Mishnah 1
Hear the Mishnah

1)

(a)Besides knowing where one came from, which other two pieces of advice does Akavya ben Mahalalel present in order to avoid sinning?

(b)How does he define the three things that he is referring to in more precise terms?

(c)What does one gain from reflecting about ...

1. ... where one came?

2. ... where one is going to?

3. ... before whom one is going to have to give Din ve'Cheshbon?

1)

(a)Besides knowing where one came from - Akavya ben Mahalalel (see Tos. Yom-Tov) advises a person to reflect about where he is going and before Whom he will ultimately have to stand in judgement, in order to avoid sinning. (See Hagahos ha'G'ra DH 'ha'Mistakel', and Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Da', 'me'Ayin', 'Atah Holech', 'li'Mekom Afar ... ' & 'Laseis Din ve'Cheshbon').

(b)He defines the three things that he is referring to as - a putrid drop, a place where a variety of worms are to be found, and to give a final reckoning for all his deeds, words and thoughts in this world before the King of Kings, Hakadosh-Baruch-Hu.

(c)The gain from reflecting about ...

1. ... where one came from is that - he will not be proud ...

2. ... where one is going to - he will avoid lust and a desire for riches; whereas someone who reflects about ...

3. ... before Whom Whom he will have to give Din ve'Cheshbon - will steer clear of sinning.

Mishnah 2
Hear the Mishnah

2)

(a)Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim prescribes Davenning for the peace of the realm (see Tos. Yom-Tov [even if they are Nochrim]). What reason does he give for that?

(b)How can we learn this from the Pasuk in Chavakuk "ve'Se'aseh Adam ki'Degei ha'Yam"?

(c)How does R. Chananya ben T'radyon describe two people who are sitting together and who do not exchange Divrei Torah?

(d)From which Pasuk in Tehilim does he learn it?

2)

(a)Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim prescribes Davenning for the peace of the realm (see Tos. Yom-Tov [even if they are Nochrim]), because were it not for the stability of the ruling power - people would swallow each other alive.

(b)We can learn this from the Pasuk in Chavakuk "ve'Se'aseh Adam ki'Degei ha'Yam" - which teaches us that just like the rule of the sea, where the big fish swallow the small fish alive, so too, the rule of the land (where there is anarchy).

(c)R. Chananya ben T'radyon describes two people who are sitting together and who do not exchange Divrei Torah as - 'a Moshav Leitzim' (a group of mockers [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(d)And he learns this from the opening Pasuk in Tehilim - "u've'Moshav Leitzim Lo Yashav".

3)

(a)What does Rebbi Chananya ben T'radyon say about two people sitting together who do not exchange Divrei Torah?

(b)From which Pasuk in Malachi does he learn it?

(c)And what does he learn from the Pasuk in Eichah "Yeishev Badad ve'Yidom ki Natal Alav"?

(d)How does he know that that Pasuk is speaking about a person who is learning Torah on his own?

(e)What does "ki Natal alav" really mean?

3)

(a)On the other hand, says Rebbi Chananya ben T'radyon, when two people sit together and do exchange Divrei Torah - then the Shechinah rests with them (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)And he learns it from the Pasuk in Malachi "Az Nidberu Yir'ei Hash-m Ish el Re'eihu, va'Yaksheiv Hash-m va'Yishma ... ".

(c)And from the Pasuk in Eichah "Yeishev Badad ve'Yidom, ki Natal alav" he learns - that even when one person sits alone and studies Torah, Hash-m designates for him a reward ...

(d)... because "Veyidom" - implies that he is learning in a quiet voice - as in "Kol Demamah Dakah".

(e)"ki Natal alav" really means that - it is as if the Torah was given entirely for him (see Tos. Yom-Tov. See also last Bartenura in Mishnah 6). See also 9e.

Mishnah 3
Hear the Mishnah

4)

(a)What does R. Shimon learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ki Kol Shulchanos Mal'u Ki Tzo'eh B'li Makom"?

(b)How does he learn it from there?

(c)How is it possible to fulfill one's obligation to learn Torah at table without actually learning anything?

4)

(a)R. Shimon learns from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ki Kol Shulchanos Mal'u Ki Tzo'ah B'li Makom" that - if three people are eating together and do not discuss Divrei Torah it is as if they have eaten from 'the sacrifice of the dead' (a euphemism for sacrifices offered to Avodah-Zarah, as we find in Tehilim).

(b)He learn that from there - because another Pasuk in Yeshayah ("Tzei Tomar Lo") refers to Avodah-Zarah as 'Tzo'ah' (excrement).

