[10a - 51 lines; 10b - 53 lines]
1)[line 3]"כָּבוֹד חֲכָמִים יִנְחָלוּ""KAVOD CHACHAMIM YINCHALU"- "The wise shall accrue honor" (Mishlei 3:35). Masters of Agadah are honored due to their ability to lecture in an engaging manner.
2)[line 4]לבעל הדיןBA'AL HA'DIN- lit. a litigant; here, a wicked person or a Nochri
3)[line 4]להשיבךL'HASHIVCHA- to answer you; i.e., to challenge
4)[line 8]טורנוסרופוס הרשעTURNUSRUFUS HA'RASHA- Turnusrufus the wicked; the Roman procurator of Yerushalayim at the time of the emperor Hadrian
5)[line 11]זו שמחייבתן לגיהנם!ZU SHE'MECHAYVASAN L'GEHINOM!- [it is] this [very giving of charity] that should condemn them to Gehinom!
6)[line 13]וחבשו בבית האסוריןV'CHAVSHO B'VEIS HA'ASURIN- and he imprisoned him in jail
7)[line 18]לא דורון משגר לו?LO DORON MESHAGER LO?- will he not send him a gift?
8)[line 20]מקוםMAKOM- lit. the place; i.e., HaSh-m, Who is "the location of the world"
9)[line 21]"הֲלֹא פָרֹס לָרָעֵב לַחְמֶךָ, וַעֲנִיִּים מְרוּדִים תָּבִיא בָיִת""HALO FAROS LA'RA'EV LACHMECHA, VA'ANIYIN MERUDIM TAVI VAYIS"- "Surely you should distribute your bread to the hungry, and bring the groaning poor into your house" (Yeshayah 58:7)
10)[line 23]האידנאHA'IDNA- now. Rebbi Akiva interpreted "va'Aniyin Merudim Tavi Vayis" to be referring to the Roman Empire, which constantly pleaded poverty and demanded more and more from its constituents (see Background to 9:29).
11)[line 24]קצוביןKETZUVIN- set [by heavenly decree]
12)[line 25]דבני אחתיהBNEI ACHSEI- the sons of his sister
13a)[line 26]חזא להו בחילמאCHAZA LEHU B'CHILMA- he saw regarding them in a dream
b)[line 26]דבעו למיחסר שבע מאה דינריD'VA'U L'MEICHSAR SHEVA ME'AH DINREI- that they were destined to lose seven hundred Dinars
14a)[line 26]עשינהוASINHU- he [verbally] coerced them [throughout the year]
b)[line 26]שקל מינייהו לצדקהSHAKAL MINAIHU LI'TZEDAKAH- he took [money] from them toward charity
15)[line 26](פוש) [פש] גבייהו שיבסר דינרי(POSH) [PASH] GABAIHU SHIVSAR DINREI- seventeen Dinars were left in their possession [at the end of the year on (a) Erev Rosh Hashanah (our Girsa in RASHI); (b) Erev Yom ha'Kipurim (Girsa of the MAHARSHA in RASHI)]
16)[line 27]כי מטא מעלי יומא דכיפוריKI MATA MA'ALEI YOMA D'CHIPUREI- when Erev Yom ha'Kipurim arrived
17)[line 27]שדור דבי קיסרSHADUR D'VEI KEISAR- [a messenger] was sent from the palace of the Caesar
18)[line 27]נקטינהוNAKTINHU- he seized [the seventeen Dinars]
19)[line 27]לא תדחלוןLO TIDCHALUN- do not fear [that you will be forced to forfeit more of your assets]
20)[line 28]גבייכוGABAICHU- that were in your possession
21)[line 28]מנא ידעת?MINA YAD'AS?- how do you know [that we are not meant to lose any more than these seventeen Dinars]?
