Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)Why does the Mishnah see fit to begin the Masechta with 'Moshe Kibeil Torah mi'Sinai ... '?

(b)What does 'mi'Sinai' mean?

(c)Moshe handed the Torah (the oral tradition) to Yehoshua (see Tos. Yom-Tov). Who received it from ...

1. ... Yehoshua?

2. ... the Elders?

3. ... the prophets?

1)

(a)The Mishnah sees fit to begin the Masechta with 'Moshe Kibeil Torah mi'Sinai ... ' - because since (unlike the rest of Shas), it is not based on any particular Mitzvah, Rebbi needed to inform us that all the Musar and Midos that it contains, are nevertheless tradition-based all the way up to Sinai (and not like the many works by Nochri writers who works of this nature based on their own ideas).

(b)'mi'Sinai' means - from the One who revealed Himself at Sinai (see Tos.Yom-Tov).

(c)Moshe handed the Torah (the oral tradition) to Yehoshua (see Tos. Yom-Tov). The ...

1. ... elders who survived him received it from him, the ...

2. ... prophets from them, and the ...

3. ... Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah from them (see Tos.Yom-Tov).

2)

(a)How many members did the Anshei K'neses ha'Gedolah comprise.

(b)Besides Zerubavel, Serayah and Ra'alyah, which other famous Tzadikim sat on the Sanhedrin.

(c)Which three prophets were members too?

(d)Under whose leadership did they convene.

2)

(a)The Anshei K'neses ha'Gedolah comprised - a hundred and twenty members.

(b)Besides Zerubavel, Serayah and Ra'alyah - Mordechai (Balshan) and Nechemyah sat on the Sanhedrin.

(c)The three prophets who were also members were - Chagai, Zecharyah and Mal'achi.

(d)And they convened under the leadership of - Ezra ha'Sofer.

3)

(a)Why was the title 'ha'Gedolah' added to the name?

(b)Why did Yirmiyah and Daniel respectively, omit the words 'ha'Gibor' and 've'ha'Nora' from the first B'rachah?

(c)On what grounds did the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah then reinstate it?

(d)What is the significance of the statement 'They said three things'?

(e)Which three things did they say?

3)

(a)The title 'ha'Gedolah' was added to the name - on account of their great decision to revert to the original text of the Amidah 'ha'Keil, ha'Gadol, ha'Gibor ve'ha'Noro'.

(b)Yirmiyah and Daniel respectively, omitted the words 'ha'Gibor' and 've'ha'Nora' from the first B'rachah - because, following the Tzaros of the Churban and the lowly status of Yisrael in Bavel, they argued 'Where is Hash-m's might, and where is His awe?'

(c)And the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah reinstated it - because, they countered - Yisrael's ability to survive (like a lamb surrounded by seventy wolves) is the greatest possible testimony to Hash-m's might and awesomeness.

(d)The significance of the statement 'They said three things' is that - these three things are instrumental in ensuring the Torah's survival (see also Tos. Yom Tov).

(e)They said: 1. Be patient when ruling'; 2. Raise many Talmidim ; and 3. Make a fence around the Torah.

4)

(a)What does 'Be deliberate when ruling' mean?

(b)And what does the Tana mean when he says 'Raise many Talmidim'?

(c)To whom will the current rule not apply?

(d)Alternatively, the Mishnah is referring to the Pasuk in Koheles "ba'Boker Z'ra es Zar'acha, u'va'Erev Al Tanach Yadecha". What does the Tana learn from there?

4)

(a)'Be patient when ruling' means that - even if the same case already appeared before Beis-Din two or three times, they should deal with it no less patiently than they did the first time.

(b)When the Tana says 'Raise many Talmidim', he is coming to preclude - the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, who restricted entry into the Beis-Hamedrash to those whose inside was as pure as their outside (see also Tos.Yom-Tov).

(c)The current rule will not apply - to someone whose deeds are known to be substandard and about whom bad rumors are circulating.

(d)Alternatively, the Mishnah is referring to the Pasuk in Koheles "ba'Boker Z'ra es Zar'acha, u'va'Erev Al Tanach Yadecha", and it is coming to teach us that - even if one raised many Talmidim in one's youth, one should not desist from repeating the performance when one grows older.

