Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)ben Zoma discusses a wise man, a rich man, a strong man and an honored man. Why is he called neither by his name nor by a title?

(b)What was his name?

(c)Which other Chacham shared the same name and the same circumstances as him?

1)

(a)ben Zoma discusses a wise man, a rich man, a strong man and an honored man. He is called neither by his name nor by a title - because he died young, before having attained Semichah (so they called him after his father's name).

(b)His name, in fact, was - Shimon.

(c)The other Chacham who shared the same name and the same circumstances as him was - (Shimon) ben Azai.

2)

(a)How does ben Zoma describe ...

1. ... a wise man?

2. ... a rich man?

3. ... a strong man?

4. ... an honored man?

(b)What does he mean with these descriptions? Are they absolute definitions?

(c)What can we learn about a person who learns from somebody who knows less than he does?

(d)ben Zoma learns this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "mi'Kol Melamdai Hiuskalti"? How does he learn it from there? How does the Pasuk end?

2)

(a)ben Zoma describes ...

1. ... a wise man as - one who learns from anyone (even one who knows less than he does.

2. ... a strong man as - one who conquers his Yeitzer ha'Ra (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

3. ... a rich man as - one who is satisfied with whatever he has.

4. ... an honored man as - someone who honors others.

(b)What he means to say is (not that they are absolute definitions, but) - that they are definitions that are praiseworthy (which the conventional one's are not [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(c)What we can learn about a person who learns from somebody who knows less than he does is that - he learns le'Shem Shamayim, and not just to show off his knowledge.

(d)ben Zoma learns this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "mi'Kol Melamdai Hiskalti - ki Eidvosecha Sichah li", indicating that David learned from everybody because he wanted to know the Mitzvos of Hash-m (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

3)

(a)And he learns his second statement from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tov Erech Apayim mi'Gibor ... ". How does he interpret ...

1. ... this phrase?

2. ... the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Moshel be'Rucho mi'Loched Ir"?

(b)And how does he interpret the Pasuk in Tehilim (the source of his third statement) ...

1. ... "Yegi'a Kapecha ki Sochel"?

2. ... "Ashrecha ve'Tov lach"?

(c)What does ben Zoma learn from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Ki Mechabdai Achabed"? What does this have to do with honoring others?

(d)What can we learn from the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Bozai Yekalu"?

(e)From which Pasuk in Lech l'cha can we learn that Hash-m is more stringent with those who insult Tzadikim than with those who insult Him?

3)

(a)He learns his second statement from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tov Erech Apayim mi'Gibor ... ". And he interprets ...

1. ... this phrase to mean that - being slow to anger as a result of having worked on oneself (and overcome his Yeitzer ha'Ra) is a good thing (better than someone who does so because he is soft by nature [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

2. ... the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Moshel be'Rucho mi'Loched Ir" that - someone who controls his Yeitzer after capturing a city (he controls the urge to sentence to death anyone who then dares to rebel against him) is praiseworthy too.

(b)And he interprets the Pasuk in Tehilim (the source of his third statement) ...

1. ... "Yegi'a Kapecha ki Sochel" with reference to - someone who eats his hard-earned bread with satisfaction.

2. ... "Ashrecha" - ba'Olam ha'Zeh' (see Tos. Yom-Tov), "ve'Tov lach" - 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.

(c)ben Zoma learns from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Ki Mechabdai Achabed" that - if Hash-m honors someone who honors Him (even though that is what he was created for), how much more so someone who honors others.

(d)From the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Bozai Yekalu" (implying that Hash-m does not actively curse those who insult Him, but merely allows the curse to take affect on its own), we can learn - His humility,.

(e)We can learn that Hash-m is more stringent with those who insult Tzadikim than with those who insult Him - from the Pasuk in Lech l'cha "u'Mekalelcha A'or" (that Hash-m said to Avraham), where he promised to actively curse those who would curse him (Avraham).

Mishnah 2
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4)

(a)How does ben Azai advocate that one should go about performing a Mitzvah and avoiding doing an Aveirah?

(b)What dual reason (part negative, part positive) does he give for that piece of advice?

(c)How else might one interpret his statement ...

1. ... 'she'S'char Mitzvah Mitzvah'?

2. ... 'u'S'char Aveirah Aveirah'?

4)

(a)ben Azai advocates - running to perform even an easy Mitzvah on the one hand, running away from doing an Aveirah (see Tos. Yom-Tov) on the other ...