22)[line 29][דניתבינהו][D'NISVINHU]- [that we would have given them (to Tzedakah willingly)]
23a)[line 29]אמינאAMINA- I said [to myself that it was better not to tell you about my dream]
b)[line 29]כי היכי דתעבדו מצוה לשמהKI HEICHI D'SE'AVDU MITZVAH LISHMAH- so that you would perform a Mitzvah [of Tzedakah] for its own sake (i.e., in a purer form)
24)[line 29]הוה סליק בדרגאHAVAH SALIK B'DARGA- was climbing upon a step
25)[line 29]אישתמיט כרעיהISHTAMIT KAR'EI- his foot stumbled
26)[line 30]בעי למיפלBA'I L'MEIFAL- he nearly fell
27)[line 30]חלש דעתיה[CHALASH DAITEI]- [he felt badly] (these words are added by the HAGAHOS HA'BACH #2)
28)[line 30]השתא כןHASHTA KEN- had it been so [that I had fallen]
29a)[line 30]איחייב מאן דסני לןICHAYAV MAN D'SANI LAN- he whom we hate (this was a euphemistic way of referring to himself) would have been subjected to
b)[line 30]כמחללי שבתות וכעובדי עבודת כוכביםK'MECHALALEI SHABBASOS UCH'OVDEI AVODAS KOCHAVIM (SEKILAH - The Death Penalty of Stoning)
(a)One who is tried and found guilty of certain sins, after having received a proper warning and nonetheless transgressing in front of two witnesses, receives the death penalty from Beis Din. The members of Beis Din fulfill a Mitzvah when they administer such punishment (Devarim 21:22). The most stringent of the four death penalties administered by Beis Din is Sekilah (stoning).
(b)One who is convicted of an Aveirah punishable by stoning is led to the Beis ha'Sekilah, a structure twice the height of an average person that is located outside of the settlement (Sanhedrin 42b). The convict is given wine to drink until he is inebriated, and he is then brought to the top of the Beis ha'Sekilah with his hands tied. The two witnesses whose testimony served to convict him accompany him, and one of them pushes him off of the platform at the top of the structure. Should he survive the fall, the witnesses roll a stone heavy enough to require the two of them to lift it onto him from above. If he is still remains alive following this, then all those assembled pelt him with stones until he perishes. Sins for which one deserves Sekilah include Shabbos desecration, idol worship, cursing G-d, bestiality, sodomy, and certain illicit relations (e.g., incest with one's mother or one's daughter-in-law) (Sanhedrin 53a).
30)[line 32]המעלים עיניוHA'MA'ALIM EINAV- one who ignores (lit. hides his eyes)
31)[line 32]"הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן יִהֱיֶה דּבָר עִם לְבָבְךָ בְלִיַּעַל...""HISHAMER LECHA PEN YIHEYEH DAVAR IM LEVAVCHA BELIYA'AL..." (SHEMITAH - The Seventh Year)
(a)One must desist from working the Land of Israel every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7); this year is termed Shemitah or Shevi'is. Produce that grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means:
1.It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat.
2.It may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1).
3.It may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.
(b)The Torah requires that all loans shall be canceled every seventh year, as the verse states (Devarim 15:2), "שָׁמוֹט כָּל בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ" "Shamot Kol Ba'al Masheh Yado" - "Every creditor who lends anything to his neighbor shall release it." To demand payment of a loan after the Shemitah year is a violation of the prohibition of "לֹא יִגֹּשׂ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת אָחִיו" "Lo Yigos Es Re'ehu v'Es Achiv" - "he shall not exact it of his neighbor or of his brother" (ibid.). Most Rishonim rule that the Shemitah year cancels loans at the end of the year, on the last day of the month of Elul. (RAMBAM Hilchos Shemitah v'Yovel 9:1-4). Hashmatas Kesafim applies mid'Oraisa only when the Yovel year is in practice. Mid'Rabanan it applies today, whether inside or outside of Eretz Yisrael.