5)

(a)The third thing said by the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah was 'Asu S'yag la'Torah'. What does this mean?

(b)Besides that of Sheniyos la'Arayos (certain forbidden relationships which the Rabbanan forbade), what is a good example of a S'yag?

(c)Which Pasuk in Acharei-Mos indicates that it is a Mitzvah to make a S'yag la'Torah?

5)

(a)The third thing said by the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah was 'Asu S'yag la'Torah' - 'Make a fence around the Torah' (decrees that will make it more difficult to transgress).

(b)Besides that of Sheniyos la'Arayos (certain forbidden relationships which the Rabbanan forbade) - a good example of a S'yag is 'Sh'vus' (all Issurim de'Rabbanan on Shabbos).

(c)The Pasuk in Acharei-Mos that indicates that it is a Mitzvah to make a S'yag la'Torah is - "u'Shemartem es Mishmarti" (which implies 'Make a guard around My Mishmeres).

Mishnah 2
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6)

(a)Whom does the Mishnah describes as 'among the last of the Anshei K'neses ha'Gedolah'?

(b)What are the three things which he said the world stands on?

(c)What are the ramifications of the statement that the world stands on ...

1. ... Torah?

2. ... Avodah?

(d)What do we learn from the Pasuk in ...

1. ... Yirmiyah "Im Lo B'risi Yomam va'Laylah, Chukos Shamayim va'Aretz Lo Samti"?

2. ... No'ach, where Hash-m told No'ach that as a result of the Korbanos that he brought, He would never again bring a flood on the entire world (see also Tos. Yom-Tov)?

3. ... Tehilim - "Olam Chesed Yibaneh"?

(e)What does 'Gemilus Chasadim' incorporate?

6)

(a)The Mishnah describes Shimon ha'Tzadik - who served as Kohen Gadol after Ezra, as - 'among the last of the Anshei K'neses ha'Gedolah'.

(b)The three things on which he said the world stands (see Tos. Yom-Tov) are - Torah, Avodah and Gemilus Chasadim.

(c)The ramifications of the statement that the world stands on ...

1. ... Torah are that - were it not for Yisrael's ultimate acceptance of the Torah, the world would not have been created (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... Avodah are that - the world was only created for the Korbanos (and were it not for the Ma'amados [groups of people standing by the Korbanos that Yisrael bring), they and the world would not continue to exist).

(d)We learn from the Pasuk in ...

1. ... Yirmiyah - "Im Lo B'risi Yomam va'Laylah, Chukos Shamayim va'Aretz Lo Samti" that the world stands on ... Torah; from the Pasuk in ...

2. ... No'ach - where Hash-m told No'ach that as a result of the Korbanos that he brought, He would never again bring a flood on the entire world (see also Tos. Yom-Tov) that - it stands on Avodah, and from ythe Pasuk in ...

3. ... Tehilim - "Olam Chesed Yibaneh" that - it stands on Gemilus Chasadim.

(e)'Gemilus Chasadim' incorporates - making Chasanim (and Kalos) happy, comforting mourners, visiting the sick and burying the dead ... .

Mishnah 3
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7)

(a)Who was the next link in the chain of tradition after Shimon ha'Tzadik?

(b)What does he say about serving Hash-m?

(c)Why does the Tana uses the word 'P'ras' to denote remuneration (and not 'S'char' or 'Maskoret')?

7)

(a)The next link in the chain of tradition after Shimon ha'Tzadik was - Antignos Ish Socho.

(b)He states - that rather than serve Hash-m like servants who serve their master for remuneration, one should serve Him like servants who serve their master not for remuneration.

(c)The Tana deliberately uses the word 'P'ras' (and not 'S'char' or 'Maskoret') - which means a present that a man might give to his wife or to his children, because they gave him pleasure (but not because they earned it).

8)

(a)What did Antignos Ish Socho add to the previous statement?

(b)If one already serves Hash-m out of love, why should one make a point of serving Him out of fear as well?

(c)What added advantage is there in serving Hash-m out of ...

1. ... love have over and above serving out of fear?

2. ... fear have over and above serving out of love?