(b)... firstly, because performing one Mitzvah (or Aveirah) creates an atmosphere that facilitates performing another, and secondly, because someone who performs a Mitzvah (or an Aveirah [see Tos. Yom-Tov) receives Divine assistance in performing another, in order to receive reward (or punishment) for both of them.

(c)Alternatively ...

1. ... 'she'S'char Mitzvah Mitzvah' might mean that - the pleasure that one derives from performing a Mitzvah is itself a Mitzvah and ...

2. ... 'S'char Aveirah Aveirah' that - the pleasure that one derives from performing an Aveirah is in itself, an Aveirah.

Mishnah 3
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5)

(a)What does ben Azai mean when he says 'Al T'hi Baz le'Chol Adam'?

(b)What similar statement does he make with regard to objects?

(c)What reason does he give for these two statements?

5)

(a)When ben Azai says 'Al T'hi Baz le'Chol Adam', he means - that one should never dismiss any person on the grounds that he cannot possibly do him any harm.

(b)Similarly, he says - one should never declare any object to be useless (see Tiferes Yisrael) ...

(c)... because every person has his hour, and every object has its place.

Mishnah 4
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6)

(a)What does R. Levitas Ish Yavneh say about being humble?

(b)What reason does he give for that?

(c)In what way does the Midah of pride differ from all other Midos? What advice would R. Levitas give with regard to *them*?

(d)Why is pride different than all other Midos?

6)

(a)R. Levitas Ish Yavneh prescribes - extreme humility ('Me'od Me'od ... ') ...

(b)... bearing in mind that - ultimately, man will turn into worms (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Midah of pride differs from all other Midos - inasmuch as with regard to other Midos, R. Levitas would have advised one to always take the middle path (which is also known as the 'golden medium').

(d)Pride is different however - in that a. it is particularly abominable, and b. since most people stumble over it, one needs to distance oneself even further from it.

7)

(a)And what does R. Yochanan ben B'rokah say about someone who desecrates Hash-m's Name in private?

(b)What other stringency with regard to Chilul Hash-m does he add to that?

(c)Does this mean that someone who desecrates Hash-m's Name be'Shogeg receives the same punishment (Misah) as Meizid (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

7)

(a)R. Yochanan ben B'rokah says that someone who desecrates Hash-m's Name in private (see Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael) - will receive is punishment in public.

(b)And what's more, he adds - when it comes to Chilul Hash-m, there is no difference between Shogeg and Meizid (and one is punished for Shogeg just as one is for Meizid).

(c)This does not mean that someone who desecrates Hash-m's Name be'Shogeg will receive the same punishment (Misah) as Meizid but that - just like Meizid, whatever punishment Hash-m has reserved for him, He will mete out in public (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 5
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8)

(a)R. Yishmael the son of R. Yochanan ben B'rokah discusses the Divine Assistance that someone who learns, receives, depending on his motives. What does he mean when he refers to someone who learns in order ...

1. ... to teach?

2. ... to do?

(b)How much Divine Assistance will each one receive? What do the two have in common?

(c)What reward did Rabah and Abaye respectively, receive.

(d)According to an alternative text, 'in order to teach' means that he wants to be called 'Rebbi'. How will we then need to amend the Reisha of the Mishnah?

(e)Which version is the preferred one?

8)

(a)R. Yishmael the son of R. Yochanan ben B'rokah discusses the Divine Assistance that someone who learns, receives, depending on his motives. When he refers to someone who learns in order...

1. ... to teach, he means that - he wants to learn and teach Torah (and obviously to observe what he learns [like Rabah used to do as the Gemara in Rosh Hashanah records] see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... to do, he means to indulge in Gemilas Chasadim too (like Abaye used to do [Ibid.]).

(b)Hash-m will assist the former to learn (incorporating to observe Mitzvos [see Tos.Yom-Tov DH 'Lishmor ve'La'asos']) and teach; the latter, to learn and to teach, to keep and to do (each one exactly according to his wishes).

(c)Rabah and Abaye who descended from Eli Kohen Gadol, were both destined to die at twenty. However - Rabah merited to live till forty, Abaye, till sixty.

(d)According to an alternative text, 'in order to teach' means that he wants to be called 'Rebbi'. The Reisha of the Mishnah will then read - 'Ein Maspikin be'Yado Lil'mod u'Lelamed'.

(e)The preferred version is - the first one.

9)

(a)R. Tzadok forbids using Torah as a crown to aggrandize oneself. What does he mean by that?

(b)How else should one not use Torah, according to him?