(c)It is possible to fulfill one's obligation to learn Torah at table without actually learning anything - by reciting Birchas ha'Mazon (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

5)

(a)What does the Mishnah learn from the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Vayedaber elai Zeh ha'Shulchan asher Lifnei Hash-m"?

(b)And how (alternatively), might we learn it from the beginning of the same Pasuk "ve'ha'Mizbe'ach Eitz Shalosh Amos"?

(c)What do the 'Shalosh Amos' (which now reads 'Imos') then signify?

5)

(a)The Mishnah learns from the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Vayedaber elai Zeh ha'Shulchan asher Lifnei Hash-m" that - if three people sit at table and discuss Divrei Torah it is as if they had eaten from the table of Hash-m (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)Alternatively, we learn it from the beginning of the same Pasuk "ve'ha'Mizbe'ach Eitz Shalosh Amos" - by interpreting "Amos" as 'Imos', which has connotations of Torah (as in 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra').

(c)The 'Shalosh Amos (which now read 'Imos') signify either Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim or Mikra, Mishnah and Talmud, which one is obligated to discuss at table (refer also to the Tos. Yom-Tov cited in the previous question).

Mishnah 4
Hear the Mishnah

6)

(a)What does R. Chanina ben Chachinai say about someone who remains awake all night or who travels on a long journey alone?

(b)On what condition does he say this?

(c)What is the common basis for both of R. Chanina ben Chachinai's statements?

(d)What specific danger lurks ...

1. ... at nighttime?

2. ... when one travels?

6)

(a)R. Chanina ben Chachinai says that someone who remains awake all night or who travels on a long journey alone - deserves whatever happens to him ...

(b)... provided he turns his heart to idle matters (he does not learn Torah [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]) ...

(c)... because both nighttime and when one travels are considered times of danger.

(d)The danger that lurks ...

1. ... at nighttime is - Mazikin (demons).

2. ... when one travels is - robbers and dangerous obstacles and pitfalls.

Mishnah 5
Hear the Mishnah

7)

(a)What does R. Nechunyah ben ha'Kanah say about someone who ...

1. ... accepts on himself the yoke of Torah?

2. ... unloads the yoke of Torah from himself?

(b)What is the definition of ...

1. ... 'the yoke of Malchus'?

2. ... 'the yoke of Derech Eretz'?

(c)And what does 'Unloading the yoke of Torah from oneself' mean?

7)

(a)R. Nechunyah ben ha'Kanah says that if someone ...

1. ... accepts on himself the yoke of Torah - Hash-m will remove from him the yoke of Malchus and Derech Eretz (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... unloads the yoke of Torah from himself - Hash-m will place on him the yoke of Malchus and Derech Eretz

(b)The 'yoke of...

1. ... Malchus' refers to - various forms of taxes imposed by the king and his ministers.

2. ... Derech Eretz' refers to - Parnasah (which will be blessed when a person adopts the yoke of Torah).

(c)'Unloading the yoke of Torah from oneself' means - deciding that it is too difficult to bear (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 6
Hear the Mishnah

8)

(a)What does R. Chalafta ben Dosa Ish K'far Chananyah say, based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Tehilim "Elokim Nitzav ba'Adas Keil" ?

2. ... (ibid.) "va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah"?

3. ... (ibid) "be'Kerev Elokim Yishpot"?

4. ... in Malachi "Az Nidberu Yir'ei Hash-m Ish el Re'eihu va'Yakshev Hash-m va'Yishma ... "?

(b)And what does he learn from the Pasuk in Sh'mos "be'Chol ha'Makom asher Azkir es Sh'mi Avo eilecha u'Veirachticha" (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(c)In connection with the above sources, what do we learn from the Pasuk in Sh'lach L'cha (in connection with the Spies) "Ad Masai ha'Eidah ha'Ra'ah ha'Zos"?

(d)What is the connection between "Agudaso" (with reference to the second of the above Pesukim) and the number five?

(e)Based on the beginning of the Pasuk "ha'Boneh ba'Shamayim Ma'alosav", what is David Hamelech now saying?

8)

(a)R. Chalafta ben Dosa Ish K'far Chananyah, based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Tehilim "Elokim Nitzav ba'Adas Keil" says that - the Shechinah rests with ten people who sit and study Torah (see Tos. Yom-Tov 'Asarah ... ' & DH 'Chamishah ... ') together, from the Pasuk ...

2. ... (ibid.) "va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah" that - it extends to five people who are learning together (where the Shechinah is still present but obviously to a lesser degree, as is the case with each subsequent case).