8)

(a)Antignos Ish Socho added to the previous statement that - the fear of Heaven should always accompany a person (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(b)Even if one already serves Hash-m out of love, one should make a point of serving Him out of fear as well - because fear prevents one from transgressing the Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh, whereas love encourages one to fulfill the Mitzvos Aseh.

(c)If a person serves Hash-m out of ...

1. ... love - he will not be able to hate (whereas fear on its own, often leads to hatred).

2. ... fear - he will not be able to rebel (which can easily happen where there is only love).

Mishnah 4
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9)

(a)'Yossi ben Yo'ezer Ish Tzereidah and Yossi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim received (the tradition) from them'. From whom?

(b)What is the status of the two recipients here and in subsequent Mishnahs?

(c)Yossi ben Yo'ezer Ish Tzereidah issued three pieces of advice. Firstly, he advised that one should make one's home a meeting place for Chachamim. Why did he do that?

(d)To what can this be compared?

9)

(a)Yossi ben Yo'ezer Ish Tzereidah and Yossi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim received (the tradition) - from Shimon ha'Tzadik and Antignos Ish Socho.

(b)The first of the two recipients here and in subsequent Mishnahs - was the Nasi and the second - the Av Beis-Din.

(c)Yossi ben Yo'ezer Ish Tzereidah issued three pieces of advice. Firstly, he advised that one should make one's home a meeting place for Chachamim - because by doing so, one is bound to glean much knowledge from those who attend the meetings ...

(d)... like someone who enters a spicier - who will come out smelling good even though he did not buy any spices.

10)

(a)His second piece of advice was to 'become dusty with the dust of their feet'. What did he mean by that?

(b)What was his third piece of advice?

10)

(a)His second piece of advice was to 'become dusty with the dust of their feet' - by which he meant that one should follow them around, since some of the dust that blows off them (a hint perhaps, to their 'idle speech' from which one can learn too) is bound to blow on to one self.

(b)His third piece of advice was - to drink their words with thirst (eagerly, and not casually).

Mishnah 5
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11)

(a)Yossi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim too, issued three pieces of advice. What was the first? How is it reminiscent of Avraham Avinu?

(b)Secondly he said, let the poor be members of one's household. What did he mean to say by that? Whom was he coming to preclude?

(c)His third piece of advice was not to speak excessively with a woman. How far is this meant to be taken?

11)

(a)Yossi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim too, issued three pieces of advice. The first of these was - that one's house should always be open wide (like that of Avraham Avinu whose tent had four openings, one on each side, so that potential guests should not have to look for the entrance).

(b)Secondly he said, let the poor be members of one's household - to preclude Avadim Cana'anim (since it is preferable to allow one's own brothers to benefit from one's property than the accursed Cana'anim).

(c)And thirdly, he advised one not to speak excessively with a woman - even with one's own wife (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

12)

(a)How do some commentaries qualify the latter ruling?

(b)How do we refute this latter explanation, based on the Pasuk in Koheles "And He will tell man all that he spoke"?

(c)On what condition is light-hearted speech with one's wife permitted?

12)

(a)Although our Mishnah seems to refer to one's wife under all circumstances - some commentaries confine Yossi ben Yochanan's statement to a Nidah exclusively.

(b)We refute this latter explanation however, with the Pasuk in Koheles "And He will tell man all that he spoke" - which Chazal interpret to mean that a man will have to give reckoning for the lighthearted speech between himself and his wife.

(c)Light-hearted speech is permitted - where one needs to pacify her before Tashmish.

13)

(a)The Chachamim extrapolated from this third piece of advise that a person who speaks excessively with a woman will cause evil to himself. What are the other two bitter fruits of speaking excessively with a woman that they extrapolated from there?

(b)Who is the author of this statement?

(c)What are the ramifications of 'causing evil to oneself'?

(d)Where do we find an example of this in the Torah?

(e)What else might Rebbi mean (even assuming that his wife does not add fuel to the flames)?

13)

(a)The Chachamim extrapolate from this third piece of advise that, besides causing evil to oneself - a person who speaks excessively with a woman will also cause Bitul Torah and end up inheriting Gehinom'.

(b)The author of this statement is - Rebbi (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)When Rebbi says 'he causes evil to himself' - he is referring to the scenario where he tells his wife what so-and-so did to him, and she advises him how to pay him back ...

(d)... like Korach, who landed in Gehinom due to his wife's goading).