(c)What is someone who earns his livelihood directly from Torah akin to?

(d)What punishment will he receive for doing so?

9)

(a)R. Tzadok forbids using Torah as a crown to aggrandize oneself. What he means is that - one should not learn for the sake of Kavod (in order to become a Rosh Yeshivah [but out of love, and the Kavod will come in the end]).

(b)Neither should one use Torah, according to him - as a spade to dig with (to earn one's livelihood).

(c)Someone who earns his livelihood directly from Torah is considered - as if he had been Mo'el be'Kodshim (the abusal of Hekdesh) ...

(d)... and he is Chayav Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim, (as if he had).

10)

(a)What is the source for the prohibition of teaching Torah to children for payment (instead of free of charge)? From which Pasuk in Devarim do we learn it?

(b)What is then the Heter for ...

1. ... a Rebbe of children to accept payment?

2. ... a Dayan to accept payment for judging?

(c)On what condition is he permitted to take payment from the litigants?

(d)What if he takes from them more than his loss of work?

10)

(a)The source for the prohibition of teaching Torah to children for payment (instead of free of charge) is the Pasuk in Devarim - "And Hash-m commanded me (Moshe) at that time saying that I should teach you statutes ... like Hash-m commanded me", from which Chazal extrapolate that 'Just as I was taught free of charge, so too, must I teach others free of charge' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The Heter for ...

1. ... a Rebbe of children to accept payment is - a. because he is also looking after them (and saving them from running wild and hurting themselves), and b. because he teaches them Trop (how to Lein), which he is not obligated to do (see also following answer).

2. ... a Dayan to accept payment for judging is - in the form of S'char Batalah (meaning that he may accept the wages that he could have earned had he worked for his livelihood during that time).

(c)He is permitted to take payment from the litigants - on condition that he receives the same amount from each litigant.

(d)If he takes from them more than his loss of work - his subsequent ruling is invalid.

11)

(a)In light of the above, how will we explain the various benefits that the Torah allows a Talmid-Chacham to receive (as we will now explain)?

(b)What benefits do Chazal grant him in connection with ...

1. ... selling his goods in the market?

2. ... payment of taxes?

3. ... paying the head-tax from which nobody is exempt?

(c)Will these last two concessions apply to a Talmid-Chacham who is wealthy in his own right?

(d)And what do they say with regard to a sick Talmid-Chacham or one who endures physical suffering?

(e)What if he declines to accept it?

11)

(a)In spite of the above, the Torah allows a Talmid-Chacham to receive the various benefits that we will now explain. It precludes them from the realm of forbidden payments - since there is no other way for him to earn a Parnasah.

(b)Chazal grant him the benefit of ...

1. ... selling his goods in the market - ahead of his competitors (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 've'Lo Kardum').

2. ... exemption from payment of taxes (see Tos. Yom-Tov [ibid.]).

3. ... having the community pay the head-tax (from which nobody is exempt) on his behalf ...

(c)... these last two concessions - even if he is a wealthy man in his own right.

(d)And they say that if a Talmid-Chacham is sick or endures physical suffering - not only are the community obligated to send him gifts, but ...

(e)... he is forbidden to decline to accept it.

12)

(a)Finally, they permit a Talmid-Chacham who has been appointed as a community leader (who has to deal with communal affairs) to accept remuneration for his services. Why is that?

(b)What do they say about paying him more than he actually needs to live on?

(c)What precedence do we have for this?

(d)Why did various Chachamim then decline to accept money under these circumstances?

12)

(a)Finally, they permit a Talmid-Chacham who has been appointed as a community leader (who has to deal with communal affairs) - to accept remuneration for his services, and what's more, he may even accept payment which is far more than what he needs to live on ...

(b)... because wealth enhances his influence over the community, thereby enabling him to perform his work with a greater commintment.

(c)The precedence for this is - the Kohen Gadol, whom the Torah describes as 'ha'Kohen ha'Gadol me'Echav", from which Chazal extrapolate 'Gadleihu mi'shel Echav' (which includes ensuring that he becomes rich), so as to have a stronger influence over the other Kohanim.

(d)Nevertheless, various Chachamim decline to accept money under these circumstances - because they went 'Li'Fenim mi'Shuras ha'Din' (and not because they thought it was forbidden).

13)

(a)R. Tzadok's last statement is supported by a statement by Hillel. What did Hillel say about somebody who uses the crown of Torah for his own benefit?

(b)What does the Tana finally say about someone who does derive personal benefit from his Torah-learning?