3. ... (ibid) "be'Kerev Elokim Yishpot" that - the same applies to three people, and from the Pasuk ...

4. ... in Malachi "Az Nidberu Yir'ei Hash-m Ish el Re'eihu va'Yakshev Hash-m va'Yishma ... " that - it even extends to two people as well (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)And from the Pasuk in Sh'mos "be'Chol ha'Makom asher Azkir es Sh'mi Avo eilecha u'Veirachticha" (see Tos. Yom-Tov), he learns that - the Shechinah even rests on someone who sits and studies Torah on his own.

(c)In connection with the above sources, we learn from the Pasuk in Sh'lach L'cha (in connection with the Spies) "Ad Masai ha'Eidah ha'Ra'ah ha'Zos" that - "Eidah" always refers to at least ten people (and that consequently, in the first Pasuk that we quoted, "Adas Keil" refers to a gathering of ten people).

(d)The connection between "Agudaso" (with reference to the second of the above Pesukim) and the number five is - the fact that a person binds things in his hand with his five fingers.

(e)Based on the beginning of the Pasuk "ha'Boneh ba'Shamayim Ma'alosav", David Hamelech is now saying that - the One who builds His attic in the Heaven (Hash-m), will descend to a place where five people are studying Torah.

9)

(a)Some texts switch the source for five with that of three (since 'Agudah' implies three). What is the source for this?

(b)To what does the Pasuk "va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah" then refer to?

(c)According to the second version of the Mishnah, the Tana arrives at five, based on the Pasuk "Elokim Nitzav ba'Adas Keil". How does he do that?

(d)What does the Pasuk "be'Kerev Elokim Yishpot" then mean?

(e)In connection with one person who learns Torah, some cite the Pasuk "Yeishev Badad ... ki Natal alav" (See end of Mishnah 2). What are the implications of "ki Natal alav"?

9)

(a)Some texts switch the source for five with that of three (since 'Agudah' implies three). The source for this is the bundle of hyssop ('Agudas Eizov') which comprises three twigs.

(b)The Pasuk "va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah" then refers to - the fire, water and atmosphere that surround the earth.

(c)According to the second version of the Mishnah, the Tana arrives at five, based on the Pasuk "Elokim Nitzav ba'Adas Keil" - because when Beis-Din sit there are three Dayanim plus the two litigants.

(d)And the Pasuk "be'Kerev Elokim Yishpot" now means that - the Shechinah is present whenever three Dayanim sit to judge (or to study Torah).

(e)In connection with one person who learns Torah, some cite the Pasuk "Yeishev Badad ... ki Natal alav" (See end of Mishnah 2). "Natal (is the Arama'ic equivalent of S'chah), implies that Hash-m hovers over the person who is learning Torah.

Mishnah 7
Hear the Mishnah

10)

(a)What does R. Elazar Ish Bartosa mean when he says 'Ten Lo mi'Shelo'?

(b)What reason does he give for that?

(c)What did David Hamelech in Divrei Hayamim, say in this regard?

10)

(a)When R. Elazar Ish Bartosa says 'Ten Lo mi'Shelo', he means - that one may not withhold either oneself or one's money (property) from the service of Hash-m ...

(b)... because both oneself and whatever one owns belong to Him.

(c)David Hamelech said in Divrei Hayamim - "ki Mimcha ha'Kol, u'mi'Yadcha Nasanu Lach" (bearing out both halves of the statement [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

11)

(a)What does R. Shimon (or R. Ya'akov [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) say about someone who is learning Torah on his travels (in keeping with the Pasuk in the Sh'ma "u've'Lecht'cha ba'Derech") and interrupts it to praise a beautiful tree or furrow?

(b)Some say that the Tana mentions specifically these examples because they are the things that one is most likely to come across whilst traveling. What do others say?

11)

(a)R. Shimon (or R. Ya'akov [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) says that someone who is learning Torah on his travels (in keeping with the Pasuk in the Sh'ma "u've'Lecht'cha ba'Derech") - and interrupts it to praise a beautiful tree or furrow (see Tos. Yom-Tov [or anything else for that matter]) deserves whatever happens to him.

(b)Some say that the Tana mentioned specifically these examples because they are the things that one is most likely to come across whilst traveling. Others explain that he chose them - to teach us that it is forbidden to interrupt one's learning even to praise Hash-m for His beautiful world (even if it will result in the recital of the B'rachah 'Baruch she'Kachah Lo Olamo' (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 8
Hear the Mishnah

12)

(a)What is the Pasuk in Devarim "Rak Hishamer l'cha ... Pen Tishkach es ha'Devarim asher Ra'u Einecha" referring to?

