1) HEALING ON SHABBOS AND WITH IDOLATRY (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 10b)

ר' יהושע בן לוי הוה ליה קוליס והורין ליה רבי חנינה ורבי יונתן מישחוק תחלופין ומיתן גו חמרא עתיקא ומישתי ולא יסכן.

(a) R. Yehoshua ben Levi had (the intestinal disease called) Kulis, and R. Chaninah and R. Yonasan instructed him that he is permitted to grind Tachalufin, put it into old wine and drink it, rather than endanger himself by waiting until after Shabbos.

בר בריה הוה ליה בלע אתא חד ולחש ליה ואינשם.

(b) R. Yehoshua ben Levi's grandson was afflicted with 'Belah' (a disease of the throat that prevents eating and drinking). A person came and whispered an incantation on the affected place and it was healed.

מי נפק א"ל מאי אמרת עליי א"ל למילת פלן אמר מה הוי ליה אילו מית ולא שמע הדא מילתא

1. When the patient left, R. Yehoshua ben Levi asked the man what he had whispered. He answered that he had said a name of idolatry. R. Yehoshua ben Levi responded that it would have been better for his grandson to die than to use such a name to heal him.

והוות ליה כן כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט.

2. It was (Koheles 10:5), "like an error that goes out from before the ruler" (and his grandson died).

2) IDOLATRY TO SAVE A LIFE (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 10b)

רבי יעקב בשם רבי יוחנן בכל מתרפין חוץ מע"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים.

(a) (R. Yaakov citing R. Yochanan): One can do any prohibition to save a life except for idolatry, illicit relations and bloodshed.

רבי פינחס בעי עד כדון כשאמר לו הבא לי עלים מע"ז והביא לו

(b) Question (R. Pinchas): The prohibition to use idolatry applies only if the patient asked to be brought leaves from a tree of idol worship (as there is a concern that he might be drawn after idolatry), but if he merely asked for leaves and it was brought to him from a tree used for idol worship, is it permitted?

נישמעינה מן הדא רבי אחא הוה ליה צמרמורין אייתין ליה מן זכרותיה דדוהי ולא אישתה אייתון לרבי יונה ואישתי

(c) Answer: Rav Acha had fever and needed to drink. They brought him water from a spring of idolatry called Dohi and he did not drink it. They brought it to R. Yona and he drank it.

א"ר מנא אילו הוה רבי יונה אבא ידע מאן הוון לא הוה שתי

(d) (R. Mana): If R. Yona would have known from where it came, he would not have drunk it.

3) ILLICIT RELATIONS TO SAVE A LIFE (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 10b)

א"ר הונא זאת אומרת שאין מתרפין מגילוי עריות

(a) (Rav Huna): It is clear from the following Beraisa that one may not use illicit relations for healing, so what was R. Yaakov teaching from R. Yochanan...

דתני שבת הותרה מכללה נערה המאורסה לא הותרה מכללה שבת שהותרה מכללה לא להתרפות

(b) (Beraisa): The pasuk states about the obligation to bring a sin offering (Vayikra 4:27), "(by his committing) one of the commandments of Hash-m (which may not be committed)". The case of a betrothed young woman was not an exception to that general rule but Shabbos was made an exception (in certain cases, where it is overridden). Wasn't it made an exception to allow healing on Shabbos?

ודכוותה נערה המאורסה לא הותרה ואפילו להתרפות.

(c) This means that in the case of the betrothed young woman (meaning all cases of illicit relations), it was not permitted even for healing?!

ולא סוף דבר שאמר לו הבא לי אשת איש אלא אפילו לשמוע את קולה כהדא חד בר נש רחם איתא ביומוי דרבי לעזר וסכן אתון שאלון לרבי לעזר מהו דתיעבור קומוי וייחי אמר לון ימות ולא כן מהו דישמע קלה וייחי אמר לון ימות ולא כן

(d) And do not think that this prohibition only applies to actual adulterous relations with a married woman, as in fact, even to hear her voice for healing is prohibited. Such a case occurred in the days of R. Eliezer, that a man loved a certain woman and he became so lovesick that his life was in danger. He told them to at least allow her to pass in front of him and it will save him. The Chachamim refused, saying that it is better to die than do this. He then asked them to allow him to listen to her voice as it will save him. They also said this is better that he die rather than do this.

ומה הוות רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי יצחק בר נחמן חד אמר אשת איש הוויי וח"א פנויה.

(e) And who was she? R. Yaakov bar Idi and Rav Yitzchak bar Nachman disagreed - one said that she was married and one said that she was single.