13)

(a)R. Tzadok's last statement is supported by a statement by Hillel, who said that somebody who uses the crown of Torah for his own benefit - will wither away.

(b)The Tana finally states that someone who does derive personal benefit from his Torah-learning - is depriving himself of life in the World to Come (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 6
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14)

(a)What does R. Yossi say about somebody who ...

1. ... honors the Torah?

2. ... defiles it?

(b)What might he mean by 'honors the Torah' (besides the literal meaning of showing honor to a Seifer-Torah and to those who study it and those who keep it)?

14)

(a)R. Yossi declares that the body of somebody who ...

1. ... honors the Torah - is honored by the people.

2. ... defiles it - is defiled by the people.

(b)Besides the literal meaning of showing honor to a Seifer Torah and to those who study it and those who keep it, by 'honors the Torah', R. Yossi might mean - that he Darshens all the extra and missing letters, and explains the meaning behind each and every Kotz (tip of the 'Yud').

Mishnah 7
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15)

(a)R. Yishmael, R. Yossi's son, discusses someone who 'divests himself from Din', which might mean that he refrains from acting as a Dayan when there is somebody else who is superior to him available. What else might it mean?

(b)In so doing, he says, he divests himself from three things, two of them, enmity and theft. What is the third?

(c)What does 'Shevu'as Shav' really mean in this context?

(d)Why else might the Tana refer to Shevu'as Sheker in this way?

15)

(a)R. Yishmael, R. Yossi's son, discusses someone who 'divests himself from Din', which might mean that he refrains from acting as a Dayan when there is somebody else who is superior to him available. Alternatively, it means - that wherever possible, he refrains from enforcing the law, in favor of applying the principle of 'P'sharah' (where the two parties arrive at a compromise).

(b)In so doing, he says, he divests himself from three things, enmity, theft - and a Shevu'as Shav (which literally means an oath made in vain) ...

(c)... though in this context, 'Shevu'as Shav' really means - a false oath.

(d)Alternatively, the Tana may well refer to Shevu'as Sheker in this way - because in effect, he did emit it from his mouth in vain (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

16)

(a)The same Tana concludes with a statement about someone who is vain in judgment. What does this mean in practical terms?

(b)And he crowns him with three titles, one of them 'a fool'. What are the other two?

16)

(a)The same Tana concludes with a statement about someone who is vain in judgment. In practical terms this means - that he judges in haste without applying careful thought to the issue at hand.

(b)And he crowns him with three titles, 'a fool' - 'a Rasha' and 'conceited' (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 8
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17)

(a)R. Yishmael b'no shel R. Yossi also advises against being a single Dayan. Since when is one Dayan eligible to judge on his own?

(b)What reason does he give for declining to be one?

(c)On which condition may a single Dayan judge Lechatchilah?

(d)What does the same Tana warn one Dayan from saying to his two colleagues?

(e)Why might we have even thought that he has the right to do so?

17)

(a)R. Yishmael b'no shel R. Yossi also advises against being a single Dayan, who is eligible to judge money matters on his own - provided he is an expert.

(b)Nevertheless, he says, he should decline (Midas Chasidus) - since there is only One single Judge in the world, to whom it is not proper to compare oneself.

(c)A single Dayan may judge Lechatchilah however - provided the two litigants accept him (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The same Tana warns one Dayan - not to demand that his two colleagues accept his opinion over and above their own ...

(e)... even though he is referring to the expert about whom we just spoke, who could have judged the case on his own.

Mishnah 9
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18)

(a)What does R. Yonasan say about someone who ...

1. ... keeps the Torah when he is poor?

2. ... breaks the Torah when he is rich? Why, do we assume, he does that?

(b)What makes the former praiseworthy?

18)

(a)R. Yonasan says that someone who ...

1. ... keeps the Torah when he is poor - will ultimately keep it when he is rich.

2. ... breaks the Torah when he is rich - (which we assume he does because he is too busy looking after his business affairs [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) will ultimately break it when he is poor.

(b)The former is praiseworthy - because in spite of the need to work hard to make ends meet, he takes off time from work to study Torah.

Mishnah 10
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19)

(a)R. Meir advises that one minimize one's business and studies Torah? What if one already has fixed times to learn Torah?

(b)What does he mean when he says that one should be humble before every man? What does that have to do with the previous statement?

19)

(a)R. Meir advises that one minimize one's business (see Tos. Yom-Tov) and studies Torah - meaning that one should treat one's learning as one's main occupation and one's business as secondary (and not vice-versa, so it applies even if he already has fixed times to learn Torah).