(c)The Torah uses the term "Beliya'al" - "rebellious," and warns against hardening one's heart against the poor, even as Shemitah approaches: "Guard yourself carefully, lest there be a rebellious thought in your heart [saying, 'The seventh year approaches - the year of Shemitah', and you turn a begrudging eye toward you destitute brother and you do not give him a loan, and he will call out against you to HaSh-m, and you will have sinned]." (Devarim 15:9)
32)[line 33]"יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל""YATZ'U ANASHIM BNEI BELIYA'AL..."- "Rebellious people have gone out [from your midst and swayed the inhabitants of their city, saying, 'Let us go and serve other gods whom you do not know]." (Devarim 13:14)
33)[line 34]ופרקליטיןPERAKLITIN- defending angels
34)[line 35]"[כִּי] כֹה אָמַר ה', אַל תָּבוֹא בֵּית מַרְזֵחַ וְאַל תֵּלֵךְ לִסְפּוֹד וְאַל תָּנֹד לָהֶם; כִּי אָסַפְתִּי אֶת שְׁלוֹמִי מֵאֵת הָעָם הַזֶּה, [נְאֻם ה',] אֶת הַחֶסֶד וְאֶת הָרַחֲמִים""[KI] CHO AMAR HASH-M, 'AL TAVO BEIS MARZE'ACH, V'AL TELECH LI'SPOD, V'AL TANOD LA'HEM; KI ASAFTI ES SHELOMI ME'ES HA'AM HA'ZEH', [NE'UM HASH-M] - 'ES HA'CHESED V'ES HA'RACHAMIM'"- "[For] thus says HaSh-m, 'Do not come to the house of mourning, do not go to eulogize, and do not wail for them; for I have gathered my peace from this nation, [says HaSh-m] - the kindness and the mercy." (Yirmeyahu 16:5) - Rebbi Elazar interprets this verse to mean that the lack of Chesed and Rachamim practiced by Klal Yisrael led to the breakdown of their close relationship with HaSh-m. It therefore follows that improvement in these areas leads to a closer relationship with Him.
35)[line 37]"כֹּה אָמַר ה' שִׁמְרוּ מִשְׁפָּט וַעֲשׂוּ צְדָקָה, כִּי קְרוֹבָה יְשׁוּעָתִי לָבֹא וְצִדְקָתִי לְהִגָּלוֹת""KO AMAR HASH-M, 'SHIMRU MISHPAT VA'ASU TZEDAKAH, KI KEROVAH YESHU'ASI LA'VO V'TZIDKASI L'HIGALOS'"- "Thus says HaSh-m, 'Ensure judgment and perform charity, for My salvation is close to arriving and My righteousness to being revealed." (Yeshayah 56:1)
36)[line 38]הוא היה אומרHU HAYAH OMER- [Rebbi Yehudah also] used to say
37)[line 39]מפעפעוMEFA'AF'O- softens it
38)[line 39]מכביןMECHABIN- extinguishes
39)[line 39]עבים סובלים אותןAVIM SOVLIN OSAN- clouds are able to contain it
40)[line 40]מפזרתןMEFAZRASAN- scatters them
41)[line 40]מפיגוMAFIGO- weakens it
42)[line 40]מפכחתוMEFAKCHASO- dispels it
43)[line 44]פרוטהPERUTAH- the smallest coin in circulation at the time of the Gemara
44)[line 44]"אֲנִי בְּצֶדֶק אֶחֱזֶה פָנֶיךָ; אֱשְׂבְּעָה בְהָקִיץ תְּמוּנָתֶךָ""ANI B'TZEDEK ECHEZEH FANECHA; ESBE'AH V'HAKITZ TEMUNASECHA"- "And I will merit to see Your face through my charitable actions; through awakening I will be satiated by Your image." (Tehilim 17:15)
45)[line 45]והדר מצליV'HADAR MATZLI- and subsequently prayed
46)[line 46]שמנדדיןMENADEDIN- they shake off