(e)Even assuming that his wife does not add fuel to the flames, Rebbi might mean that - his mere telling her what so-and-so did to him, causes her to belittle him in her heart, and eventually, she will lose her respect for him.

Mishnah 6
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14)

(a)The Nasi who received the Torah from Yossi ben Yo'ezer and Yossi ben Yochanan was Yehoshua ben P'rachyah. What was the name of the Av Beis-Din?

(b)Yehoshua ben P'rachya too, makes three statements. The first two are 'Asei l'cha Rav u'K'nei l'cha Chaver'. What is the third?

(c)The Rambam interprets 'Asei l'cha Rav' to mean that one should accept on oneself a Rav, even if he is not worthy of being one's Rav, rather than constantly learning on one's own. What else might it mean?

(d)How will we reconcile this statement with the Gemara in Avodah-Zarah, which states that someone who learns from one Rav only, will not succeed in his learning?

14)

(a)The Nasi who received the Torah from Yossi ben Yo'ezer and Yossi ben Yochanan was Yehoshua ben P'rachyah; the Av Beis-Din - Nitai ha'Arbeli.

(b)Yehoshua ben P'rachya said 'Asei l'cha Rav u'K'nei ''cha Chaver - ve'Hevei Dan es Kol ha'Adam le'Kaf Z'chus'.

(c)The Rambam interprets 'Asei l'cha Rav' to mean that one should accept on oneself a Rav, even if he is not worthy of being one's Rav, rather than constantly learning on one's own. Alternatively, it might mean that - one should learn from one fixed Rebbe, rather than from one Rebbe today, and another one tomorrow.

(d)The Gemara in Avodah-Zarah, which states that someone who learns from one Rav only, will not succeed in his learning - is speaking about S'vara, since one needs to hear the S'varos of different Rebbes for one's understanding to develop, whereas our Mishnah is speaking about learning texts, where one Rebbe is preferable, in order not to become confused.

15)

(a)Why does the Tana distinguish between the way one acquires a Rav and the way one acquires a Chaver?

(b)To what category of person does the principle 'Dan le'Kaf Z'chus' (judging a person to the scale of merit) apply? How far does the obligation go?

(c)To what category of person does it not apply? How do we learn this from the saying 'ha'Choshed bi'Kesheirim Lokeh b'Gufo'?

(d)How does judging a Tzadik to the scale of merit differ from judging the a Beinoni (whom we just discussed)?

15)

(a)The Tana says 'Make yourself a Rav' - since a Rav is basically obligated to teach free of charge, whereas for a Chaver one needs to be prepared to pay whatever it costs, in order to acquire his love (see Tos. Yom Tov).

(b)Dan le'Kaf Z'chus (judging a person to the scale of merit) applies - to a person whom one does not know as a Tzadik or a Rasha, who performs an act that could be interpreted in two opposite ways, in which case it is Midas Chasidus to judge him to the scale of merit ...

(c)... but not to someone who is a known Rasha (for Chazal have said 'ha'Choshed *bi'Kesheirim* Lokeh b'Gufo', but not ha'Choshed bi'Pesul'im').

(d)Judging a Tzadik to the scale of merit, on the other hand - is (not just Midas Chasidus, but) obligatory.

Mishnah 7
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16)

(a)Nitai ha'Arbeili warns to keep away from a bad neighbor. One reason is so that one does not learn from his evil ways. What is the other?

(b)On which principle is this based?

(c)He also made two other statements. One of them is 'Do not team up with a Rasha (even if one has no intention of imitating his evil deeds). Then why is it forbidden?

(d)And what does he mean when he says 've'Al Tisya'esh min ha'Pur'anus' (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

16)

(a)Nitai ha'Arbeili warns to keep away from a bad neighbor. One reason is so that one does not learn from his evil ways, the other - because one is likely to end up sharing in his punishment ...

(b)... based on the principle - 'Woe to the Rasha, woe to his neighbor'.

(c)He also made two other statements. One of them is 'Do not team up with a Rasha (even if one has no intention of imitating his evil deeds) - because it is like someone who enters a tannery, who leaves with a bad smell, even though he takes nothing out with him when he leaves.