(b)When he says that one should be humble before every man, he means that - one should be prepared to learn from everybody (even from someone who in the business world, is perhaps of lower standing than he is [see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

20)

(a)What, according to R. Meir, should a person who is idle from Torah-study take into account?

(b)How do others interpret his statement 'Yesh l'cha Beteilim Kenegd'cha'? What does 'Beteilim' then mean?

(c)And what is the good news regarding someone who studies Torah diligently?

(d)In what way is the good Midah better than the bad one in this context?

20)

(a)According to R. Meir, a person who is idle from Torah-study should take into account that - there are many things that will draw one away from Torah ...

(b)... or - that Hash-m has many idle ones (such as Resha'im and wild animals) at his disposal to set against him (see Meleches Shlomoh).

(c)The good news regarding someone who studies Torah diligently is that - Hash-m has a hugh supply of reward to give him (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)The good Midah is better than the bad one in this context - inasmuch as that Hash-m will reward him personally (raising the reward to a higher plane than the punishment, which he will receive via a Shali'ach).

Mishnah 11
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21)

(a)What does R. Eliezer ben Ya'akov say about someone who performs ...

1. ... one Mitzvah?

2. ... one Aveirah?

(b)What are 'Kateigor' and 'Saneigor' the acronym of?

(c)What does he consider the best defense against punishment?

(d)What sort of distinction does R. Yochanan ha'Sandlar draw between two kinds of gatherings of people? When will it bear fruit and when will it not?

21)

(a)R. Eliezer ben Ya'akov says that - someone who performs...

1. ... one Mitzvah - acquires a P'raklit' (a defending-counsel [also known as 'Saneigor']).

2. ... one Aveirah - acquires a Kateigor [a prosecutor]).

(b)'Kateigor' and 'Saneigor' are the acronym of - 'Korei Tagor' (takes one to task [picks a fight) and 'Sonei Tagor' (hates picking fights), respectively.

(c)He considers the best defense (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ki'Seris' & 'bi'Fenei ha'Pur'anus') against punishment - to be Teshuvah and good deeds (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Teshuvah u'Ma'asim Tovim').

(d)R. Yochanan ha'Sandlar draws a distinction between a gathering of people - that is le'Shem Shamayim, which will bear fruit (see Tos. Yom-Tov), and one which is not (see Tos. Yom-Tov), which will not bear fruit.

Mishnah 12
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22)

(a)What does R. Elazar ben Shamu'a say about how one should treat ...

1. ... the dignity of one's Talmid?

2. ... the dignity of one's Chaver?

3. ... the awe of one's Rebbe?

(b)The source of these three statement lies in statements by Moshe, Aharon and Yehoshua respectively. What did ...

1. ... Moshe say to Yehoshua (in connection with the first battle against Amalek).

2. ... Aharon say to Moshe (when Miriam was stricken with Tzara'as)?

3. ... Yehoshua say to Moshe (in connection with Eldad and Meidad's prophesying in the camp)?

22)

(a)R. Elazar ben Shamu'a says that one should treat ...

1. ... the dignity of one's Talmid - with the same respect as one's own (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... the dignity of one's Chaver - with the same awe as that of one's Rebbe (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

3. ... the awe of one's Rebbe - as one does the awe of Hash-m.

(b)The source of these three statement lies in the statements of ...

1. ... Moshe to Yehoshua - 'Choose *for us* men (to go and fight against Amalek), placing his Talmid on a par with himself.

2. ... Aharon to Moshe (when asking for forgiveness after Miriam spoke Lashon ha'Ra about him) - 'Please my master', conferring upon Moshe this title, even though he (Aharon) was three years Modshe's senior (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

3. ... Yehoshua to Moshe (in connection with Eldad and Meidad, who were predicting Moshe's death in the camp) - 'My master Moshe, destroy them from the world', as if they had rebelled against Hash-m Himself.

Mishnah 13
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23)

(a)What warning does R. Yehudah issue to someone who learns Talmud (Gemara)?

(b)What reason does he give for this?

23)

(a)R. Yehudah warns someone who learns Talmud (Gemara [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]) - to learn it carefully ...

(b)... because if, as a result of his carelessness, he issues erroneous rulings, these will be recorded as if he had sinned deliberately.

24)

(a)R.Shimon lists three crowns. What are they?

(b)What does he learn from the Pasuk in ...

1. ... Kedoshim "ve'Hadarto P'nei Zakein"?

