דבי שותפי לא חמימא ולא קריראKIDRA D'VEI SHUTFEI LO CHAMIMA V'LO KERIRA- a jointly-owned pot is neither hot nor cold [since each partner relies on the other to maintain the fire underneath it]. This parable serves to illustrate how each resident of the city will rely upon the others to begin paying for the tree. Even though the Halachah would have been that the tree should first be cut down and only then paid for, we suspect that since the owner of the tree expects to be paid he may insist upon receiving his payment first. In such a case, then, the tree may be left standing, which is disgraceful for a city in Eretz Yisrael. (Therefore, we cut down the tree and do not reimburse the owner.) If the tree was there before the city, however, we do not deny him his rightful payment due to this concern (TOSFOS DH Mai Shna).

51)[line 26]הבו לי ברישא דמי, והדר איקוץHAVU LI B'REISHA DAMEI, V'HADAR EIKOTZ- first give me money, and then I will cut down [my tree]. This question does not apply to the case of a pit, since in that case he need only cut down the tree if he planted it when he was forbidden to do so (TOSFOS DH v'Leima).

52)[line 29]לא יקוץLO YIKOTZ- [if it is unclear whether one planted a tree in his own domain before his neighbor dug a pit within twenty-five Amos of it or if the pit was already there when the tree was planted, then] he need not cut it down

53)[line 29]ודאי לאו למיקץ קאיVADAI LAV L'MEIKATZ KA'I- in a case in which [the tree was] definitely [there before the pit], it need not be cut down

54)[line 31]אייתי ראיה ושקולAISI RE'AYAH U'SHKOL (HA'MOTZI ME'CHAVEIRO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH - The Burden of Proof Rests Upon he who Wishes to Extract Money from Another)

(a)When a dispute arises over the ownership of an item, the Chachamim rule that the first axiom to follow is "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah." This means that the burden of proof lies with he who wishes to extract the object from the other, and not upon he who holds the item or money in his possession (or he who was last proven to have owned the item). Hence, in cases of doubt, all items or money remain in the possession of he who holds them.

(b)For this reason, one who owned a tree within twenty-five Amos of a city does not receive any remuneration when his tree is cut down, even if it may have been there before the city was. Since the residents of the city currently have their money in their possession, they may contend, "Bring proof [that your tree was here first] and [only then] take [your money]."

55)[line 31]גורן קבועGOREN KAVU'A- an established threshing floor (this term is defined in the Gemara)

56a)[line 32]מן העירMIN HA'IR- from the city [where the chaff that blows from the winnowing process interferes with peoples' breathing]

b)[line 32]בתוך שלוB'SOCH SHELO- within his own [fields, where the chaff that blows from the winnowing process will not dry out others' seedlings]

57)[line 33]מנטיעותיוNETI'OSAV- seedlings

58)[line 33]ומנירוNIRO- his plowed furrow

59)[line 33]בכדי שלא יזיקBI'CHEDEI SHE'LO YAZIK- far enough that it does not cause damage (this terminology seems to imply a distance of less than fifty Amos)

60)[line 34]מ"ש רישא ומאי שנא סיפא?MAI SHNA REISHA U'MAI SHNA SEIFA?- what is the difference between the first case of the Mishnah [in which one must leave fifty Amos between his threshing floor and others' seedlings] and the last case of the Mishnah [in which one need not leave fifty Amos between his threshing floor and others' seedlings]?

61)[line 34]אתאןASA'AN- brings us; i.e., is discussing

62)[line 35]כל שאינו זורה ברחתKOL SHE'EINO ZOREH B'RACHAS- any [threshing floor] that is not [large enough to be] winnowed with a pitchfork [by throwing the grain high into the air and allowing the wind to blow the chaff free of the kernels]. [A smaller pile of grain need not be thrown into air; the wind blows the chaff free while it lies upon the ground. As such, the chaff does not travel as far.]

63)[line 36]מה טעם קאמרMAH TA'AM KA'AMAR- [the end of the Mishnah] is stating the reason [for the ruling of the Reisha]

64a)[line 38][מן] מקשאיו[MIN] MAKSHU'AV- [from] his cucumber plants (Girsa change as per early manuscripts; see also RASHASH)

b)[line 38][מן] מדלעיו[MIN] MADLU'AV- [from] his gourd plants (Girsa change as per early manuscripts; see also RASHASH)

65)[line 40]קשיאKASHYA- Abaye disagreed with Rav Ashi only because he felt that it was somewhat forced to suggest that the end of the Mishnah was offering a reason for the ruling of the Reisha. Therefore, although it is possible for him to suggest that the Beraisa is discussing an established Goren whereas the Seifa of Mishnah is discussing a smaller Goren, the basis for his explanation is challenged by the Beraisa (TOSFOS DH Kashya).

66a)[line 40]דאזיל אבקאAZIL AVKA- the powder[ed chaff] travels

b)[line 40]ואתי בליביהV'ASI B'LIBEI- and comes upon his [neighbor's] flowers [which sustain the vegetables] (see RABEINU GERSHOM)

c)[last line]ומצוי ליהU'MATZAVI LEI- and causes them to dry up

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