47)[line 47]מַשְׂביען מזיו השכינהMASBI'AN MI'ZIV HA'SHECHINAH- he satiates them (spiritually) from the shine of His presence
48)[line 47]"מַלְוֵה ה' חוֹנֵן דָּל, [וּגְמֻלוֹ יְשַׁלֶּם לוֹ]""MALVEI HASH-M CHONEN DAL, [U'GEMULO YESHALEM LO]"- "He who graces one who is impoverished [with charity] has loaned to HaSh-m, [and He will repay him in kind]." (Mishlei 19:17)
49)[line 47]אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרוILMALEI MIKRA KASUV, IY EFSHAR L'OMRO- if not for the written verse, it would have been impossible to say it
50)[line 48]כביכולKIV'YACHOL- as if it were possible [to say such a thing regarding HaSh-m] (RASHI to Megilah 21a)
51)[line 48]"[עָשִׁיר בְּרָשִׁים יִמְשׁוֹל, וְ]עֶבֶד לֹוֶה לְאִישׁ מַלְוֶה""[ASHIR B'RASHIM YIMSHOL, V']EVED LOVEH L'ISH MALVEH"- "[A wealthy man will dominate those who are poor, and] a creditor is enslaved to his debtor." (Mishlei 22:7)
52)[line 48](RAMI)- (posed a contradiction). This word appears to be an error, as the two verses that follow do not contradict one another. The version that appears in the YALKUT and the EIN YAKOV is "Amar Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan" (GILYON).
53)[line 48]"לֹא יוֹעִיל הוֹן בְּיוֹם עֶברָה, וּצְדָקָה תַּצִּיל מִמָּוֶת""LO YO'IL HON B'YOM EVRAH, U'TZEDAKAH TATZIL MI'MAVES"- "Great riches will not help on the day of anger, but charity saves from death." (Mishlei 11:4)
54)[line 49]"לֹא יוֹעִילוּ אוֹצְרוֹת רֶשַׁע, וּצְדָקָה תַּצִּיל מִמָּוֶת""LO YO'ILU OTZROS RESHA, U'TZEDAKAH TATZIL MI'MAVES"- "Storehouses amassed through iniquity will be of no help [on the day of reckoning], but charity saves from death." (Mishlei 10:2)
55)[line 50]ממיתה משונהMISAH MESHUNAH- an unusual[ly painful] death
56)[last line]"יוֹם עֶבְרָה הַיּוֹם הַהוּא""A day of wrath, will be that day" (the Prophecy of Tzefanyah Ha'Navi, Tzefanyah 1)
(a)The Ibn Ezra writes that the Chizkiyah mentioned in Tzefanyah 1:1 (Tzefanyah's great-great-grandfather) was Chizkiyahu, King of Yehudah, and that Amaryahu (Tzefanyah's great-grandfather) was King Menasheh's brother. According to Tanach, it was the sins of Menashe that led to the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)Three Nevi'im prophesied during the reign of Yoshiyahu ha'Melech: Yirmeyahu, Chuldah, and Tzefanyah. Yirmeyahu prophesied in the market-places and Tzefanyah, in the Batei Midrash, whereas Chuldah, as a rule, prophesied to the women.
(c)The Radak, who is skeptical about the Ibn Ezra's above comment, explains that Tzefanyah prophesied during the era prior to Yoshiyahu's Teshuvah. Presumably this will explain the harsh tone of his prophecy which, for the most part, is leveled against Yehudah. The Gemara, however, interprets the verse as referring to the ultimate day of wrath, when the wicked are sentenced to Gehinom.
57)[last line]ואי זו היאEI ZO HI...?- what [kind of charity] is it...?