2. ... Emor "ve'Kidashto"?

3. ... Shoftim "Som Tasim alecha Melech"?

24)

(a)R. Shimon lists three crowns - the crown of Torah, the crown of Malchus and the crown of Kehunah.

(b)He learns from the Pasuk in ...

1. ... Kedoshim "ve'Hadarto P'nei Zakein" that - one should honor a Talmid-Chacham (Keser Torah).

2. ... Emor "ve'Kidashto" that - one should sanctify a Kohen (Keser Kehunah).

3. ... Shoftim "Som Tasim Alecha Melech" that - one should develop an awesomeness of royalty (Keser Malchus).

25)

(a)Which fourth crown does R. Shimon add to the list? What exactly does he say about it?

(b)Why does he list it separately?

(c)Then what is its significance?

(d)What do we say about ...

1. ... a Talmid-Chacham about whom evil rumors are circulating?

2. ... the sons of Aharon who do not behave like sons of Aharon (as opposed to converts who do)?

3. ... a king 'who does not perform the deeds of his people'?

25)

(a)The fourth crown which R. Shimon adds to the list is that - of a good name (the result of his good deeds), which he says, sits on top of them all.

(b)He lists it separately - because it is not based on a Pasuk (as the first three do).

(c)Its significance lies in the fact that - without it, the other three lose their significance.

(d)We say that ...

1. ... a Talmid-Chacham about whom evil rumors are circulating - one is permitted to disgrace him.

2. ... the sons of Aharon who do not behave like sons of Aharon (as opposed to converts, who do) - will not arrive at their destination in peace (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

3. ... one may curse a king 'who does not perform the deeds of his people'.

Mishnah 14
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26)

(a)What does R. Nehorai advise a person to do if his town is devoid of Talmidei-Chachamim?

(b)What should one not wait for?

(c)Why should one rather go into exile to learn Torah than to wait for the Talmidim who return from the Yeshivah and to hear it from them?

(d)How might we alternatively interpret 'she'Chaveirecha Yekaymuhah be'Yadecha'?

26)

(a)R. Nehorai advises a person who lives in a town that is devoid of Talmidei-Chachamim - to go into exile (to a town of Talmidei-Chachamim) ...

(b)... and not wait for - Talmidei-Chachamim to come to him.

(c)One should rather go into exile to learn Torah than to wait for the Talmidim who return from the Yeshivah and to hear it from them - because it is better to hear the Torah first-hand.

(d)Alternatively, we might interpret 'she'Chaveirecha Yekaymuhah be'Yadecha' to mean that - one should go into exile where there are Chaverim with whom to learn, rather than learn on one's own in one's home-town.

Mishnah 15
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27)

(a)R. Yanai says 'Ein be'Yadeinu Lo mi'Shalvas ha'Resha'im ve'Lo mi'Yisurei ha'Tzadikim'. What does he mean by that?

(b)He might also be referring to us during the time of Galus. What does he then mean?

(c)R. Masya ben Charash suggests that one greets everybody. Whom does 'everybody' incorporate?

(d)What does he say about status? What should a person strive to be?

27)

(a)R. Yanai says 'Ein be'Yadeinu Lo mi'Shalvas ha'Resha'im ve'Lo mi'Yisurei ha'Tzadikim', by which he means that - we cannot understand why on the one hand there are Resha'im who live tranquil lives, whilst on the other, there are Tzadikim who suffer.

(b)He might also be referring to ourselves during the time of Galus, in which case he means that - during these difficult times we experience neither the tranquility that Hash-m grants the Resha'im (to drive them out of the World to Come, nor the suffering that He metes out to the Tzadikim (in the form of Yisurin shel Ahavah, which do not cause any Bitul Torah) in order to increase their merits in the World to Come.

(c)R. Masya ben Charash suggests that one greets everybody - even Nochrim that one meets in the street.

(d)He also says that one should strive to be - the tail of a lion (led by great men) rather than the head of a fox (a leader of ordinary men [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

Mishnah 16
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28)

(a)R. Ya'akov compares this world to a hallway. Where does it lead to?

(b)What should a person do in the hallway?

28)

(a)R. Ya'akov compares this world to a hallway - which leads to the palace (the World to Come).

(b)A person should use the time that he spends in the hallway - preparing for his entry into the palace.

Mishnah 17
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29)

(a)R. Ya'akov also discusses the corollary between this world and the World to Come. What is better than ...

1. ... all of life in the World to Come? Why is that?