(b)What does R. Dustai in the name of R. Meir, based on this Pasuk say in connection with someone who forgets even one Torah thought?

(c)How does he qualify that, based on the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Fen Yasuru mi'Levavcha ... "?

(d)The tragic outcome might be due to the fact that failing to revise what one learns causes a person to err in one's application of the Halachah (and, as we will learn in the fourth Perek 'Shig'gas Talmud Olah Zadon'). What else might cause it?

12)

(a)The Pasuk in Devarim "Rak Hishamer l'cha ... Pen Tishkach es ha'Devarim asher Ra'u Einecha" is referring to - Ma'amad Har Sinai'.

(b)R. Dustai in the name of R. Meir, based on this Pasuk said that - the Torah considers someone who forgets even one Torah thought (see Tos. Yom-Tov) that he learned deserving of whatever happens to him.

(c)Based on the continuation of the Pasuk "u'Fen Yasuru mi'Levavcha ... " however, he qualifies this - by confining it to someone who sits and does things that cause him to forget or by failure to revise what he learned (but not to someone who forgets on account of a poor memory [see also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Kol ha'Shoche'ach' & 'Ad she'Yeishev']).

(d)The tragic outcome might be due to the fact that failing to revise what one learns causes a person to err in one's application of the Halachah (and, as we will learn in the fourth Perek 'Shig'gas Talmud Olah Zadon'). Alternatively, it might be due to the fact that - the Mishnah that he was lax in revising would have protected him from death had he revised it.

Mishnah 9
Hear the Mishnah

13)

(a)What does R. Chanina ben Dosa say about someone whose ...

1. ... fear of sin takes precedence over his acquisition of knowledge (he learns in order to increase his fear of sin [see Tos. Yom-Tov])?

2. ... acquisition of knowledge takes precedence over his fear of sin?

(b)What is the reason for this distinction?

(c)The Tana goes on to draw the same distinction between someone whose deeds exceed his knowledge and vice-versa (see Tos. Yom-Tov). What is the basic difference between the Reisha and the Seifa?

13)

(a)R. Chanina ben Dosa says that if someone's ...

1. ... fear of sin takes precedence over his acquisition of knowledge (he learns in order to increase his fear of sin [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) - his knowledge will endure, whereas if ...

2. ... his acquisition of knowledge takes precedence over his fear of sin - it will not (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)The reason for this is - because the former learns with the intention of applying his knowledge practically, whereas the latter does not, with the result that he despises what he learns (since it clashes with his free lifestyle).

(c)The Tana goes on to draw the same distinction between someone whose deeds exceed his knowledge and vice-versa (see Tos. Yom-Tov). The difference between the Reisha and the Seifa is that - whereas the Reisha refers to the Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh, the Seifa refers to the Mitzvos Asei.

Mishnah 10
Hear the Mishnah

14)

(a)What does R. Chanina ben Dosa also say about someone who is popular or unpopular with his contemporaries (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(b)R. Dosa ben Horkinas lists four things that take a person out of this world. The first of them is morning sleep. What is so bad about morning sleep?

(c)The second is wine that one drinks in the middle of the day and the third, children's chatter. What is the fourth?

(d)What is wrong with ...

1. ... drinking wine in the middle of the day?

2. ... children's chatter?

3. ... sitting in the Shuls of Amei ha'Aretz?

14)

(a)R. Chanina ben Dosa also states that - someone who is popular with his contemporaries (see Tos. Yom-Tov) is liked in Heaven too (see Tos. Yom-Tov), whereas someone who is unpopular with his contemporaries is not liked in Heaven either.

(b)R. Dosa ben Horkinas lists four things that take a person out of this world. The first of them is morning sleep, which is bad - because it causes him to miss the Mitzvah of K'riyas Sh'ma.

(c)The second is wine that one drinks in the middle of the day, the third, children's chatter, and the fourth - sitting in the Shuls of the Amei-ha'Aretz.

(d)What is wrong with ...

1. ... drinking wine in the middle of the day is that - it draws his heart away from Torah and Mitzvos and causes him to become drunk (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... children's chatter is that - it is an utter waste of time which prevents a person from learning Torah, and the same reason applies to ...

3. ... sitting in the Shuls of Amei ha'Aretz - who tend to waste their time with idle chatter.

Mishnah 11
Hear the Mishnah

15)

(a)What does R. Elazar ha'Moda'i say about someone who constantly desecrates Kodshim or the Mo'ados, or who embarrasses his fellow-Jew in public?