מאן דמר אשת איש ניחא ומאן דמר פנויה והא בר כוחא נגרא רחם איתתא ביומוי דרבי לעזר וסכן [ושרא ליה]

(f) It is understandable that they prohibited him if she was married, but if she was single, why couldn't he just marry her? Wasn't Bar Kocha Nagra lovesick for a certain woman in the days of R. Elazar and R. Elazar permitted him to marry her?

כאן באשת איש כאן בפנויה.

1. Rather, it must be that R. Elazar only permitted it if she was single but not if she was married.

ואפי' תימא כאן וכאן בפנויה (וכאן וכאן באשת איש) תיפתר שנתן עיניו בה עד שהיא אשת איש.

2. Alternatively, it could even be that both cases were with a single woman, but he prohibited it when the man had already set his eyes on her when her husband was still alive and the husband later died.

אית דבעי מימר איתה רובה הוות ולא הוות משמע ליה וכל מה דהותה מעבד באיסור הוה מעבד בגין כן לא שרא ליה

(g) Some answer that the single woman was an important lady who would not have agreed to marry the man; therefore, anything that she would do for his healing (even just speaking to her) was thereby prohibited.

4) SPILLING BLOOD TO SAVE A LIFE (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 11a)

אמר רבי חנינה זאת אומרת שאין מתרפין משפיכות דמים.

(a) Question (R. Chaninah): From the following Mishnah we learn that one may not spill blood to save a life (so what was R. Yaakov teaching us from R. Yochanan (above 2(a))?

דתנינן תמן יצא רובו אין נוגעין בו וכו' חיישינן שלא ימות (ואין)[שאין] דוחין נפש מפני נפש

1. Mishnah in Ohelos: (If a woman was having difficulty in childbirth, they may cut up the foetus while still inside the mother to save the mother's life.) But as soon as most of the foetus's head has come out, they may not kill it, because one does not push away a soul for another soul. (This clearly teaches that one cannot spill one person's blood to save another person.)

לא סוף דבר שאמר לו הרוג את איש פלוני אלא אמר לו חמוס את איש פלוני.

(b) Answer: That Mishnah only teaches that actually killing a person would be prohibited, but R. Yaakov taught that even if a person is threatened with death if he does not rob someone, he may not do so, because it is likely that the victim will fight back and might get killed.

עכו"ם בעכו"ם עכו"ם בישראל חייב ישראל בעכו"ם פטור.

(c) (Beraisa): If an idolater told an idolater to kill a Jew on pain of death, the second one is liable the death penalty even though it was against his will. If an idolater told a Jew to kill another idolater on pain of death, it is prohibited for the Jew to kill him, but if he did, he would be exempt from the death penalty.

רב חסדא בעי מהו להציל את הגדול בנפשו של קטון

(d) Question (Rav Chisda): If a child is pursuing an adult to kill him, is it permitted to kill the child? (Or perhaps it is prohibited because the child is exempt from punishment by Beis Din?)

התיב ר' ירמיה והתנן יצא רובו אין נוגעין בו שאין דוחין נפש מפני נפש

(e) Answer (R. Yirmiyah): The Mishnah (in Ohalos, above) answers it - as soon as most of the foetus's head has come out, it is prohibited to kill it to save the mother (even though the baby is 'pursuing' the mother by endangering her life.)

רבי יוסי בר רבי בון בשם רבי לוי שנייא היא תמן דלא נודע מי הורג את מי.

(f) Rebuttal (R. Yosi bei R. Bun citing R. Levi): There, both are in danger and it is unclear who is the 'pursuer'. (The question is not answered.)

מעשה באלעזר בן דמא שנשכו נחש ובא יעקב איש כפר סמא לרפותו.

(g) There was a story of Elazar ben Dama (a nephew of R. Yishmael) who was bitten by a snake and Yaakov of Kfar Sama (who was a heretic) came to heal him using a name of idolatry.

אמר לו רבי ישמעאל אי אתה רשאי בן דמא.

(h) (R. Yishmael to Yaakov): I don't allow it.

אמר לו אני אביא ראיה שירפאני לא הספיק להביא ראיה עד שמת.

(i) (Elazar ben Dama to R. Yishmael): I will bring you a proof that it is permitted. He died before he had a chance to bring the proof.

אמר לו רבי ישמעאל אשריך בן דמא שיצאת בשלום מן העולם ולא פרצת גדירן של חכמים לקיים מה שנאמר ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש

(j) (R. Yishmael to Elazar): Fortunate are you, Ben Dama, that you left the world in peace and you did not breach the fences of the Sages, to fulfil that which it says (Koheles 10:8), "One who breaches a fence will be bitten by a snake".