(d)And when he says 've'Al Tisya'esh min ha'Pur'anus' (see Tos. Yom-Tov), he means - that - one should not decide to join the Rasha due to his amazing successes in all his endeavors, because his punishment will come, quickly and suddenly.

Mishnah 8
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17)

(a)The first Tana in the next pair is Yehudah ben Tabai. Who is the second?

(b)What is the simple interpretation of the former's first statement 'Al Ta'as Atzm'cha ke'Orchei ha'Dayanim'?

(c)And what does it mean assuming it refers to a Talmid who is sitting in front of his Rebbeot ?

(d)What is the third interpretation of Yehudah ben Tabai's advice (in connection with a Dayan)?

17)

(a)The first Tana in the next pair is Yehudah ben Tabai. The second Tana is - Shimon ben Shetach.

(b)The simple interpretation of the former's first statement 'Al Ta'as Atzm'cha ke'Orchei ha'Dayanim' is that - one may not assist one of the litigants, to teach him how to present his case before the Dayanim (in the way that lawyers do (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)If it refers to a Talmid who is sitting in front of his Rebbe, it means that - he should not be as presumptuous as to issue rulings in front of his Rebbe as if he was a member of the Beis-Din.

(d)The third interpretation of Yehudah ben Tabai's advice is - that an ordinary Dayan should not force the litigants to appear before him as if he was a member of the Sanhedrin ha'Gadol.

18)

(a)What does Yehudah ben Tabai say about litigants who ...

1. ... are standing in front of a Dayan?

2. ... have left the Beis-Din?

(b)With which principle (that we already learned earlier) is this latter ruling connected?

(c)How would one apply it if for example, a person was accused of being a thief?

18)

(a)Yehudah ben Tabai says that litigants who ...

1. ... are standing in front of a Dayan - must be considered to be Resha'im (that they must be cross-examine, and not trusted on their word).

2. ... have left the Beis-Din - must be considered righteous, provided they accept the Beis-Din's rulings.

(b)This latter ruling is connected with the principle (that we learned earlier) - 'Dan le'Kaf Z'chus' ...

(c)... even though he stole for example, one must attribute what he did to an error, and not to having stolen deliberately; or it means that one may not suspect him of having sworn falsely in Beis-Din.

Mishnah 9
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19)

(a)Besides cross-examining the witnesses thoroughly, what does Shimon ben Shetach advise Dayanim to be careful about?

(b)What is an example of what a Dayan should not say?

(c)Whom, besides the witnesses, must the Dayanim be wary of?

19)

(a)Besides cross-examining the witnesses thoroughly, Shimon ben Shetach advises Dayanim - to beware what they say, so as not to prompt the witnesses to say what they might otherwise not have realized that they should say ...

(b)... such as 'Isn't this what happened?' - or 'If this is what happened, then so and so (the defendant) will be innocent'.

(c)Besides the witnesses - the Dayanim must also be wary of the litigants, who are also liable to take their cue from his words.

Mishnah 10
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20)

(a)The pair that received the oral tradition from Yehudah ben Tabai and Shimon ben Shetach were the Rebbes of Hillel and Shamai. What were their names?

(b)They were both Geirim (see Tos. Yom-Tov). From whom did they descend?

(c)Why was Avtalyon, who was the Av Beis-Din, called by that name?

20)

(a)The pair that received the oral tradition from Yehudah ben Tabai and Shimon ben Shetach - Sh'mayah and Avtalyon, were the Rebbes of Hillel and Shamai ...

(b)They were both Geirim (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - descendants of Sancheriv (who exiled the ten tribes).

(c)Avtalyon, who was the Av Beis-Din, was called by that name - because, in that capacity, he was 'the father of orphans (and 'Avtalyon' is the acronym of 'Av Talya', the father of small children').

21)

(a)Sh'mayah says 'Ehov es ha'Melachah' ('Love-work' [see Tos. Yom-Tov]). How about someone who has sufficient funds to sustain him?

(b)Assuming that his latter statement 'S'na es ha'Rabanus' is said in reference to his earlier one, what does he mean?

(c)What did Rav therefore tell Rav Kahana to do?

(d)What other message might he have been conveying to him (in connection with authority)?