58)[line 1]נוטלהNOTLAH- [the poor man] takes it
59a)[line 3]לאפוקי מדמר עוקבאL'AFUKEI MID'MAR UKVA- to the exclusion of [the way in which] Mar Ukva [gave charity]. Mar Ukva would anonymously deposit four Zuz in the door hinge of a certain local poor man every day (Kesuvos 67b).
b)[line 4]לאפוקי מדרבי אבאL'AFUKEI D'REBBI ABA- to the exclusion of [the way in which] Rebbi Aba [gave charity]. Rebbi Aba would sling a scarf with coins wrapped within it behind his back, and walk though areas in which the poor lived. Those in need would help themselves (Kesuvos 67b).
60)[line 5]ליתיב לארנקי של צדקהLEISEIV L'ARNEKI SHEL TZEDAKAH- let him place [coins] in the purse of charity; i.e., in a charity fund
61)[line 7]יפזר מעותיוYEFAZER MA'OSAV- he should scatter his money
62)[line 7]ישמח אשתו לדבר מצוהYESAMACH ISHTO LI'DVAR MITZVAH- he should gladden his wife (a) prior to marital relations (RASHI); (b) by having marital relations with her even when he is not obligated to due to Mitzvas Onah (see Mishnah, Kesuvos 61b and following Gemara) (RABEINU GERSHOM)
63)[line 10]ממונה עליה כר' חנניא בן תרדיוןMEMUNAH ALEHA K'REBBI CHANANYA BEN TERADYON- the one appointed to oversee it is as [trustworthy as] Rebbi Chananya ben Teradyon [who, when his own money got mixed together with the money of Tzedakah, gave the entire sum to charity (Avodah Zarah 17b) (TOSFOS DH Ela)
64)[line 10]כי קא אמרינןKI KA AMRINAN- (the Gemara answers) [indeed] it is in such a situation [that] we said [that one should ideally give charity indirectly through a fund]
65)[line 13]במה תרום קרן ישראלBA'MEH TARUM KEREN YISRAEL?- through what shall the pride of Am Yisrael be lifted? I.e., how shall they gain strength?
66)[line 13]ב"כִּי תִשָּׂא"B"KI SISAH"- through [that which is referred to in the verse] "When you shall count (lit. lift) [the heads of Bnei Yisrael ...] (Shemos 30:11); namely, through taking a tithe for charity
67)[line 14]שלמה בן דודSHLOMO BEN DAVID- Shlomo ha'Melech, son of David ha'Melech
68)[line 16]"פִּזַּר נָתַן לָאֶבְיוֹנִים, צִדְקָתוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת לָעַד; קַרְנוֹ תָּרוּם בְּכָבוֹד""PIZAR NASAN LA'EVYONIM, TZIDKASO OMEDES LA'AD; KARNO TARUM B'CHAVOD"- "He distributed [coins] to the poor, his charitable actions stand forever; his pride is lifted in honor." (Tehilim 112:9)
69)[line 18]"הוּא מְרוֹמִים יִשְׁכּוֹן, מְצָדוֹת סְלָעִים מִשְׂגַּבּוֹ; לַחְמוֹ נִתָּן, מֵימָיו נֶאֱמָנִים""HU MEROMIM YISHKON, METZADOS SELA'IM MISGABO; LACHMO NITAN, MEIMAV NE'EMANIM"- "He will dwell in the heights, his abode in a fortress of stone; his bread will be given [to him], his water [source] faithful." (Yeshayah 33:16) Our Gemara interprets the end of the verse to refer to someone who gave bread and water faithfully to others.
70)[line 22]שֶׁכְּ"נֶגֶד זְקֵנָיו כָּבוֹד"SHEKE"NEGED ZEKENAV KAVOD"- "... opposite his elders, honor"; i.e., anyone who is honored in this world due to his wisdom
71)[line 23]חלשCHALASH- fell ill
72)[line 23]אינגידINGID- his spirit left him; he became clinically dead
73)[line 23]מאי חזית?MAI CHAZIS?- what did you see [when your spirit went up to Shamayim]?