(b)On what condition is he bound to suffer such a fate?

(c)Will suffering prior to death alleviate the situation?

15)

(a)R. Elazar ha'Moda'i says that someone who constantly desecrates Kodshim or the Mo'ados, or who embarrasses his fellow-Jew in public - will lose his portion in the World to Come (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ha'Mechalel es ha'Kodshim 1&2) even though he has much Torah and good deeds to his credit (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(b)... provided he does not do Teshuvah (which atones, at least in part, for all sins).

(c)Even suffering prior to death - will not atone for these sins without Teshuvah (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

16)

(a)Besides bringing them to a state of Pigul, Nosar or Tamei, what else might 'desecrates Kodshim' mean?

(b)And what is meant by 'One who desecrates the Mo'ados'?

(c)Why do Chazal refer to embarrassing a person as 'Malbin'?

(d)What is the source for this explanation?

(e)The Tana adds to the list someone who nullifies the B'ris of Avraham Avinu. What does he mean by that?

16)

(a)Besides bringing them to a state of Pigul, Nosar or Tamei, 'desecrates Kodshim' might also mean - benefiting from Kodshim, irrespective of whether they are Kodshei Mizbe'ach or Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis (Hekdesh's fund for the upkeep of the Beis-Hamikdash).

(b)'One who desecrates the Mo'ados' means that - he treats Chol-Hamo'ed like an ordinary weekday, either as regards work or as regards meals.

(c)Chazal refer to embarrassing a person as 'Malbin' - because when a person is publicly embarrassed, his face first of all turns red (from anger), and then (when he is unable to retaliate or to find an answer to the source of shame), the blood drains and it turns white ...

(d)... as the Gemara in Bava Metzi'a specifically states.

(e)The Tana adds to the list someone who nullifies the B'ris of Avraham Avinu - which means either by not performing the Mitzvah at all, or by pulling the skin back over the Eiver ha'Milah to convey the impression that he has not been circumcised.

17)

(a)What is the last item included in the Tana's current list?

(b)What does 'Megaleh Panim ...' mean?

(c)An example of this is misconstruing the Pasuk in Kedoshim "u'mi'Zar'acha Lo Sitein Leha'avir la'Molech". How would one interpret this falsely?

(d)What else might 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah she'Lo ka'Halachah' mean?

17)

(a)The fifth item included in the Tana's current list is - 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah she'Lo ka'Halachah' ...

(b)... deliberately giving the Pesukim an interpretation which the Torah did not intend.

(c)An example of this is misconstruing the Pasuk in Kedoshim "u'mi'Zar'acha Lo Sitein Leha'avir la'Molech", which one would translate as - 'handing one's sons in marriage to daughters of Nochrim' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(d)Alternatively, 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah she'Lo ka'Halachah' means - to brazenly contravene the Torah in public.

Mishnah 12
Hear the Mishnah

18)

(a)What does R. Yishmael mean when he says ...

1. ... 'Hevei Kal le'Rosh' (with reference to 'a Zakein who is a Rosh Yeshivah')?

2. ... 've'No'ach le'Sishchores' (with reference to a young Rosh Yeshivah [see Rashash] who still has black hair)?

(b)In what frame of mind should does R. Yishmael say one should receive all people?

(c)What else might 'Hevei Kal le'Rosh ve'No'ach le'Sishchores' mean?

18)

(a)When R. Yishmael says ...

1. ... 'Hevei Kal le'Rosh', he means that - one should serve 'a Zakein who is a Rosh Yeshivah' with alacrity.

2. ... 've'No'ach le'Sishchores', he means that - one should stand in front of young Rosh Yeshivah (Rashash [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]) who still has black hair, meaning that one should be prepared to serve him, but in a more relaxed manner.

(b)And he adds that - one should receive all people in a happy frame of mind (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)'Hevei Kal le'Rosh ve'No'ach le'Sishchores' might also mean that - in one's youth one should serve Hash-m with alacrity, and in one's old age (when one's face turns 'black with age'), in a more relaxed manner.

Mishnah 13
Hear the Mishnah

19)

(a)What does R. Akiva say about jesting and lightheadedness?

(b)What does he mean when he says that tradition is a 'fence' for Torah?

(c)A good example of this is the D'rashah that Chazal make from "ba'Succos", "ba'Succos", "ba'Succos", two of which are written minus a 'Vav', and one, with a 'Vav'. What do Chazal learn from there?.

(d)He also says that giving Ma'asros is a fence for wealth (see also Tos. Yom-Tov). From which Pasuk in Re'ei does the Gemara in Ta'anis learn this?