2. ... all the combined pleasures of this world?

29)

(a)R. Ya'akov also discusses the corollary between this world and the World to Come (see Tos. Yom-Tov). Better than ...

1. ... all of life in the World to Come is - the performing of Teshuvah and good deeds (between man and man), because they are unattainable in the World to Come (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Yafeh').

2. ... all the combined pleasures of this world - is one moment of satisfaction in the World to Come.

Mishnah 18
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30)

(a)R. Ya'akov teaches us the concept of doing the right thing at the wrong time. When should one not ...

1. ... attempt to appease a person who is angry?

2. ... comfort a mourner?

3. ... search for a way to annul someone's vow?

4. ... attempt to visit him when he has sinned?

(b)The first two concepts we learn from Hash-m. How do we learn ...

1. ... the first concept from the Pasuk in Ki Sissa (following the sin of the Golden Calf) "Panai Yeilechu va'Hanichosi lach"?

2. ... the second concept from Hash-m's response to the angels following the Churban of the first Beis-Hamikdash?

(c)Why should one avoid searching for a way to annul the vow that someone has just made?

(d)How do we learn ...

1. ... this from the Neder that Hash-m made forbidding Moshe to enter Eretz Yisrael?

2. ... the concept of not visiting a person who has just sinned from Hash-m following the sin of Adam ve'Chavah?

30)

(a)R. Ya'akov teaches us the concept of doing the right thing at the wrong time. One should not ...

1. ... attempt to appease a person who is angry - whilst he is still seething.

2. ... comfort a mourner - whilst his deceased relative is still lying before him (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

3. ... search for a way to annul someone's vow - just after he made it.

4. ... attempt to visit him when he has sinned - immediately after the sin.

(b)The first two concepts we learn from Hash-m ...

1. ... the first concept from the Pasuk in Ki Sissa (following the sin of the Golden Calf) "Panai Yeilechu va'Hanichosi lach" - meaning that Moshe should wait for Hash-m's anger to abate before appeasing Him.

2. ... the second concept from Hash-m's response to the angels - who (following the Churban of the first Beis-Hamikdash) - tried to comfort Him on the destruction of His beloved house, but Hash-m stopped them.

(c)One avoid searching for a way to annul the vow that someone has just made - because whatever one suggests, the Noder will claim that he had that in mind when making the Neder, thereby negating that possible opening when he subsequently comes to annul it.

(d)We learn ...

1. ... this from the Neder that Hash-m made forbidding Moshe to enter Eretz Yisrael - and which Moshe attempted to annul only much later.

2. ... the concept of not visiting a person who has just sinned from Hash-m following the sin of Adam ve'Chavah - where it is written that although Hash-m immediately made them belts to cover their nakedness, His Voice (denoting His visit) was only heard later.

Mishnah 19
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31)

(a)Shmuel ha'Katan would rebuke people with a Pasuk in Mishlei. What does the Pasuk say about reacting to ...

1. ... a fallen enemy?

2. ... an enemy who sinned?

(b)Why is neither of the above advisable?

(c)On what grounds will they arouse Hash-m's ire?

(d)What do we learn from the word "ve'Heishiv" in the concluding phrase there " ve'Heishiv me'alav Apo"?

31)

(a)Shmuel ha'Katan (see Tos. Yom-Tov) would rebuke people with a Pasuk in Mishlei - which warns against ...

1. ... rejoicing when an enemy falls ...

2. ... or being exultant when he sins ...

(b)... because this will cause Hash-m to turn His anger away from him and to direct it towards you (see also Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(c)... because you behave as if Hash-m is your Shali'ach to carry out your every whim (which in this case entails punishing your enemy on your behalf).

(d)We learn from the word "ve'Heishiv" in the concluding phrase there "ve'Heishiv me'alav Apo" that - Hash-m will not just remove his anger away from your enemy (in which case the Torah ought to have written 've'Shav'; "ve'Heishiv" implies that He will then direct it against you.

Mishnah 20
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32)

(a)To what does Elisha ben Avuyah compare teaching Torah to ...

1. ... a child? Why is that?

2. ... an old man? Why is that?

(b)And what does R. Yossi b'R. Yehudah from the village of ha'Bavli say about somebody who learns from ...

1. ... children?

2. ... elders?

(c)What is the significance in this regard, of ...

1. ... unripe grapes?

2. ... wine from the vat?

(d)Rebbi disagrees. What does he say about new jars and old ones?

32)

(a)Elisha ben Avuyah compares learning Torah (see Tos. Yom-Tov) with ...