21)

(a)Sh'mayah says 'Ehov es ha'Melachah' ('Love-work' [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) - based on the saying 'Idleness leads to boredom' (see Tos. Yom-Tov), so that it applies no less to someone who has sufficient funds to sustain him.

(b)Assuming that his latter statement 'S'na es ha'Rabanus' was said in reference to his earlier one, he meant - that one should lower one's dignity, and accept any job that comes one's way, rather than remain jobless.

(c)That is why Rav told Rav Kahana - to strip a carcass in the street, and not say that he is a Kohen and an important man (in which case performing such a menial task is below his dignity).

(d)Alternatively, he meant - that one should literally shun all positions of authority, since 'Authority buries its incumbents' (as we find by Yosef, who was the first of the brothers to die [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

22)

(a)Sh'maya's final piece of advice is not to become familiar with the ruling power. What does he mean, assuming that he said this ...

1. ... in connection with his first statement?

2. ... as an independent statement?

(b)A good example of this is Do'eg ha'Edomi, who had a close relationship with Sha'ul Hamelech. What happened there?

(c)Why does the Tana refer to the ruling power as 'Reshus'?

22)

(a)His final piece of advice is not to become familiar with the ruling power. Assuming that said this ...

1. ... in connection with his first statement he meant that one should avoid become familiar with the ruling power - in order to obtain a position of authority (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

2. ... as an independent statement, he meant that one should avoid doing so - who will placehim in situations where he is forced to sin.

(b)A good example of this is Do'eg ha'Edomi who, due to his close relationship with Sha'ul Hamelech - was ordered by him to murder all the inhabitants of Nov the town of Kohanim.

(c)The Tana refer to the ruling power as 'Reshus' - because they have the authority whatever they please.

Mishnah 11
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23)

(a)Why does Avtalyon mean when he advises the Chachamim to watch what they say (see Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(b)What will this lead to?

(c)Antignos Ish Socho suffered that experience. What were the names of his Talmidim?

(d)How did they misconstrue their Rebbe's teaching 'Do not be like servants who serve their master in order to receive reward'?

(e)What happened to them in the end?

23)

(a)Avtalyon advises the Chachamim to watch what they say (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - because otherwise, there may come a time when they are forced to go into exile, and they will be landed with undesirable disciples who misconstrue their Rebbe's teachings, and pass on a heretical version of the Torah to others ...

(b)... as a result of which they will die, leaving behind the legacy of their heretical teachings, thereby creating a tremendous Chilul Hash-m.

(c)Antignos Ish Socho suffered that experience with his Talmidim - Tzadok and Baytus

(d)... who misconstrued their Rebbe's teaching 'Do not be like servants who serve their master in order to receive reward' to mean that - there is no reward for keeping the Mitzvos ...

(e)... as a result of which they left the fold and formed the Tzedoki and Baytusi sects.

Mishnah 12
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24)

(a)Hillel and Shamai received the oral tradition from Sh'mayah and Avtalyon. Hillel taught that one should love peace and pursue it (see Tos. Yom-Tov). What did he add to that?

(b)And he cited Aharon ha'Kohen as an example of these concepts. How did Aharon ha'Kohen used to practice ...

1. ... 'Ohev Shalom'?

2. ... 'Ohev es ha'Beri'os u'Mekorvan la'Torah'?

24)

(a)Hillel and Shamai received the oral tradition from Sh'mayah and Avtalyon. Hillel taught that one should love peace and pursue it (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - and that one should love one's fellow man (see Tos. Yom-Tov) and draw him close to Torah.

(b)He cited Aharon ha'Kohen as an example of these concepts. Aharon ha'Kohen used to practice ...

1. ... 'Ohev Shalom' - by talking individually to two squabbling parties, convincing each one how his friend was sorry for what he had done and was full of remorse. In that way, when the two friends next met, they would fall round each other's necks and make up.

2. ... 'Ohev es ha'Beri'os u'Mekorvan la'Torah' - by simply befriending someone whom he had seen sinning (see Tos. Yom-Tov), knowing that the sinner would soon mend his ways, in order not to embarrass his new-found friend.

Mishnah 13
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25)

(a)What did Hillel say about ...

1. ... 'a name that becomes famous'?

2. ... someone who fails to grow (spiritually)?

3. ... somebody who does not study Torah?