74)[line 23]עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלהELYONIM L'MATAH V'TACHTONIM L'MAILAH- (a) those who were [of] elevated [status here in this world due to their wealth] were [of] low [status], and those who were [of] low [status here in this world] were [of] elevated [status] (RASHI); (b) Shmuel, who was the Rebbi of Rebbi Yehudah, sat in front of him as a student (RABEINU CHANANEL quoting a tradition in the name of the GE'ONIM, cited by TOSFOS DH Elyonim)
75)[line 24]ברורBARUR- clear
76)[line 24]ואנן היכי (חזיתינן) [אתינן]V'ANAN HEICHI (CHAZISINAN) [ASINAN]?- and how are we (i.e., Talmidei Chachamim) (seen) [regarded]?
77)[line 26]הרוגי מלכותHARUGEI MALCHUS- those put to death by the [Nochri] regime
78)[line 26]בריהBERYAH- creation
79)[line 27]במחיצתןBI'MECHITZASAN- within their partition; i.e., on their lofty level
80)[line 27]ר''ע וחבריוREBBI AKIVA VA'CHAVEIRAV- Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues. This refers to the Asarah Harugei Malchus - ten great Tana'im who were killed by the Roman Empire, over the course of many years, on the pretext of atoning for the sale of Yosef ha'Tzadik by his brothers. These murders happened around the same time as the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. They were Rebbi Akiva, Rebbi Yishmael Kohen Gadol, Raban Shimon, Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, Rebbi Chananya (alt. Chanina) ben Teradyon, Rebbi Yeshevav ha'Sofer, Rebbi Chutzpis ha'Meturgeman, Rebbi Elazar ben Shamu'a, Rebbi Chanina ben Chachina'i, and Rebbi Yehudah ben Dama.
81)[line 28]הרוגי לודHARUGEI LOD- the martyrs of Lod. This refers to Luliyanus and Papus, two brothers who "confessed" to the crime of murdering a princess in order to prevent a pogrom (Ta'anis 18b).
82)[line 29]"צְדָקָה תְרוֹמֵם גּוֹי; וְחֶסֶד לְאוּמִּים חַטָּאת""TZEDAKAH SEROMEM GOY; V'CHESED LE'UMIM CHATAS"- "Charity will elevate a nation, but the kindness of peoples is a sin." (Mishlei 14:34)
83)[line 32]להתגדל בוL'HISGADEL BO- lit. to become great through it; i.e., for their own benefit
84)[line 32]"[וּמָה חַשְׁחָן, וּבְנֵי תוֹרִין וְדִכְרִין וְאִמְּרִין לַעֲלָוָן לֶאֱלָ-הּ שְׁמַיָּא, חִנְטִין מְלַח חֲמַר וּמְשַׁח, כְּמֵאמַר כָּהֲנַיָּא דִי בִירוּשְׁלֶם לֶהֱוֵא מִתְיְהֵב לְהֹם יוֹם בְּיוֹם דִּי לָא שָׁלוּ.] דִּי לֶהֱווֹן מְהַקְרְבִין נִיחוֹחִין לֶאֱלָ-הּ(ה) שְׁמַיָּא, וּמְצַלַּיִין לְחַיֵּי מַלְכָּא וּבְנוֹהִי""U'MAH CHASHCHAN, U'VNEI TORIN V'DICHRIN V'IMRIN LA'ALAVAN L'ELAKAH SHEMAYA, CHINTIN, MELACH, CHAMAR U'MESHACH, K'MEIMAR KAHANAYA DI BI'YERUSHALEM LEHEVEI MISYEHEV LEHOM YOM B'YOM DI LO SHALU. DI LEHEVON MEHAKREVIN NICHOCHIN LE'ELAKAH SHEMAYA, U'METZALAYIN L'CHAYEI MALKA U'VENOHI" - "And whatever they need, including bulls, rams, and lambs for burnt offerings to HaSh-m in Heaven, flour, salt, wine, and oil, according to the instructions of the Kohanim in Yerushalayim, shall be given to them day by day without delay. To enable them to bring sacrifices that are pleasing to G-d in Heaven, and for them to pray for the well-being of the king and his sons." (Ezra 6:9-10) (THE GENEROSITY OF DARYAVESH, KING OF PERSIA)
When Daryavesh, King of Persia, read the letter that was found in the royal palace in Medes, describing the authorization that Koresh, King of Medes, had given to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash and to return to Yerushalayim all of the holy vessels that Nevuchdnetzar had exiled to Bavel, he reinstated that authorization. In addition, he offered not only money to help build the Beis ha'Mikdash, but also ongoing financial assistance for all of its sacrificial needs, as the verse explains.