1. ... a child - to ink written on fresh parchment - which lasts, just like a child's memory.

2. ... when one is an old man - to ink that is written on used parchment, which does not last (see also Tos. Yom-Tov) just like the memory of an old man.

(b)And R. Yossi b'R. Yehudah from the village of ha'Bavli says that somebody who learns from ...

1. ... children is - like someone who eats unripe grapes or wine fresh from the vat.

2. ... elders is - like eating ripe grapes and drinking old wine.

(c)The significance in this regard, of ...

1. ... unripe grapes - is that, like them, a child's learning is immature.

2. ... wine from the vat is that - like wine from the vat, which is still full of dregs, so too, does what one learns from a child leave one with many doubts (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)Rebbi disagrees. In his opinion - one should not look at the container, but at the contents; for just as there are new containers that are full of old wine (so too there are children who have already matured), and just as there are old containers with nothing inside, so too, are there old men who now less than their younger counterparts).

Mishnah 21
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33)

(a)Which three things does R. Elazar ha'Kapar list that take a person out of the world?

33)

(a)The three things that R. Elazar ha'Kapar lists that take a person out of the world are - jealousy, lust and pursuit of Kavod (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ha'Kin'ah' & 'Motzi'in ... ').

Mishnah 22
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34)

(a)He also used to say that those who are born are destined to die. What did he say about those who have died?

(b)And the living are going to know 'Leida, Lehodi'a u'Lehivada' that Hash-m is 'G-d ... '. What do these three terms mean?

34)

(a)He also used to say that those who are born are destined to die and those who have died - are destined to be brought back to life (Techi'as ha'Meisim).

(b)And the living are going to know 'Leida, Lehodi'a u'Lehivada' - meaning to know through others, to inform others and to get to know through one's own understanding, that Hash-m is 'G-d ... '.

35)

(a)'Keil' is the first of seven titles of Hash-m that they will ultimately know, three of the remaining six are 'Yotzer, Borei and Meivin'. What are the other three?

(b)What does R. Eliezer ha'Kapar mean by ...

1. ... 'Meivin'?

2. ... 'Ba'al-Din'?

(c)'And they know that He is going to judge'. When will that take place?

35)

(a)'Keil' is the first of seven titles of Hash-m that they will ultimately know, three of the remaining six are 'Yotzer, Borei and Meivin', the other three - 'Dayan, Eid and Ba'al-Din' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)By ...

1. ... 'Meivin', R. Eliezer ha'Kapar means that - Hash-m knows everything that they do, and by ...

2. ... 'Ba'al-Din' - that He is the claimant.

(c)And they know that He is going to judge them - in the World to Come.

36)

(a)The Mishnah continues 'Blessed be He, before whom there is no injustice and no forgetting, no favoritism and no acceptance of bribes. What does 'no favoritism and no acceptance of bribes' refer to?

(b)Why does He not need bribes?

(c)What does the Tana say is not an escape from Divine justice?

(d)And what does he mean when he says that it all goes according to the reckoning?

36)

(a)The Mishnah continues 'Blessed be He, before whom there is no injustice and no forgetting, *no favoritism and no acceptance of bribes*, meaning that - even Tzadikim will receive their due punishment for their sins, which will not be negated on account of their Mitzvos (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)He does not need bribes - because 'everything belongs to Him' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Tana states that - the grave is not an escape from Divine justice.

(d)And when he says that it all goes according to the reckoning, he means - that every P'rutah adds up to make up the total (one should never underestimate the power of a 'small sin', since many small sins form a large total).

37)

(a)Everyone is formed and born ... against his will. We can understand why a person does not want to die. But why would he not want to ...

1. ... be formed?

2. ... be born?

(b)And what is the Tana referring to when he says that he is forced to live against his will?

(c)What is the final experience that he will be forced to face, whether he likes it or not?

37)

(a)Everyone is formed and born ... against his will (see Tos. Yom-Tov). We can understand why a person does not want to die. Nor does he (his Neshamah) want to ...

1. ... be formed - because he does not want to leave the totally pure area where the Neshamos reside.

2. ... be born - because he does not want to leave the womb, where he feels extremely comfortable (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)And when the Tana says that he is forced to live against his will, he is referring to - someone who lives in constant suffering, and would prefer to end his life.

(c)The final experience that he will be forced to face, whether he likes it or not is - that of giving the final reckoning before Hakadosh-Baruch-Hu..

Hadran alach 'ben Zoma Omer'

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