(b)And he concluded with the statement 'u'de'Ishtamesh be'Saga Chalaf'. 'What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'Taga'?

2. ... 'Chalaf'?

(c)The statement might be referring to someone who uses the crown of Torah (see Tos. Yom-Tov) for his own personal benefit. Based on the acronym of 'Talmid Gavra Ach'rina', what else might it mean?

(d)What is the third possible meaning of 'u'de'Ishtamesh be'Saga'?

25)

(a)Hillel said that ...

1. ... 'A name that becomes famous - is a name that is lost' (with reference to the realm of authority, because, as we explained earlier, 'authority buries its incumbents').

2. ... 'Someone who fails to grow (spiritually) - regresses'.

3. ... 'Someone who does not study Torah - is Chayav Misah'.

(b)And he concludes with the statement 'u'de'Ishtamesh be'Taga Chalaf'. The meaning of ...

1. ... 'Taga' is - 'crown'.

2. ... 'Chalaf' is - 'will whither away', with reference to losing one's portion in the World to Come.

(c)The statement might be referring to someone who uses the crown of Torah (see Tos. Yom-Tov) for his own personal benefit. Based on another interpretation of 'u'de'Ishtamesh be'Taga Chalaf' - 'Taga' is the acronym of 'Talmid Gavra Ach'rina', and it refers to making use of somebody else's Talmidim to serve oneself.

(d)The third possible meaning of 'u'de'Ishtamesh be'Saga' is - 'Someone who makes use of the Name of Hash-m.

Mishnah 14
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26)

(a)What did Hillel mean when he said ...

1. ... 'If I am not for myself, then who is for me'?

2. ... 'and when I am for myself, what am I'?

(b)Finally, what did he mean when he stated - 'Im Lo Achshav, Eimasai'?

(c)By that, he may have meant that if one does not accumulate merits in this world, it will be too late in the World to Come. What else may he have had in mind?

26)

(a)When Hillel said ...

1. ... 'If I am not for myself, then who is for me', he meant that - nobody can accumulate merits for a person other than himself.

2. ... 'and when I am for myself, what am I', he meant that - even when one does so, how little one is able to accomplish, as compared to what one is obligated to accomplish.

(b)Thirdly, when he said - 'Im Lo Achshav, Eimasai', he meant - 'If I don't do it now, when *will* I do it?

(c)By that, he meant either that - if one does not accumulate merits in this world, it will be too late in the World to Come, or that - if one does not accumulate merits in one's youth, who knows what will happen later?

Mishnah 15
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27)

(a)What does Shamai say about the corollary between one's Torah-learning and one's work?

(b)What might he also have meant when he said 'Asei Torascha K'va'?

(c)Which great leader do we cite in this connection?

(d)And what does Shamei say, based on the Pesukim in Vayeira (in connection with Avraham and his guests) "ve'Ekchah Pas Lechem", and "va'Yikach ben Bakar Rach va'Tov"?

27)

(a)Shamai says that - one should make one's Torah-learning fixed, and one's work casual (rather than the other way round).

(b)When he said 'Asei Torascha K'va', he might also have meant that - one's rulings should be fixed, the same ruling for oneself as for others (either stringent across the board or lenient), but not strict for himself and lenient for others, or vice-versa (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)And we cite in this connection, the great leader - Ezra, who taught Yisrael what he himself practiced.

(d)Based on the Pesukim in Vayeira (in connection with Avraham and his guests) "ve'Ekchah Pas Lechem", and "va'Yikach ben Bakar Rach va'Tov", Shamai also said that - one should say little and do a lot.

28)

(a)And what did Shamai further say in connection with receiving guests?

(b)What comment has been made about someone who performs any of the Mitzvos of Tzedakah reluctantly?

(c)Shamai's three statements correspond to the three things mentioned by Yirmiyah ha'Navi (in the Haftarah that we read on a Ta'anis ["Dirshu Hash-m ... "]). Which three things?

(d)What exactly, is the connection?

28)

(a)Shamai further said that one should receive guests (all guests) - with a pleasant countenance (not reluctantly) ...

(b)... because someone who performs any of the Mitzvos of Tzedakah reluctantly - will be considered as if he had not given anything at all (irrespective of how much he actually gave).