(e)And what do we learn from the fact that the Pasuk (in connection with Kidush ha'Chodesh) "asher Tikre'u *Osam*" is written three times minus a 'Vav'?

19)

(a)R. Akiva says that jesting and lightheadedness - lead to adultery (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)When he says that tradition is a 'fence' for Torah, he means that - the oral traditions handed down by the sages, in connection with the 'Chaseiros' and Yeseiros (missing and extra letters respectively) are a means of understanding the Torah correctly ...

(c)... such as the D'rashah "ba'Succos", "ba'Succos", "ba'Succos", two of which are written minus a 'Vav', and one, with a 'Vav' - which hint at four walls, and from which Chazal ultimately learn that a Succah of three walls is Kasher.

(d)He also says that giving Ma'asros is a fence for wealth (see also Tos. Yom-Tov), which the Gemara in Ta'anis learns from Pasuk in Re'ei - "Aser Te'aser" (which they Darshen 'Aser Bishevil she'Tis'asher').

(e)And from the fact that the Pasuk (in connection with Kidush ha'Chodesh) "asher Tikre'u *Osam*" is written three times minus a 'Vav' (which reads 'Atem') we learn that - the date fixed by Beis-Din as Rosh Chodesh is the accepted one, even if they fixed the wrong day, irrespective of whether Beis Din did so be'O'neis (by accident), be'Shogeg (inadvertently) or be'Meizid (even on purpose [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

20)

(a)What does the Mishnah give as the fence for ...

1. ... P'rishus (abstinence)?

2. ... Chochmah?

(b)In connection with the former, why can the Tana not be referring to P'rishus from ...

1. ... Torah?

2. ... Lashon ha'Ra (and other sins of that nature)?

(c)And in connection with the latter, what does the Pasuk in Mishlei say about a fool who has learned the art of silence?

20)

(a)'The fence' the Mishnah gives for ...

1. ... P'rishus (abstinence) is - Nedarim (vows), since a Neder helps to overcome one's Yeitzer ha'Ra, when one has difficulty in abstaining from worldly pleasures without it.

2. ... Chochmah is - silence (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)In connection with the former, the Tana cannot be referring to P'rishus from ...

1. ... Torah - in view of the Pasuk in Yehoshua "ve'Hagisa bo Yomam va'Laylah".

2. ... Lashon ha'Ra (and other sins of that nature) - since the Torah has strictly forbidden it anyway.

(c)In connection with the latter, the Pasuk in Mishlei states that even a fool who has learned the art of silence - can pass as a wise man.

Mishnah 14
Hear the Mishnah

21)

(a)How did Hash-m demonstrate an additional sign of love ...

1. ... to man (after creating him in His image)?

2. ... Yisrael (after calling them "His sons").

(b)If the earlier statement is based on the Pasuk in Bereishis "ki be'Tzelem Elokim Asah es ha'Adam", on which Pasuk in Re'ei is the latter one based?

(c)To which desirable object does the Tana attribute the third sign of love in the list?

(d)On which Pasuk in Mishlei is that based?

21)

(a)Hash-m demonstrated an additional sign of love ...

1. ... to man (after creating him in His image) - by informing him that he had done so, and ...

2. ... to Yisrael (after calling them "His sons")- by informing them that he had done so.

(b)The earlier statement is based on the Pasuk in Bereishis "ki be'Tzelem Elokim Asah es ha'Adam"; the latter one - on the Pasuk in Re'ei "Banim atem la'Hashem Elokeichem".

(c)The desirable object to which the Tana attributes the third sign of love in the list - is the Torah (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(d)... and it is based on the Pasuk in Mishlei "ki Lekach Tov Nasati lachem Torasi al Ta'azovu". (Note, that these three things correspond to the triumvirate Hash-m, Yisrael and Torah, respectively).

Mishnah 15
Hear the Mishnah

22)

(a)What is the simple meaning of ...

1. ... 'ha'Kol Tzafuy'?

2. ... 've'ha'Reshus Nesunah'?

(b)From which Pasuk in Nitzavim do we learn that man has freewill and choice?

(c)The Tana then states that the world is judged with the Midah of mercy ('be'Tuv ha'Olam Nidon'). How does this conform to his final statement 've'ha'Kol L'fi Rov ha'Ma'aseh'?

22)

(a)The simple meaning of ...

1. ... 'ha'Kol Tzafuy' is that - Hash-m sees everything that a person does, even when he is locked away in a room.

2. ... 've'ha'Reshus Nesunah' is that - everybody has freewill and choice.