ולא נחש נשכו

1. Question: But wasn't he bitten by a snake?!

אלא שלא ישכנו לעתיד לבוא.

2. Answer: It means that he will not be bitten (by the accusing angel) on the day of judgement.

ומה הוה ליה למימר

(k) Question: Which proof could Elazar have brought?

אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם.

(l) Answer: The pasuk states (Vayikra 18:5), "that a man shall do and live by them" - but he does not need to die to keep a Mitzvah.

5) CUTTING AND HAVING HAIR CUT BY AN IDOLATER (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 11a)

המספר לנכרי מספר עד שמגיע לבלורית וכיון שמגיע לבלורית הרי זה מושך את ידיו.

(a) One who cuts the hair of an idolater may cut until he reaches close to his Bluris (ponytail, left long to serve the idol). When he reaches close to his Bluris, he should withdraw his hand (in order not to improve the Bluris).

המסתפר מן הנכרי הרי זה רואה במראה מן הכותי אינו רואה במראה.

(b) One who has his hair cut by an idolater should watch him through a mirror. But if a Kuti was doing the haircut, there is no need for a mirror.

התירו לבית רבי שיהו רואין שהיו זקוקין למלכות.

(c) They permitted the members of the House of Rebbi to use a mirror since they needed to appear respectable in the eyes of the authorities.

שלשה דברים התירו לבית רבי שיהו רואין במראה ושיהו מספרין קומי ושילמדו את בניהן יוונית שהיו זקוקין למלכות.

(d) They permitted three things for the House of Rebbi - that they could use a mirror, they could leave a ponytail at the back of their hair and they could teach their sons Greek. (Since they were close to the government, if they appeared more like the gentiles they would be more influential and be able to save the Jews from evil decrees.)

חד גיור הוה ספר והוה איצטרולוגוס והוה חמי באיצטרולוגיא דידיה דיהודאי שפכין אדמיה ולא חוון אלא אמגיירתיה והוה יודאי אזל בעי מיספרה גביה קטיל ליה. .

(e) There was once a convert who used to be a barber and a stargazer. He had seen in the stars that the Jews would spill his blood. (He thought that they would kill him, so he began to hate them.) In fact, it was referring to their circumcising him. Later, after he converted, when a Jew would come for a haircut, he would kill him.

כמן קטל רבי לעזר בר יוסי אמר שמונים רבי יוסי בי ר' בון אמר שלש מאות ובסוף נתפללו עליו וחזר לסיאורו

1. How many Jews did he kill? R. Elazar bar Yosi said 80 people; R. Yosi bei R. Bun said 300. In the end, they prayed for him and he returned to his ways of acting like an idolater, so that people would know to avoid him.

6) BUYING SACRED ITEMS FROM AN IDOLATER (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 11a)

תני נכרי שמוכר ספרים תפילין ומזוזות אין לוקחין ממנו

(a) (Beraisa): If a gentile is selling Torah scrolls, Tefillin and Mezuzos, don't buy from him (perhaps they were not written properly).

והתני מעשה בנכרי אחד בצידן שהיה מוכר ספרים תפילין ומזוזות ובא מעשה לפני חכמים ואמרו מותר ליקח ממנו

(b) Question (Beraisa): Once, there was a gentile selling these things and the Chachamim ruled that it is permitted to buy them from him...?

רבי שמואל בר נתן בשם רבי חמא בר חנינה בגר שחזר לשיאורו היה:

(c) Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nasan citing R. Chama bar Chaninah): It was a convert who returned to his old ways (from fear of the gentiles, but he was still trusted to provide Kasher items).

7) UNCOVERED AND COOKED WINE (Yerushalmi Halachah 3 Daf 11b)

משנה אילו דברים של נכרים אסורין ואיסורן איסור הנאה היין והחומץ של נכרים שהיה מתחילתו יין וחרס אדרייני ועורות לבובין

(a) (Mishnah): The following things of idolaters are prohibited for a Jew even to derive benefit - wine, vinegar that was originally wine, Hadrian pottery (they would produce clay kneaded with wine and then later they could take the clay with them to war and whenever they wanted to drink wine, they would soak the clay in water and produce diluted wine) and animal skins that are pierced at the heart (as the idolaters would remove the heart with its skin from the animal while it was still alive).

רשב"ג אומר בזמן שהקרע שלו עגול אסור ומשוך מותר

(b) (Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel): When the hole is round, it is prohibited; when it is a straight line, it is permitted.

ובשר הנכנס לע"ז מותר והיוצא אסור מפני שהוא זבחי מתים דברי רבי עקיבה

(c) (R. Akiva): If meat was brought to a Temple of Idolatry it is permitted; if it is being taken out of there, it is prohibited (as it has already been presented as a gift to the idol).