85)[line 35]הרי זה צדיק גמורHAREI ZEH TZADIK GAMUR- such a one is a perfect Tzadik [in this particular matter]
86)[line 36]כאן בישראלKAN B'YISRAEL- here [where we learn that he is a Tzadik Gamur] it refers to a Jew [since he wholeheartedly gives the Tzedakah even if his prayer is turned down]
87)[line 38]שתמשך מלכותןSHE'TIMASHECH MALCHUSAN- that their reign be extended
88)[line 38]" לָהֵן, מַלְכָּא, מִלְכִּי יִשְׁפַּר עליך [עֲלָךְ], וחטיך [וַחֲטָאָךְ] בְּצִדְקָה פְרוּק וַעֲוָיָתָךְ בְּמִיחַן עֲנָיִין; הֵן תֶּהֱוֵא אַרְכָה לִשְׁלֵוְתָיךְ ""LAHEN MALKA, MILKI YISHPAR ALACH, VA'CHATA'ACH BI'TZEDAKAH P'RUK, VA'AVAYASACH B'MICHAN ANAYIN, HEN TEHEVEI ARCHA LI'SHLEIVESACH" - "In truth you are king; may my advice be good in your eyes, your sins you should redeem with charity, and your iniquities by being gracious to the poor; this will extend your tranquility." (Daniel 4:24) (THE DECREE AGAINST NEVUCHADNETZAR IS POSTPONED FOR ONE YEAR)
(a)Even though Daniel's intentions (in advising Nevuchadnetzar to postpone his evil decree by giving charity) were good, as explained in Moed Katan (3b), he was nevertheless taken to task for helping a Nochri to postpone his punishment. Some say that Daniel, the same as Hasach, was deposed from his greatness (as the name "Hasach" implies); according to others, he was punished by being thrown into the lion's den (Bava Basra 4a).
(b)One year later, the king mysteriously disappeared to live with the animals and the beasts, as Daniel had predicted. His son Evil Merodach took over the throne, until his father's reappearance seven years later.
89)[line 41]להתיהר בוL'HISYAHER BO- to become haughty as a result of having performed them
90)[line 41]"זֵד יָהִיר לֵץ שְׁמוֹ; עוֹשֶׂה בְּעֶבְרַת זָדוֹן""ZED YAHIR LETZ SHEMO; OSEH B'EVRAS ZADON"- "A haughty, deliberate sinner is called a scorner; he sins deliberately and angrily." (Mishlei 21:24)
91)[line 42]"יוֹם עֶבְרָה הַיּוֹם הַהוּא""YOM EVRAH HA'YOM HA'HU..."- see above, entry #56
92)[line 42]אמר רבן גמליאל, "עדיין אנו צריכין למודעי"AMAR RABAN GAMLIEL, "ADAYIN ANU TZERICHIN L'MODA'I"- Raban Gamliel (who was another student of Raban Yochanan ben Zakai) said, "We still require [the explanation of] the one from Mount Moda'is"
93)[line 44]לחרף אותנו בוL'CHAREF OSANU BO- to embarrass us through it
94)[line 45]"וַיָּבֵא וַיַּעַשׂ ה' כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר; כִּי חֲטָאתֶם לַה' וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּקוֹלוֹ, וְהָיָה לָכֶם הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה""VA'YAVEI VA'YA'AS HASH-M KA'ASHER DIBER; KI CHATASEM LA'SH-M VE'LO SHE'MA'TEM BE'KOLO, VE'HAYAH LACHEM HA'DAVAR HA'ZEH' " - "[And the chief executioner took Yirmiyahu aside and said to him, 'HaSh-m your G-d foretold this evil concerning this place.] And HaSh-m brought it about and did as He said; because you sinned to HaSh-m and did not listen to His Voice, that is why this happened to you.'" (Yirmeyahu 40) (YIRMEYAH'S CHOICE)
(a)This verse describes Yirmeyahu's capture at the hand of Nevuzradan.