(b)We know that man has freewill and choice from the Pasuk in Nitzavim "See, I have placed before you life and death ... ".

(c)The Tana then states that the world is judged with the Midah of mercy ('be'Tuv ha'Olam Nidon') whereas as from his final statement 've'ha'Kol L'fi Rov ha'Ma'aseh' we learn that - the extent of that Mercy is commensurate with the amount of Mitzvos that one performs.

23)

(a)How does the Rambam explain 'ha'Kol Tzafuy ve'ha'Reshus Nesunah'?

(b)How does he now correlate this with the following statement 'be'Tuv ha'Olam Nidon'?

(c)And how does he then explain the Tana's final statement 've'ha'Kol l'fi Rov ha'Ma'aseh'?

(d)What is an example of this?

23)

(a)The Rambam explains 'ha'Kol Tzafuy ve'ha'Reshus Nesunah' to mean that - Hash-m foresees everything that a person does, even before he has done it.

(b)He now correlates this with the following statement 'be'Tuv ha'Olam Nidon' by explaining that - the latter applies in spite of the former (Hash-m knows that a person is going to sin, yet somehow that does not interfere with his freewill not to do it, should he so choose).

(c)And he explains the Tana's final statement 've'ha'Kol L'fi Rov ha'Ma'aseh' to mean that - the more acts of Mitzvah that a person performs, the more reward he stands to receive.

(d)An example of this is that - it is preferable to distribute a sum of Tzedakah among a hundred Aniyim (and perform a hundred Mitzvos [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) than to donate it all to one Ani (which is only one Mitzvah).

Mishnah 16
Hear the Mishnah

24)

(a)What is R. Akiva referring to when he says 'ha'Kol Nasun be'Eravon'? What do Chazal refer to as a man's guarantors?

(b)And what is the 'net that is spread over the whole of mankind'?

(c)If the ...

1. ... 'store is open', what does he say about the store-keeper?

2. ... 'ledger is open', what does he say about the hand?

24)

(a)R. Akiva says 'ha'Kol Nasun be'Eravon' (see Tos. Yom-Tov). Chazal refer to - a man's legs as his guarantors (since they lead him to wherever Hash-m wants him to be [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(b)The 'net that is spread over the whole of mankind' - refers to suffering and death.

(c)The ...

1. ... 'store is (always) open', he says, and the store-keeper - sells on credit (every enjoyment in this world has to be paid for in one way or another).

2. ... 'ledger too, is open' - and the hand (one's own hand - Likutim) never fails to record the details.

25)

(a)How does the Mashal end? What do the Gaba'im do each day with those who availed themselves of the credit facilities? Who are the Gaba'im?

(b)What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'mi'Da'ato ve'she'Lo mi'Da'ato'?

2. ... 've'Yesh lahem al Mah she'Yismochu'?

3. .... 've'ha'Din Din Emes'?

(c)What happens after that to ...

1. ... the Tzadikim?

2. ... the Resha'im?

25)

(a)The Mashal ends - 'the Gaba'im (suffering and plagues [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]) make their rounds each day, and claim the dues of those who availed themselves of the credit facilities'.

(b)The meaning of ...

1. ... 'mi'Da'ato ve'she'Lo mi'Da'ato' is - whether the debtor is aware of his debt (and acknowledges that the punishment is justified), or whether he has forgotten about it, and claims that the punishment is unjust (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... 've'Yesh lahem al Mah she'Yismochu' is that - a. they have the ledger on which to rely, and b. the Storekeeper (Hash-m Kevayachol) remembers everything.

3. .... 've'ha'Din Din Emes' is that - Hash-m's judgement is palatable and not meted out with a heavy hand (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)After that ...

1. ... the Tzadikim - participate in the Se'udah that is Olam ha'Ba, and so do ...

2. ... the Resha'im - who have already received their punishment (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 17
Hear the Mishnah

26)

(a)R. Elazar ben Azaryah now discusses Torah and Derech Eretz, Chochmah and Yir'ah. What is 'Derech Eretz' in this context?

(b)What does he say about someone who has no ...

1. ... Torah?

2. ... Derech Eretz?

3. ... Chochmah?

4. ... Yir'ah?

(c)He says the same about Binah and Da'as. What is the difference between them?

(d)What is the last pair of items in R. Elazar ben Azaryah's list?

(e)What does he mean when he says ...

1. ... 'Im Ein Kemach, Ein Torah'?

2. ... 'Im Ein Torah, Ein Kemach'?

