AVODAH ZARAH 74 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas the grandmother of Mr. David Kornfeld, Chayah bas Aryeh Leib Shpira (nee Sole) z'l, in honor of the day of her Yahrzeit.

1)'ISURIM' THAT FORBID B'MASHEHU? (cont.)

(a)(Mishnah): These are forbidden, and if they became mixed (b'Mino and the Isur is not recognizable), they forbid a mixture of any amount:

1.Yayin Nesech, idolatry, hides with a hole (from which the heart was removed, an idolatrous practice), an ox sentenced to be stoned, a calf beheaded (when a murdered body is found), birds used to be Metaher a Metzora, a Nazir's hair, a firstborn donkey (before it is redeemed), meat cooked with milk, the goat sent to Azazel on Yom Kipur, and Chulin slaughtered in the Azarah.

(b)(Gemara) Question: What does the Tana list?

1.If he lists Devarim sheb'Minyan (things that are sold by number), he should also list pieces of a Neveilah;

2.If he lists Isurei ha'Na'ah (things one may not benefit from), he should also list Chametz during Pesach!

(c)Answer (R. Chiya bar Aba): The Tana only lists (Rashba - things forbidden due to idolatry, of any size, and) Devarim sheb'Minyan that are also Isurei ha'Na'ah. (Rashi - he holds that only things with both properties forbid b'Mashehu. Tosfos - even though some things with only one property forbid b'Mashehu, the Tana does not list them.)

(d)Question: Why didn't he list (Orlah) nuts of Parech (a place) and pomegranates of Badan? These are Devarim sheb'Minyan and Isurei ha'Na'ah!

(e)Answer: Another Mishnah already teaches them:

1.(Mishnah): The following, if they are forbidden due to Orlah (e.g. fruits) or Kil'ayim (forbid any amount: nuts of Parech, pomegranates of Badan... )

(f)Question: Why didn't he list Chametz loaves of a Ba'al ha'Bayis?

(g)Answer: R. Akiva holds that they forbid b'Mashehu, and indeed he lists them in the above Mishnah!

(h)(Mishnah): These are forbidden...

(i)Question: What does this come to exclude?

(j)Answer: It excludes Devarim sheb'Minyan that are not Isurei ha'Na'ah, and Isurei ha'Na'ah that are not Devarim sheb'Minyan.

2)MAY ONE SELL THE MIXTURE?

(a)(Mishnah): If Yayin Nesech fell into a pit (of Kosher wine), one may not benefit from all the wine;

(b)R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, one may sell it all to a Nochri, except for the value of the Yayin Nesech.

(c)(Gemara - Rav): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel if a barrel of Yayin Nesech was lost among barrels of (Kosher) wine, but not if the wines mixed;

(d)(Shmuel, R. Yochanan, R. Chanina and Rav Nachman): The Halachah follows him even if the wines mixed.

(e)(Rav Nachman): In practice, we rule that if Yayin Nesech mixed with other wine, it is forbidden. If a barrel was lost among barrels, they are permitted (like R. Shimon). If Stam wine of Nochrim (we do not know that it was offered to idolatry) was mixed with Kosher wine, it is permitted.

74b----------------------------------------74b

3)'KASHERING' A 'GAS'

(a)(Mishnah): If a Nochri applied pitch to a stone Gas (winepress; presumably, he put wine on the pitch to absorb the bitterness (this is the usual practice), so it will not affect the wine that will be made), it suffices to (rinse and) dry it.

(b)Rebbi says, if it is made of wood, it suffices to dry it;

(c)Chachamim say, he must peel off the pitch.

(d)If it is made of earthenware, even if he peels off the pitch it is forbidden.

(e)Version #1 (Gemara - Rava): The Mishnah says that he must dry it only if the Nochri applied pitch, but not if he pressed grapes in it. (In the latter case, it suffices to rinse it.)

(f)Objection: This is obvious. The Mishnah taught only about applying pitch!

(g)Answer: One might have thought that the same applies if he pressed grapes. The Mishnah mentioned applying pitch to teach that the practice is to put wine on it.

(h)Version #2 (Rava): The Mishnah says that drying is enough if the Nochri applied pitch, but if he pressed grapes in it, drying is not enough (one must peel off the pitch).

(i)Objection: This is obvious. The Mishnah taught only about applying pitch!

(j)Answer: One might have thought that the same applies if he pressed grapes. The Mishnah mentioned applying pitch to teach that the practice is to put wine on it.

(k)A man asked R. Chiya for someone who can Kasher his Gas. R. Chiya told Rav to be careful to do it properly.

1.Rav saw that it was very smooth. He said that it suffices to dry it.

2.Rav saw that there were cracks under the pitch, and there was wine inside. He said that the pitch must be peeled off.

3.Rav: This is why R. Chiya told me to be careful!

4)'KASHERING' KELIM USED WITH WINE OF 'NOCHRIM'

(a)(Beraisa - Rebbi): It suffices to dry a Gas, bucket (used to draw wine from the Gas) or funnel (all made of earthenware) of a Nochri;

(b)Chachamim forbid.

1.Rebbi agrees that a Nochri's bottles are forbidden.

2.Question: What is the difference between bottles and the other Kelim?

3.Answer: People leave wine in bottles for a long time, unlike the other Kelim.

(c)If they are made of wood or stone, it suffices to dry them. If pitch was applied to them, they are forbidden.

(d)Question (Mishnah): If a Nochri applied pitch to a stone Gas, it suffices to dry it.

(e)Answer: The Mishnah discusses when he never pressed grapes in it. The Beraisa teaches that if he pressed grapes, drying is not enough.

(f)(Beraisa - Rebbi): It suffices to dry aGas, bucket or funnel (all made of earthenware) of a Nochri. Chachamim forbid it.

(g)Question (Seifa of Mishnah): If it is made of earthenware, even if he peels off the pitch it is forbidden.

(h)Answer (Rava): The Seifa is like Chachamim.

(i)(Rava): We use boiling water to Kasher a Gas.

(j)Version #1: When Rava would send empty barrels to Herpanya, he would put them upside down in a bag and seal the bag by the bottom of the barrel (to know if a Nochri used them, this is like a double seal; Rosh - since they were arranged this way in the wagon, one could not turn them over to use them);

(k)Version #2 (Ramban): When Rava would send empty barrels to Herpanya, he would seal them at the top and bottom (this is like a single seal); (end of Version #2)

1.He holds that Chachamim decreed to forbid Kelim used to store wine (for a long time) if forbidden wine was put in even for a short time.

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