(b)However, after a few words of rebuke, Nevuzradan, following Nevuchadnetzar's instructions, released Yirmeyah from his chains. He then gave him the choice of going to Bavel with his fellow Jews, or returning to Eretz Yisrael to join Gedalyah ben Achikam and the small contingent of fellow Jews who remained with him to rebuild the destroyed community.
(c)According to the Midrash (Petichta 34 to Eichah Rabah) it was HaSh-m Who offered a choice to to Yirmeyahu to either go to Bavel, and He (HaSh-m) to the Jews remaining in Eretz Yisrael, or vice-versa. Yirmeyahu took the latter option, and answered that the Jews who were in exile needed HaSh-m more than they needed him (Yirmeyahu).
95)[line 47]נראיןNIR'IN- they appear [to be correct]
96)[line 48]מכלל דהוא נמי אמרMI'CHLAL D'HU NAMI AMAR- from this [that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai said that he preferred the explanation of Rebbi Nechunya ben ha'Kanah to all others including his own] we may infer that [Raban Yochanan ben Zakai] also offered [an explanation]
97)[line 49]כשם שהחטאת מכפרת על ישראלK'SHEM SHE'CHATAS MECHAPERES AL YISRAEL...- Raban Yochanan ben Zakai interpreted the verse to mean that acts of kindness performed by the nations of the world atone for their sins as a Korban Chatas (see Background to Bava Metzia 3:37) does for Klal Yisrael.
98)[line 49]איפרא הורמיז אימיה דשבור מלכאIFRA HURMIZ IMEI D'SHEVOR MALKA- Ifra Hurmiz was the mother of King Shapur II, king of Persia during the Sassanid Dynasty (ruled 309-379 CE). Her name alludes to her great beauty (Ifra), which was reminiscent of that of certain spirits (such as Hurmiz bas Lilita; see 73a).
99)[line 50]שדרהSHADRAH- she sent
100)[line 51]משום שלום מלכותMISHUM SHELOM MALCHUS- in order to maintain good relations with the realm
101)[line 51]איקפדIKPID- he became upset
102)[line 51]לית ליה, "בִיבֹשׁ קְצִירָהּ תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה, נָשִׁים בָּאוֹת מְאִירוֹת אוֹתָהּ..."?LEIS LEI "BI'VOSH KETZIRAH TISHAVARNA, NASHIM BA'OS ME'IROS OSAH…"?- does [Rava] not have [the verse which states], "When her harvest dries out she shall be broken, women will come and set her alight..." (Yeshayah 27:11)? This verse alludes to that which a Nochri nation can be destroyed even by a weak enemy when their merit is exhausted.
103a)[line 52]ורבי אמי נמי משום שלום מלכות?V'REBBI AMI NAMI MISHUM SHELOM MALCHUS?- and why didn't Rebbi Ami also [agree that it was important for Rava to accept the gift] in order to maintain good relations with the realm?
b)[line 52]דאיבעי ליה למפלגינהו לעניי עובדי כוכביםD'IBA'I LEI L'MIFLEGINHU L'ANIYEI OVDEI KOCHAVIM- (the Gemara answers) [Rebbi Ami maintained] that he should have distributed them to poverty-stricken Nochrim