ההולכים לתרפות אסור מלשאת מלתת עמהן והבאין מותרין:

(d) It is prohibited to do business with those going to a Temple of Idolatry, but it is permitted with those who are returning.

גמרא ר' יצחק בר נחמן בשם ר' יהושע בן לוי הוה אמר מתוק מר חד אין בהן משום גילוי.

(e) (Gemara) (R. Yitzchak bar Nachman citing R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Sweet (meaning heavily boiled) wine, wine cooked with bitter herbs and wine mixed with spices to make it sharp - there is no prohibition against drinking them if they were left uncovered overnight.

רבי סימון בשם רבי יהושע בן לוי החד והמר והמתוק אין בהן משום גילוי ולא משום יין נסך.

(f) (R. Simon citing R. Yehoshua ben Levi): There is also no problem of Yayin Nesech. (There is no concern that an idolater offered them before an idol, because they do not view such wine as worthy of service.)

רבי סימון מפרש החד קונדיטון. המר סינתטוון. והמתוק מהו חמרא מבשלה.

(g) (R. Simon): Sharp - this is Kunditun (wine mixed with spices and herbs, giving it a sharp taste); bitter - this is Pesintatvan; sweet is wine cooked until it is sweet.

רבי יהושע בן זיידל היה לו יין מבושל שנתייחד ברשות הנכרי שאל לרבי ינאי בי רבי ישמעאל א"ל כן אמר ר"ש בן לקיש מתוק אין בו לא משום גילוי ולא משום יין נסך.

(h) R. Yehoshua ben Zeidel had cooked wine that he left in the property of an idolater. He asked R. Yanai bei R. Yishmael about its status. R. Yishmael told him that Reish Lakish said that for 'sweet' wine, there is no concern of leaving uncovered overnight and no concern for Yayin Nesech.

רבי ינאי בר' ישמעאל איבאש סלקון רבי זירא ורבי יהושע ורבי בון בר כהנא ורבי חנניה חבריהון דרבנן מבקרתיה אשכחון רבי יהושע בר זיידל יתיב תמן אמרי הא מרה דשמועתא והא מרה דעובדא מישאלוניה

(i) R. Yanai bei R. Yishmael once became sick. R. Zeira, R. Yehoshua, R. Bun bar Kahana and R. Chananya, his Rabbinical colleagues, went to visit him. They found that R. Yehoshua ben Zeidel was sitting there. They said, "This is the source of the teaching of Reish Lakish and that is the one to whom it was said. Is it true?"

אמר לון כן אמר ריש לקיש מתוק אין בו לא משום גילוי ולא משום יין נסך.

(j) (R. Yanai bei R. Yishmael): Reish Lakish did say that teaching.

א"ל דילמא מן הדא דר"ש בן לקיש דאכן אכן

(k) (The four Sages): Perhaps Reish Lakish was just considering saying it but he did not actually say it as definitive ruling.

אמר לון לעובדה וסמכון עלוי.

(l) (R. Yanai): No, he actually made the ruling and it is relied upon.

מן דקמון רב אילא עם רבי בון בר כהנא א"ל אילולא דאתון רחמין שמועתא ולא מתניתא היא.

(m) After the Sages left, R. Ila met R. Bun bar Kahana and said to him, "If you would not love to relate teachings of the Sages (Amoraim), couldn't you learn this from this Beraisa..."

תני רבי חייה מבושל של נכרי למה הוא אסור שהיה מתחילתו יין

1. (Beraisa-R. Chiya): Why did they prohibit cooked wine of idolaters? Because it had been regular wine beforehand. (This implies that if the idolater received it after it had been cooked, it would be permitted.)

אמר ר' יוסי מתניתא אמרה כן היין והחומץ שהיה מתחילתו יין.

(n) (R. Yosi): This can also be deduced from our Mishnah - "wine and vinegar that was originally wine" - the vinegar is prohibited because it was originally wine, but if it only came to the idolater after it was already vinegar, it is not prohibited.

רבי אמי הוו ליה אורחין אמר לון אילולי חמרא מבשלא דידי מגלי לא הוינא משקתכון.

(o) R. Ami once had guests. He told them, "If not that my cooked wine was (accidently) left uncovered overnight, I would offer it to you to drink. (This shows that he held that the prohibition to drink wine left uncovered applies even cooked wine.)

אמר ליה רב ביבי אייתון ואנן שתינן.

(p) (R. Baybei to R. Ami): Give it to me and I will drink it!

אמר מאן דבעי מימת ייזיל ימות גו ביתיה.

(q) (R. Ami): One who wishes to die can go home and die there (but I will not give my guests such wine).

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