26)

(a)R. Elazar ben Azaryah now discusses Torah and Derech Eretz, Chochmah and Yir'ah. 'Derch Eretz' in this context is - the interpersonal relationship between one man and the other.

(b)He says that someone who has no ...

1. ... Torah - has no Derech Eretz, either (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... Derech Eretz - has no Torah.

3. ... Chochmah - has no Yir'as Shamayim (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

4. ... Yir'ah - has no Chochmah.

(c)He says the same about Binah - (what a person is able to extrapolate from what he has learned), and Da'as - (the underlying reasons for what he learns).

(d)The last pair of items in R. Elazar ben Azaryah's list is - 'Im Ein Torah, Ein Kemach ... '.

(e)When he says ...

1. ... 'Im Ein Kemach, Ein Torah', he means that - if a person has no flour (see Tos. Yom-Tov [nothing to eat]), he cannot study Torah.

2. ... 'Im Ein Torah Ein Kemach', he means that - if he does not learn Torah, what purpose does his food serve, as it would be preferable for him to die.

27)

(a)Based on a Pasuk in Yirmiyah, to what sort of tree does R. Elazar ben Azaryah compare someone whose ...

1. ... wisdom exceeds his deeds?

2. ... deeds exceed his wisdom?

(b)Yirmiyah compares someone who trusts in human-beings to an Ar'ar ba'Aravah (a single tree in the plains). What does the Navi say about Ar'ar ba'Aravah?

(c)To what does he compare a person who places his trust in Hash-m?

(d)What does he write about ...

1. ... the roots of the tree?

2. ... the tree itself in time of heat and of draught?

3. ... the leaves of the tree?

4. ... the fruit of the tree?

27)

(a)Based on a Pasuk in Yirmiyah R. Elazar ben Azaryah compares someone whose ...

1. ... wisdom exceeds his deeds - to a tree with many branches and few roots, which stands to be uprooted by the wind.

2. ... deeds exceed his wisdom - to a tree with few branches but with many roots - which all the winds in the world cannot uproot.

(b)Yirmiyah compares someone who trusts in human-beings to an Ar'ar ba'Aravah (a single tree in the plains [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) - which will not see when the good arrives, and which will dwell in the plains like dry wood in the desert (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(c)And he compares a person who places his trust in Hash-m - to a tree that is planted next to water.

(d)He writes that ...

1. ... the roots of the tree - will reach a spring.

2. ... the tree itself - will remain unaffected in time of heat, and not worry in time of draught.

3. ... the leaves of the tree - will remain fresh, and ...

4. ... it will not cease to bear fruit.

Mishnah 18
Hear the Mishnah

28)

(a)R. Eliezer ben (see Tos. Yom-Tov) Chisma draws a distinction between Kinin and Pischei Nidah on the one hand, and Tekufos and Gematriyos on the other. What are ...

1. ... 'Kinin'?

2. ... 'Pischei Nidah'?

3. ...'Gematriyos' refers to the area of Torah connected with numerical values. What are 'Tekufos'?

(b)What distinction does he draw between them?

(c)What is the significance of his use of the word 'Parpera'os'?

28)

(a)R. Eliezer ben Chisma draws a distinction between Kinin and Pischei Nidah (see Tos. Yom Tov), Tekufos and Gematriyos.

1. 'Kinin' - are the very complex laws of bird Korbanos (there where a Chovah became mixed up with a Nedavah, or if an Olas ha'Of [which is brought on the top half of the Mizbe'ach] became mixed up with a Chatas ha'Of [which is brought on the lower half]).

2. 'Pischei Nidah' - are the equally complicated laws of a woman who is not sure when her Veses is due, and who may require as many as ninety-five Tevilos (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

3. ... 'Gematriyos' refers to the area of Torah connected with numerical values (see Tos. Yom-Tov). 'Tekufos' to - the cycle of the constellations (see Tos. Yom-Tov) on which our calendar is based.

(b)He describes Kinin and Pischei Nidah as 'basic oral Torah' (see Tos. Yom Tov DH 'Hein Hein' 1 and 'Hein Hein' 2 [for which one receives reward]), and Tekufos and Gematriyos - as 'Parpera'os la'Chochmah' (which merely cause a person to be respected).

(c)He uses the word 'Parpera'os' - which means a dessert that one eats at the end of the meal purely for pleasure (not for satisfaction like the main course), because likewise Tekufos and Gematriyos do not constitute the main learning, but which merely give a person personal pleasure (as we explained [see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).

Hadran alach 'Akavya ben Mahalalel'

D.A.F. TALMUD RESOURCES
FOR MASECHES AVOS