(c)Shamai's three statements correspond to the three things mentioned by Yirmiyah ha'Navi (in the Haftarah that we read on a Ta'anis ["Dirshu Hash-m ... "]) - Chacham, Gibor, ve'Ashir ...

(d)... 'Asei Torascha K'va' (Chacham), 'Emor Me'at va'Asei Harbeh' (Ashir) - 'Hevei Mekabel es Kol ha'Adam be'Seiver Panim Yafos' (Gibor ['Eizehu Gibor, ha'Kovesh es Yitzro']),

Mishnah 16
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29)

(a)What did Rabban Gamliel (see Tos. Yom. Tov) mean when he said 'Asei l'cha Rav'?

(b)What did Rava used to do when a T'reifah was brought before him to examine?

(c)What can we learn from there (that conforms with R. Gamliel's second statement)?

(d)He also advised against Ma'asering Ma'asering by approximation, because of the problems it causes. What problem does it create, if one separates ...

1. ... too little?

2. ... too much?

29)

(a)When Rabban Gamliel (see Tos. Yom. Tov) said 'Asei l'cha Rav' - he was referring to a Rav who should have a Rav to consult in Halachah should someone approach him with a She'eilah on which he is unsure.

(b)When a T'reifah was brought before Rava to examine - he would gather all the butchers of Masa Mechsaya ...

(c)... from which we can learn - to avoid doubts (Rabban Gamliel's second statement).

(d)He also advised against Ma'asering by approximation, because of the problems it creates. If one separates ...

1. ... too little - one's Ma'asros are in order, but one's crops are still forbidden.

2. ... too much - then one's crops are permitted, but one's Ma'asros contain Tevel (see Tos. Yom. Tov and Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 17
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30)

(a)What did Shimon, his (Rabban Gamliel's) son (see Tos. Yom-Tov), who grew up among Talmidei-Chachamim, discover?

(b)What did he consider even more important than Medrash (interpreting Torah)?

(c)What do we say about someone who indulges in Medrash but does not implement it?

(d)What does this prove?

30)

(a)Shimon, his (Raban Gamliel's) son (see Tos. Yom-Tov), who grew up among Talmidei-Chachamim, discovered that - the thing that is best for the body is silence (by which he meant not reacting to someone who embarrasses him).

(b)He considered - implementing the Torah that he learned even more important than studying it.

(c)We say that if someone who indulges in Medrash but does not implement it - it would have been better had he remained silent and not studied it in the first place.

(d)This proves Shimon's first statement (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

31)

(a)What is the final statement of (Rebbi) Shimon?

(b)Who is the prime example of this principle? Who brought punishment on the world as a result of having said too much?

(c)What happened there?

(d)What does the Pasuk in Mishlei say about this?

31)

(a)(Rebbi) Shimon's final statement is that - excessive speech causes one to sin ...

(b)... as we say regarding Chavah, who brought punishment on the world as a result of having declared that Adam had forbidden her to touch the Eitz ha'Da'as ...

(c)... as a result of which - the snake pushed her against the Tree and when nothing happened, he told her that just as she survived after touching it, so too would she survive after eating its fruit.

(d)The Pasuk in Mishlei says precisely about such a case - "Al Tosif al Devarav Pen Yochi'ach b'cha ve'Nichzavta" (Do not add to His words, lest you are proven wrong and come to sin [see Rashi])".

Mishnah 18
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32)

(a)What did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel (see Tos. Yom-Tov) mean when he said that the world stands on three things?

(b)Which three things is he referring to?

(c)In this context, what is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'Din'?

2. ... 'Emes'?

3. ... 'Shalom'?

(d)From which Pasuk in Zecharyah does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel learn this?

32)

(a)When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel (see Tos. Yom-Tov) said that the world stands on three things, he meant that - they enable people to coexist (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ha'Olam Omed' [both headings]).

(b)The three things are - Emes, Din and Shalom.

(c)In this context ...

1. ... 'Din' means - justice (to ensure that the innocent party is acquitted and the guilty party receives its just sentence) ...

2. ... 'Emes' - always telling the truth, and ...

3. ... 'Shalom' - nations and individuals living at peace with one another.

(d)Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel learns this from the Pasuk in Zecharyah - "Emes u'Mishpat Shalom Shiftu be'Sha'areichem".

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